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PESTLE analysis of Nike macro environmental factors

For this assignment, I have researched the concepts by studying many books. The definitions, and concepts as well as the frame works have been studied in this way. To be able to practically apply the information I gained on various organizations, I have studied few case studies as well. Each question was chosen after extensive research and learning. Before i finalised any question I made sure i had full knowledge to deal with the question and the chosen organisation and i was confident that i will be able to cater its need better than the other questions.

For an organisation of your choice conduct a PESTLE analysis. For each environmental factor you need to identify and discuss any potential HR implications.

Nike is one such name, which is familiar to everyone worldwide. Nike designs include athletic footwear, equipments, apparel, and accessories. The main headquarters of the company are located in the United States, Asia Pacific, and Europe (Joshi, 2005). Among its 20, 000 retailers some are Nike stores, Nike factory stores, Cole Haan stores, NikeTowns, and also the websites, which sell off Nike’s various products. Nike is one of the brands which is very well known and well established at the global level. The brand carries a brand equity which is unknown to many other brands (Clancy, et. al., 2000). The best thing about Nike is that it is established brand in more than one countries. In any country that it operates, it has seen improving sales and has done well. This is not without any effort. Nike has worked hard not only for this image maintenance but also towards achieving a versatile and impressive product range.

In order to conduct a PESTLE analysis on an organization like Nike, you would have to have a look at the organization’s business strategies fare in terms of the macro environmental level.

PESTLE Analysis of Nike

The focus should be on the macro environmental factors of Nike, as it is an international organization, so consists of political, economics, society, and technology.

Political Analysis

It is the responsibility of government to create such economic policies, which will have a great effect on the growth of business. In this context, Nike, has been aided greatly by the US policies, hence providing them with the opportunity to modernize their products (Cooter, et. al., 1988). And this support by the US government and also low interest rates, the international competitiveness of the tax system and stable currency conditions, help a lot in the formation of the foundation, which might have been sensitive to the growth of the Nike.

Economic Analysis

Like for many other organizations as well companies, the biggest threat economically would be the economic recession. The recession always have adverse effects on the growth and advancement of Nike. As it is known that the US economy is facing a huge downturn, so in this context the purchase by the consumers are also decreasing down (Keller, 2002). Besides US, Asia’s economies downfall too has its effects on the Nike, as many of its products are being manufactures in the Asia as well. And consequently the voices of labor work and martial’s are also increasing rapidly.

Society Analysis

Since people are getting health conscious day by day, so I order to remain fit, many of them join the fitness clubs. And joining fitness clubs mean more demand of the Nike products like shoes, etc. Nike has always been the first choice of people when it comes to buy something sport/fitness related. On the other hand Nike has failed to address the problems like that of the condition of labor and factory at different locations of the production in Asia (Clancy, et. al., 2000). This has its negative effects on the Nike ad its sale.

Technology Analysis

Nike very efficiently applies all the marketing and technology tactics. It, mainly applies, marketing information systems to the economics of innovation, differentiation, segmentation etc.

So, in short with all these, Nike has been able to maintain its name in the market and it’s positing as well and works effectively on its production and marketing to boost up its sale.

Legal Analysis

Being a multinational, Nike has always maintained the business ethics. It has always paid all due importance to remaining environment friendly. Legal issues have been handled by Nike as per the surrounding they have been operating in. Whenever any company enters a new country, it has to worry about the existing laws and practices. Same is true for Nike. Whenever Nike has entered a new region or country, the local trade and other laws have marked an impact over the way things are done at Nike. Nike however has always believed in staying away from problems. Every time they have entered a new country, they have done so after checking the local laws in detail. If in case the regional laws are totally against what Nike can offer, they have opted to stay out of trouble. For example, the government policies with regard to foreign investment and franchise business are different in the developed world and the under developed world. Nike has always paid attention to this issue. In case the government is too friendly or too strict with them, they have preferred to take one step at a time.

Environmental Analysis

The study of environment not only includes our overall environment of the earth but also the micro and macro environment surrounding a business. Nike has proved itself responsible in all three cases. As far as the global environment is concerned, Nike is ISO certified from global environment, pollution and carbon foot prints tracing point of view. Nike is a strong believer of green environment and as per requirement they have brought changes in the way things work and the processes to ensure that environmental factor has been taken care of. The objectives behind them are fulfilling customer’s expectations, contributing in creating an environmental friendly atmosphere, motivational boost in employees and being on top of legislation. A positive attitude has been indicated in a study towards social and environmental responsibility on part of companies around the world. Nike has proved it time and again that it is a responsible organization.

For an industry of your choice conduct a strategic analysis by using Porter’s ‘Five Forces Analysis’ model. You need to identify and discuss the likely HR issues arising for organisations operating within this industry.

