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Communicating in Health and Social Care organisations

Essay Assignment 1

You are required to explore how communication skills are used in health and social care by the following task:

(vi) Apply relevant theories of communication to health and social care contexts.

(vii) Use communication skills in a health and social care context.

(viii) Review methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings.

(ix) Analyse the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services.

In the context of health and social care settings, it is very important to have a good communication in between the service users and the staffs. So care staffs need to develop good communication skills to have an effective communication and also to develop good relationship with the service users. As a care staffs it is must to gain and know how to apply the professional communication techniques to create a better communication environment. There are different forms of communication skils such as verbal non- verbal and so on. There are also many approaches through which we can make a good communication relationship between service users and the service providers. Good communication and interpersonal skills are essential to the practice of effective health and social care. In communicating with others, the practitioner needs to be able to use a variety of strategies to ensure professional practice meet health and social care needs and facilitate positive working relationships. There are different approaches for communication such as humanistic, behavioural, cognitive, psychoanalytical and social etc. These theories are applicable to develop certain techniques in the sector of health and social care. For example the Humanistic theory is applicable in situations whereby people involve in aspects of self-actualisation, self concept, self-esteem, honour, dignity etc. It reflects on the conception that every human being has the potential to be good, contributing positively, lovable member of society and always thinking and analytical optimism as a civilized or developing human being as long as they receive the required needs to fulfill their desire and wishes. In the health and social care sector, service providers such as doctors, nurses, home care managers, social workers, carers and almost every staff member in all the care settings are being offered the appropriate training in order to care for the service users in a most humanistic manner by implementing or practicing modes of communication relevant the appropriate situations and individuals.

Social theory is the use of theoretical frameworks to study and interpret social phenomena within a particular school of thought. An essential tool used by social scientists, theories relate to historical debates over the most valid and reliable methodologies (e.g. positivism and anti positivism), as well as the primacy of either structure or agency. Certain social theories attempt to remain strictly scientific, descriptive, and objective. Conflict theories, by contrast, present ostensibly normative positions, and often critique the ideological aspects inherent in conventional, traditional thought.

Cognitive theoryis a theory which is recognized to be implemented instantly. Social cognition is the encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing, in the brain, of information relating to co specifics, or members of the same species. At one time social cognition referred particularly to an approach to social psychology in which these processes were studied according to the methods of cognitive psychology and information processing theory. However the term has come to be more widely used across psychology and cognitive neuroscience. For example, it is used to refer to various social abilities disrupted in autismand other disorders.

Behavioural theoryis basically about how people behave to sort out some ways of dealing with people for effectiveness. Abehavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding and as in above theories Psychoanalytic theoryrefers to the analysis of the cause on stress, emotion and negative behavior of individuals and more or less about the unconscious elements affecting the individuals' mental status or level.

It is the requirement of all the care settings to accept, follow and implement the strategies to provide the right source of communication to all the staffs, service users and visitors. The appropriate and applicable trainings about verbal and verbal techniques are given to the car staffs and other professionals. Furthermore, all the employees are made aware about new development and techniques through further trainings and educational courses during the course of their employment in order to modernized their acquaintance and skills that help them to deal with the latest growth of communication. For the betterment of any care settings, researches always play a vital role. There are number of techniques that have been followed and brought into use in relation to health care context ad basically for those who are in special needs of communication like speech less, autistics, dementia and all of those who have sensual impairment. Some of the techniques are Gestures, postures, use of MAKATON, Haptic (touch ) communication, by active listening, use of PECS, Communication passport etc.

1(i) Apply relevant theories of communication to health and social care contexts.

Any health and social care department consists of different types of service users. As a care provider we need to implement several types of communication techniques through knowledge, experience and skills. As per the theorists who have made the valuable researches and recommendations in order to involve the effective communication. To highlight the roles of positivism as per humanistic concern to improve the communication process, many theorists made an effort in their research theorists were Carl Roger, Abraham Maslow, B.F skinner, Clarke Moustakas etc. Among all of the above mentioned theorists, Abraham Maslow's theories are applied in the health and social care sector. His theories were Humanistics, Behaviourist, Cognitive, Psychoanalytical, Social , biological etc.

Humanistic behavior theory reflects in each individuals as unique, with different characteristics that can be monitored by others through communicating with people with respect by being gentle, kind, respect, love, etc.

To recognize and understand the behaviour of each individual and toe need to help people with problems in living, learning and attending them in internal, talk and help them to meet their choices in daily life, we need to follow and apply cognitive behaviour theory as what I did in the cases below.

Case Study

Kelly is an old lady of about 65 years. She has been diagnosed with dementia some years earlier, she is physically very fit and enjoys walking every afternoon after her siesta, so every day before going for a walk I knock at her door,

“Hello Kelly, May I come in please ?” I asked

“Yes dear u can come in”, as soon as she saw me she felt happy and tried to get ready as soon as possible. Then I asked her “How was your siesta Kelly? Did u have a good sleep?” She replied, ‘Yes dear I had a weird dream' she replied “What kind of weird dream did u see Kelly? I asked, ‘I just forgot it dear she replied'. Then I asked her kindly and politely if she would like me to help her changing she replied “Yes dear otherwise we will stay here forever”, looking at me with a sweet smile.

In the above situation as a care worker I applied humanistic theory, to have a good way of communication with my patient showing respect above everything and being kind and polite with her.

Case study

Nora is a 75 year old, diagnosed with dementia, most of the time as soon as she is awake, she asks for her breakfast to be brought in her room, I realized she preferred having her breakfast in her bed and her breakfast must be warm nor hot neither cold, I realized as well that she enjoys having a glass of milk with it. She also enjoys having the curtains off so she can enjoy the outside view in early morning.

“May I come in Nora ”, I asked

I had brought you the breakfast just the way you like it and your glass of milk as I know you enjoy having your breakfast in your bed I didn't want you to bother to ask for it.

“Oh thank you dear that's very kind of you, I didn't have to ask for it and you already brought it... And is just the way I like it”, while I leave the tray on her lap I went to remove the curtains so she can have a look of the panorama, she smiled and said “Thank you very much dear” and stayed in her room enjoying her meal.

As a conclusion I applied the cognitive behaviour theory in this case recognizing her needs, before she realised, I observed first her behaviour and the needs she's looking for ,and applied my knowledge as a care worker into this case.

Case Study

John , is 78 years old, he'd been diagnosed dementia, he was a very shy patient and he found it very difficult to socialize with the rest of the service users, he preferred staying in his room most of the time, as he felt nobody liked his company, due to his attitude and behaviour and language, I decided to integrate him in bingo day with the rest of the service user's once per week.

“Good Morning John! How was your day!”

He rarely had answered,

“I have good news for you today, have you ever played bingo before” I asked.

Finally he answered, and said “well I used to but am not in a certain age to play that kind of games”,

“Oh that is wonderful then because I have booked a day out to play bingo with the rest of the patient and you are coming as well”.

At the beginning he did not like the idea of going and be part of the team, at the beginning he did not participate and wanted it to stay in a corner just observing, and with the pass of the weeks he was one of the first ones to win, he didn't want to miss one week winning, and making friends as well.

So in the case of John I had applied the social theory, analysing his behaviour in a social activity, at the beginning he did not want to attend but going every week made it more excited and this resulted and turned him into a friendly person.

Case Study

One of my normal shifts while me and my colleague were giving bath to one of our service users, suddenly she started screaming and crying. We didn't know what had we done wrong so I asked her politely “What we have done wrong”, she replied that “The shampoo we used on her is not nice and smell bad and go into her eyes”, so immediately I apologized and asked her “what shampoo would you like me to use”? , she pointed to the other shampoo she got there and used the one which she liked instead of the other, she stopped screaming and let us to do our job, when we finished she was very happy and asked us to smell her hair .

So in this case me and my colleague had applied Psychoanalytic theory because we could study as her ego of smelling well, was most important for her, as a care worker we must understand that this for her is really important.

1.(ii) Use communication skills in a health and social care contents.