Michael Porter offered a framework to the world of business that models an industry as being affected by the five different forces. Not just the construction companies but any company can use the five forced of Porter to develop a better and more firm competitive edge over its competition and rivals in the market and can use this to better understand the industry context in which the company does business (Porter, 1998). Their strategic objective is to develop market sectors and target them individually. The eventual objective is to use organic expansion properly and then target even more carefully. Moreover, another objective of the same move is to make sure that a long term shareholder value develops in the partnership with the suppliers, community and also with the employees. The company has successfully targeted projects and target market in countries other than the home country. The five forces of Porter for a construction company include:

Rivalry

Rivalry is the first element of the five forces given by Micheal Porter. A global construction company can lower prices, offer a wider range of products and services, use creative channels of distribution, add value and do much more like this to eliminate rivalry from the market or at least decrease the consequences of such rivalry. One factor today that has an impact on this element is technological edge over your competitors. Technology has a very strong impact over jobs, skills and productivity. Technology is a very important factor in today’s world with reference to the development and growth of any country. Taking the example of Carillion once again, one can see that the quick development of this firm in comparison to its rivals has been partly due to being innovative and receptive for ever improving technical environment. In the past, Carillion had a lower percentage of technically learned staff. At present the percentage of highly skilled labor in the Carillion offices is much hire. (Cory, 2005) The nature of work demands a lot of unskilled labor too. However, with the advent and utilization of innovative technology, management of the staff and workers is a lot easier. If we study the same facts under the frame work of labor classes from low skilled to white collar and blue collar jobs, one can note that the number of skilled labour is on a rise and that is all because of technology. 

Threat of Substitutes

In Porter's model of five forces, substitutes refer to products in other industries. Threat of substitutes’ happens when the product's demand is affected by the change of price of the substitute product. However, the threat of substitutes is less in case of this construction company because construction is an expensive business to begin with and there is not much competition in it anyway. Substitutes are always available, and if things go out of control in any one direction, they are bound to take your place. For example, if a company or an industry proves to be too expensive for the buyers, they will start looking for alternatives. A lot of countries for example are going through energy crisis these days. If the main power generating resources are proving too costly for them, they are obviously moving towards other sources which appear to me more suitable and affordable to them.

Buyer Power

The power of buyers is the ability of the customers to purchase any product of a certain price in any industry or market. Basically when the customers have strong buyer power the market has more potential to produce and sell stuff because the customers or potential customers, as we should call them, are able to purchase the goods easily and have the power to do that. In case of construction industry, the buyers or the clients are those people or governments which need something done for them with reference to construction. Not only does at this point in time the reputation of a company plays its role, but also the power of the buyer to decide in favor of or against the firms dealing in this project.

Supplier Power

A construction company needs a lot of raw materials - labor, components, and other supplies which are not very easily available. They also have to find the most suitable suppliers who are able to provide them the right things, at the right cost on the right time. In case of the construction company there will be a lot of raw materials needed and the company might need several suppliers in different countries since its global and working overseas too (Masi, et. al., 1995). So, naturally, just like the buyers, the suppliers also have a power in this case. The construction industry for example faces the impact of this power frequently. To keep the supply of required goods regular, the construction companies have to stay in close collaboration with the suppliers.

Barriers or threat to Entry

Not only is there a threat from the current competition, but there’s also a threat that new entrants might enter the market and concur a significant market share. This is called the threat of new entrants or the barriers to entry in the porter’s five forces. When entering, the firms have to go through certain legal and financial issues and similarly leaving the market isn’t very easy either (Kotler, et. al., 2006). In case of a construction company, the barriers to entry and the barriers to exit are both high because the cost involved in high and there is a huge risk involved. It is important for any company in the construction industry or any other industry to find the legally correct ways to avoid such barriers.

For an organisation of your choice conduct a stakeholder analysis. You need to identify the stakeholders in your chosen organisation, to comment on their power to influence decisions and to explain how these decisions may affect the HR function.

Stake holders are the people who have direct stakes in an organization. They are in other words directly affected by the way an organization behaves in. The stake holders are not only the people who are financially related to the organization in one way or the other. Stake holders also include people who are affected by the way an organization works and behaves in general. The chosen organization in this case would be Carillion Construction Company. Carillion is a global construction company that comes under the Carillion group which was established in July 1999. The Carillion Group carved a niche for themselves back in 1999 and are doing great ever since then. It was formed by the demerger of Tarmac. Tarmac is a known name as it was formed in 1903 and has operated successfully. Carillion is continuing the same legacy. They have been in the construction business since almost 20 years now and are successful at executing the Civil Construction projects related to Manpower Deployment Basis and Unit Rate Basis. This multinational construction company has been linked to the construction of famous projects and ventures which include some important federal projects, traditional structures, commercial and institutional buildings, development centers and many more significant projects. The company headquarters are however located in West midlands, UK and it is listed in the London stock exchange as well.