The department of health has been updating all kinds of communication techniques in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the health care sector. Many new technologies have been gradually implemented for much more effectiveness of the services and practices.

As far as the contribution to service users are concerned, professionals and staffs have been introducing and adopting the latest technologies to give more facilities through relevant trainings and courses with update of knowledge and skills. Modern equipment and communication aids are being used to monitor the effectiveness of the care services provision. In health and social care we need several types of communication techniques in order for the system to be effective. We can use verbal and non verbal communication techniques to deal with service users and colleagues.

It is good practice in the health service that there is a handover. Generally, there is a handover during each shift. A handover is essential whereby it updates you on the progress of a service user. A handover normally review the service user health condition and usually the nurse in charge of the morning shift discussed with the afternoon staff the progress of a client.

Training is mandatory in the National Health Service. There are so many types of training whereby it enhances one's communication techniques in the work place. Staff are encouraged to attend these trainings as it benefits the health sector and ultimately it provides a better service to the clients. Sometimes during training, the use of DVDS and video is available.

There is also a communication book on the ward. This book is essential as it provides information of what has happened or will happen at the workplace. Staffs are kept up to date by checking the communication book.

There is also a notice board on the ward. On this board, clients name is written and as well as their allocated nurse and support worker. The name of staff working on this particular shift is written and the activities during this shift.

The recruitment process is one of the hardest stages before actually getting into a job. There is a formal interview which is carried out and usually communication skills are tested in this interview. The candidates should demonstrate the ability of effective communication. When there is a team meeting regarding the service user, verbal and non verbal methods of communication takes place. Notes are usually taken on papers. On the other hand if there is staff meeting, the minutes of the meeting are taken and usually printed so that each and every staff member is aware of the ward issues. When a visitor rings the ward to visit their close relatives, this information is written on the visitor's book.

These verbal and non verbal techniques are of great importance to the health sector.

1.(iii) Review methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings.

Though the traditional paper work is still in use but the Department of health and social care has been trying to update all the latest techniques to achieve the aims and objectives of health care sector. Latest techniques have been implemented in order to provide much more effective service .Through the different new techniques such as IT, communication devices and monitors, the staffs and care professionals are trained occupationally. To do the job effectively , care staff are required to use IT and other technology while performing the duty.

The information are being communicated to the care professionals and other care worker through internet and websites and also programmed to individuals' E-mails etc. For the practical sessions , the video, Dvd recordings , relevant materials via internet , coordinating structures of the work systems and necessary records are being designed and used ; monitored and transmitted by both ways electronically and technologically and handed accurately as well .There are different types of communication such as verbal and nonverbal. As a care worker all the staffs much involve in the training and must know how and when to use the techniques in verbal and non-verbal communication. Along with the care worker , the therapists, councelors, advocates and mentors also protect and help out in communicating with the individual with sensual impairment or disabilities. Anyway as per the rules and regulation, the physical, mental condition, and relevant information and outcomes are being monitored in the individuals' medical files that are generally recorded electronically or written.

The care job requires appropriate interpersonal communication skills for effectiveness. To maintain and fulfil the demands and communication skills, the staffs are required to update the needs and requirements. To achieve the objectives of the care work different types of interpersonal interaction and communication techniques need to be implemented such as verbal, non-verbal, PECS, MAKATON and also along with those, listening skills should be good with a positive approach. In concern with verbal communication, it should be clear simple, understanding , respectable and audible so that the service user don't find difficulties in understanding what the care work staff is trying to say.

Non verbal means ‘without words' , so non verbal communication is the messages that we send without using words. We send messages using our eyes, the tone of our voice, our facial expression, our hands and arms, gestures with our hands and arms , the angle of our head, the way we sit or stand (know as body posture) and the tension in muscles.

Sometimes the way we sit or stand can also gives a message for example, sitting with crossed arms can mean ‘I' am not taking any notice'. Leaning back can send the message that you are relaxed or bored. Leaning forward can show interest or intense involvement. The way we move or we can say the postures, your body movements will communicate messages. For example, the way you walk, move your head, sit, cross your legs etc will send messages about whether you are tired, happy, sad or bored. The way we face each other people may also communicate emotional messages. Standing or sitting eye- to- eye can send a message of being formal or angry. A slight angle can create a more relaxed and friendly feeling. Our face often indicates our emotional state. When a person is said they may signal this emotion by looking down- there may be tension in their face and their mouth will be closed. The muscles in the person's shoulders are likely to be relaxed but their face and neck may show tension. A happy person will have ‘wide eyes' that make contact with you- their face will smile. When people are excited they will move their arms and hands to signal this.

When we meet and talk with people, we usually use two language systems: verbal language and non verbal / body language. Effective communication requires care workers to be able to analyse their own and other people's non verbal behavior. our body sends messages to other people- often without us deliberately meaning to send them some of the most important body areas that send messages are :touch, silence, proximity, reflective. Touching another person can send messages of care, affection, power over them or sexual interest. The social setting and a person's body language will usually help you to understand what their touch might mean. But touch can easily be misinterpreted. You might try to comfort someone by holding their hand but they may interpret this touch as an attempt to dominate. So sometimes it is good to take permission.

1. (iv) Analyse the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs

In order to allow the service users to involve in the effective communication, the service users provided with the appropriate ways and techniques to achieve their aims and objectives. In order to please and provide the needs of those people with the special needs, the health and social care sector have been developing a range of strategies. To provide the required assistance to meet the needs and demand of the service users the government has implemented several strategies.

Every care settings are required to adopt and implement the strategy of providing the right and proper sources of effective communication to the staffs. Though the verbal and non- verbal techniques are the traditional uses but they are essential elements to improve and support the communication techniques,on the basis of humanistic and behavioural concepts. Because the job is very active, all the care professionals and the staffs are made aware of the development and techniques before enrolled themselves into the work. They are also provided with the trainings related to the verbal and non- verbal techniques

There are different techniques to support the vulnerable people in the health sector. The government has implemented a policy regarding these techniques and according to one's human rights. Staff working in this sector are provided with different training before starting the job and the use of verbal and non verbal communication helps a lot. Gradually with time, staff are encouraged to attend more of these training in order to update their knowledge and skills and perform better at work.

There are many types of equipment being used for the disabled, physically impaired and the most vulnerable people such as use of Makaton, Picture Exchange Communication System and communication passport. Technology has been evolved to such an extent like there are speaking head set, reading lenses and voice recognition, screen keyboard and Braille helped the vulnerable people tremendously.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a fairly new technique that has been used since the beginning of the 1980s.

The MRI scan uses magnetic and radio waves, meaning that there is no exposure to xrays or any other damaging forms of radiation. The MRI scan show the picture of the tissue of the body

Another technique used is the Picture Exchange Communication System. This system is mainly used as an aid for children who suffer from autism.

2.( i) Explain how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors

(ii) Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care

(iii) Analyse the effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good practices in communication

(iv) Suggest ways of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting.

There are different people in the sector of care with different cultural and social behaviour so the communication is influenced by different cultural values. Everybody should be treated with respect and in accordance to their cultural and ethnical values therefore the service users who need the support of the health and social care constitutes of those people of different values, culture and ability. The differences in terms of various aspects such as Languages, Patterns of understanding (verbal and non- verbal),Dressings, Social status, Physical disabilities and Sensual impairment, Educational status and background, Values and beliefs with respect, love, care etc.

There are many respected ways and words that individuals within an ethnic group adopt when communicating. As a care worker we should consider to keep in mind and apply the best way to mention the required words otherwise the service users might feel being disrespected and there can be frustration, disappointment and shame. A simple word like ‘please' or ‘thank you' if omitted can be unfavorable to the respect and dignity of the individual.

The Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety established the Private Advisory Committee to develop the Code of Good Practice with the purpose of providing support and guidance for all those involved in health and social care, concerning decisions about the protection, use and disclosure of service user information

The human right

2.(i )Explain how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors.