Not only is Carillion a resourceful construction company but also one that has very vast and extensive knowledge along with the experience of the founders of the company who have been in this business since ages. Not only are the founders and experience and possess great knowledge but the entire workforce is immensely skilled and is experienced too! The workforce at Carillion is committed to completing all their projects and ventures within the time they have given. In construction industry, time is everything because if you don’t complete on time, a competitor will do that and take away the business (Iriye, 2002). Carillion makes sure that every project they undertake is completed on time without compromising on quality issues or matters related to safety and environment.

Also, like every company has an area of expertise, Carillion group has its specialty too. It has gained expertise in large constructions and executing large scale projects and managing them. Carillion has associations with other multinational firms overseas too and it handles projects not just in one area but executes large scale projects overseas too (Kenneth, et. al., 2000). And interestingly, they complete all their international and overseas projects in time too, which speaks a lot about their backing, resources and workforce.

Carillion Group has been an important part of the Global Construction Scenario right the beginning of the company itself. In its first decade after inception, the company achieved a great reputation which has kept spreading and becoming even better since then and spread across the Middle Eastern region viz, Iraq & Kuwait.

The second decade saw Carillion Group expanding its operations in other regions like Russian Federation, North Africa and the Caribbean. Carillion was selected as the sub-contractor on a particular labor rate for some of the most important and precious projects ever done in Canada. Carillion Group associated with other internationally reputed companies during the construction of the aforementioned projects. Grand Mosque in Oman, Railway tracks renewal in Britain, Yas Marina Hotel in Abu Dhabi and Queen Alexandra Hospital in Portsmouth are some of the important projects recently finished by this construction company. The company at present operates in 4 divisions which include: Building, Infra structure, International and Business services (Keller, 2002).

Currently, in its third decade since its inception and they are constantly expanding ever since. They are now expanding towards the side of Romania, UAE, and Caribbean Islands including Trinidad and Tobago. After successfully executing projects overseas, Carillion Group has been able to create a pool of experienced and specialized workforce with great expertise and proficiency in execution of the particular jobs given to them with perfection.

Furthermore, Carillion Group has picked up some very prestigious and significant projects in Britain itself, which include the construction and renewal of railway lines in contacts with Network Rail.

Any organization is not alone in the environment it works in. There are other organizations working in the same environment. There are people who are working for this organization. There are suppliers and distributors and the staff directly working for the firm (Cooter, et. al., 1988). Then, there are the buyers, the customers. For Carillion, the stake holders are the owners of the company, the staff and workers, the people who will use the product they make, the investors, the creditors and the managers and board of directors. All of these have a direct impact over decision making. For example, the customer feedback is the backbone for not only this company but for any other company too. Any decision is taken in the light of expected or already received customer feedback (Patterson, 2008). The impact of owners, board of directors, creditors and investors is also known as they have their financial interest and in case the company fails to offer profit, they can think of getting their money out. The management and workers have lesser control over decision making. Managers are usually experts of their field thus they control the situation in some cases. Any organization however which plans for long term success has to be careful in this regard. If any of the stake holders think that they have been totally ignored, this can be bad for the products the company tries to sell. 

Reflective journal

Week 1

Behavior

Curious

Researching deeply and extensively into the topics and discovering interesting and amazing facts developed the curious side of my personality. My mundane activities were well defined by this inquisitiveness to know more.

Decisive Thinker

Complexities into complexities created in me strategic thinker who could take quick decisions at the right time. I was able to think beyond the horizons and my mind and the ability to think expanded far more

Week 2

Behavior

Driven to deliver

This behavior of the behavioral cluster could not be raised up in me. I am naturally soft spoken and empathetic. Therefore this became the underlying reason for not being too strict with my colleagues even when the delivery of the work was concerned. I failed badly to develop this attribute in me

Collaborative

I had a built in team working spirit. The module helped me polish and enhance my communication skills within a team and helped me establish myself as leader that could lead his team with effectively and with patience.

Personally Credible

As I worked I realized my worth. I became confident as I realized that the ability to handle tasks lie within me. It needed to come out. The module polished the gem lying within me.

Behavioral cluster 3

Courage to Challenge

The module developed in me a ‘can do’ attitude. Although there was originally instilled courage to face challenges, but there remained a flexibility to back up at times. The module assured me that everything can be handled if dealt carefully

Week 3

Role Model

Each of us working in team became a role model in the eyes of oneself. We realized how tasks can be achieved when working together. We realized the important of each one us and the unique attribute that each one of us possess.

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