In every care home there are numbers of service users with different background and when we talk about The Great Britain, there are many people of different background and ethnic groups. Cultural values are respected within society. Religion and ethnicity is a top priority in the health care sector. For example, a Muslim client may request Halal meal and the hospital should therefore provide this meal by all means as it is the client's choice. Strong values and beliefs is an aspect of health care setting.

In the context of Britain, English is the man language but as we know everyone living in Britain may not be the Engllsh so speaking, understanding or in a broad sense English may not be the official language and as it is English speaking country , service users may find it complicated to put forward their feelings and demands so it is obvious that it is very difficult to engage with health care professional. The NHS trust provides translators which helped the service users with different official languages in such instances. The Department of Health ensures that when information is provided to the clients/service users and leaflets are distributed that they should be available in different language. If these leaflets were unavailable, this would have a drastic impact on health sector and ineffective communication would lead to poor quality services.

It is in good practice and best interest while communicating with somebody to use terms like “Please” and “Thank you”. If the service user wears a headscarf due to his religion or grow a beard, he should be respected and cared for according to his faith or religion.

Food ordering should be ordered and cared for according to the service users' choice. The care plan of a client is very important aspect of his care as this shows if the clients like to socialized the way he is engaged with others.

These policies and procedures are implemented so that religious, cultural background and social factors are respected and well practiced within a health and social care setting. There are also some social factors to be considered with some of the service users, as they would always require their preferences and likes for their wellbeing by socializing with people according to their status or being provided with services according to their wishes, thereby keeping their identity of the personality, educational background and cultural heritance. As legislation is the fundamental guidance to provide the required services to all people in need and the values of their identity, their culture and their ability can influence the methods of communication, the same legislation allows these people to have the rights to be offered the facilities for their entire wellbeing in a multicultural environment or society through the established techniques and strategies of communication accessible to all of them.

2.(ii) Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care.

Good practice in communication in the work place is achieved by various methods. The Data protection Act is one of the important legislation of the workplace. Information cannot be disclosed to third party without the consent of the service user. It is in the best interest of the client to withhold these information as this will have an impact on patient's care. The Data protection Act of 1998 promotes good practice and the health sector is run smoothly.

Treating somebody as humane as possible is one of the fundamental aspect in health and social care. Privacy and dignity is respected and human rights is achieved. There is freedom of speech, choice and rights of an individual. With the introduction of the equality act in October 2010, the service in the health sector will be more effective.

Management sends staff for Induction and they attend all these training before starting their job as these are the fundamental aspects of care.

There are various policies and procedures at work. Those are governed by the trust. Information is not disclosed to third party and unqualified member of the team cannot disclose any information. Only qualified member of the team can disclose such information with the consent of the ward manager. Anybody seen to be disclosing information may be disciplined as this is written in the policies and procedures of the trust.

There is a computer software on my ward relating to information stored on computer. Different staffs have various access level to these types of information. Trained staff are familiar with the software which will give them full access as others are restricted.

There is a policy at my work place regarding the personal development review. Each staff should complete one of the PDR in order to be updated and they should upload this file on the computer system. On the personal development review, it records the supervision and appraisal of staff and all the trainings and qualifications achieved. It states the performance of staff and usually they are promoted if they are deemed competent to be so.

These are the various methods of good practice in the workplace.

2.(iii) Analyse the effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good practices in communication.

The good practice in communication within the health and social care contributes to the efficiency of the services and builds confidence and trust in the individuals who believe in the organizational systems and policies as being right and trustworthy. Staffs and professionals adopt a code of conduct and good practice that contribute to the efficiency of the services by communicating effectively within the limitation of the organization and also within a system of team working, partnership or collaboration through understanding of the relevant law of confidentiality, Data Protection Act and Code of Practice by way of training and development.

Good practice relating in health and social care setting can be achieved through various ways. The use of computer has revolutionized the National Health Sector. There is a new system which has been implemented in the NHS called RIO. It was introduced in the late 2005. On this system, detailed information about a client is stored on the database. This has helped to reduce a lot of paperwork.

With the introduction of internet and information technology, it has revolutionized the health sector. All hospitals have been computerized and this acts as a good practice in communication.

An example of this effectiveness is described as follows. The police picked up a gentleman wondering on the streets. This middle aged man has been shouting and responding to voices and it appears that he is unwell. The police rang the Mental Health Assessment Unit and is asking for more information about the patient, if he is known to the services or not. From the use of RIO, a simple search on the browser will indicate if he is known or not whether he has been in contact with the services or not. On the system, it will indicate all types of communication and engagement with the clients. This information is kept confidential and no third party can access it without the consent of a senior manager.

2.(iv) Suggest ways of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting.

The National Health Sector has implemented a system whereby patient's record and daily progress are being saved on RIO. On this system a patient's file can be retrieve and updated as per along the day to day care of a client. In most hospitals, RIO is being used and it has proved to be effective. The main drawback of this method is that all staff members whether junior or senior has got access to RIO. Patient's health are being monitored on RIO. Any staff can delete information like care plan when they are under investigation. RIO can be assessed by any staff and there should be a way that Senior Managers are the only ones that can modify any information whether care plan or day to day progress of a client. Another method is that, they should send a copy of the care plan to the senior managers or social workers so that they are aware of the current plan when something goes wrong they won't be able to modify any information.

On some of the wards in the hospital, the verbal and written command of staff is very poor. Staff should be recruited on the basis of the qualification i.e from the Department of Health criteria staff should be educated to a minimum of NVQ level 2 qualification, yet this is not the case as some are being recruited without experience whatsoever. On top of that, their level of English is so poor that ultimately this has an impact on patient's care. These barriers are a detrimental to the health sector.

The National Care Standards Act 2000 makes provisions for standard of care as per the forty two standards of care that need to be implemented in line with the contents in the Act and all care homes are required to adhere to the regulations. There is not much emphasis on the implementation of the modern systems of communication that can contribute in the provision of information about the care services as well as service users and staffs. So far the standards of care have been monitored on a humanistic basis, but the communication systems need to be improved, Although the Care Quality Commission has the overall power to inspect and assess the performance of these homes and make recommendations in areas where needed for the improvement of the services being delivered.

3.(i) How you access and use standard ICT packages to support work in health and social care.

(ii) Analyse the benefits of using the ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers and care organizations.

(iii) Analyse how legal considerations in the use of ICT impact on health and social care.

i) How you access and use standard ICT packages to support work in health and social care.

The Health and Social Care sector has adopted the Computer Information Systems since quite a long time and is now trying to improve the systems with the current development. At some particular time, these applications were deemed to be expensive, controversial and complicated, but nowadays they are the most demanding and cost effective. All care settings (Hospitals, surgeries, nursing and care homes, health administrative departments, universities' research sections ) etc have now established efficient information technology. Working on the computer requires the basic knowledge about the physical and functional features of the computer. So as per the needs and demands of the uses of computer the staffs have to prepare and learn the uses of computer.

With the continuous progress in the field of information technology and in the medical and healthcare sectors, the use of the software packages for dealing with reports such as writing, printing, storing, retrieving, updating, referring etc has become a very important and effective practice. There are many software packages currently available in the health and social care.

Many years ago, it used to be a system of doing paperwork to be processed with the use of the computer and so to save important records. For example if someone is appointed as a coordinator, he/she has to deal with all of the training schedules within the care home, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly programs, service users' health records, risk assessments records etc.

The Internet makes provision for a very large variety of documentation and research reports relevant to the health and care sector. In fact, the internet has become a useful daily tool in the functions of the health and care sector: at any time, when some references need to be made, the Internet can be searched and the required results obtained within seconds. So in terms of technological field , computer has taken a very demanding post

In my work place, the use of computers have been evolved to such an extent that it has cut down on all paper work. The Information technology system has been implemented and has helped the nurses, doctors, consultants and clients on the ward. Various organization department works along with the National Health Sector. Microsoft Office Packages are widely used on the ward. Records keeping are saved and retrieved from the computer and can be edited using such packages. Daily progress notes are entered on a sophistical packaged named as RIO. Day to day care of the clients is being input on the system. The internet at work place is also an important tool as information can be retrieved within seconds. Another positive factor of the use of computers is that stock ordering for the ward can be done via the internet. I was given a secret username and a secret password to order stock for the ward. Nurses do order medicines via the internet using such system.

Below is an example of the food menu templates at my workplace :







Sandwich (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) OR salad ( greek or green).

Pizza with potato wedges ; steamed vegetables



Sandwich (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) OR salad ( greek or green).

Burger with chips and mixed vegetables



Sandwich OR salad. (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) OR salad ( greek or green).

Roast chicken or lamb, baked potatoes ; vegetables soup



Sandwich (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) OR salad( greek or green).

Fish and chips; baked beans with garlic bread



Sandwich (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) salad ( greek or green).

Sausages and baked beans ; veg. fried rice



Sandwich (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) OR salad ( greek or green).

Fried chicken and baked beans ; jacket potato



Sandwich (veg, chicken or plain cheese ) OR salad ( greek or green).

Spaghetti Bolognese garlic bread or mixed vegetables

Chocolate/strawberry sorbets

History Sheet

Unit No:


(Block Letters)

First Name :



Nursing Notes (Each Entry Must Be Signed)



Patient's name :

Primary nurse :

Care plan no :

Associate nurse :

RIO no:

Description of Problem/ Need :

Aims / Goals :

Intervention :

Names ………..currently smokes…………cigarettes per day.

Date :

Explained to the patient:

Primary Nurse Signature ………….

Consultant Signature ………..

Patient's Signature ………

(ii) Analyse the benefits of using the ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers and care organizations.

The introduction of Information Technology has evolved in the Health and Social care sector. Many health care organizations and health sector has improved their facilities by the use of Information technology. Tremendous changes have gone through the past decade and it is a useful tool for many care organizations. With such an innovative system in place, the referral and transfer of a client is very fast and systematical. There is no error and no glitch while making the referral online and information is relayed in real time without even making a phone call or even faxing the other party. This saves up on costs and there is no need to wait for paperwork.

If a service user is discharged from the services and if after a few months he returns back to see his G.P or local A&E, his details are retrieved from the system whilst the doctor has an up to date history of the client. This helps the multi disciplinary team in achieving continuity of care and ultimately the client is treated better when waiting time is saved.

Social workers on the other hand find it easier to go on the internet and find out places for service users in different catchment area quickly. Detailed information about the services offered is displayed and the service user is updated whilst communication with him is more coherent and accurate.

IT has helped different organization whilst giving training. Most training in the mental health trusts is done online and records are kept of these training. Refresher course when needed after 1 year of training expires, an email is automatically sent to the appropriate staff.

Rehabilitation of service users in mental health is helped a lot by IT. Many clients have accessed to the internet disregarding their race, culture, background, physical and mental disability. Some even have their own email account whilst being admitted to the hospital.

The health care sector has benefited a lot while making good use of IT.

(iii) Analyse how legal considerations in the use of ICT impact on health and social care.

The use of Information Technology has helped tremendously the health sector. It has benefited not only the staff but service users as well. There are two main types of health care information system: Clinical Information System and Administrative Information System.

The Administrative section deals with patients charges, health care cost, outstanding cost, details of next of kin etc.

The Clinical Information technology has benefited the National Health Service in various ways. Information are relayed quick and effectively on the system. The system can be accessed 24 hours a day.

Practically it is used in mental health. It is fast and effective and information about a client is displayed systematically.

For Example, client A has an appointment with his GP. Whilst being at the surgery, there is a screen whereby he can enter his date of birth and address and he is next on the waiting list to be seen by his doctor.

Furthermore, the practitioner can view his notes on the computer and know his past history or his diagnosis within seconds. The doctor will have all his records handy and within this system it updates the database nationally. This is an advantage whereby it saves time, money and effort and provides a fast and effective service.

The next benefit is whereby there is continuity of care within the system. For example if a patient is discharged from a ward and goes to the community. The Home Treatment team can follow the patient while he is in the community and eventually there is a better standard of care.

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