Individual Job Peformance Leadership
Individual job performance
It is defined as performance given by the individual towards any organisation and performance can be varied due to the ability, likes, dislikes, interest etc of the performer. (Mccauley and hezlett, 2002)
For the task performance planning is important. There are two types planning pre task planning and planning within task. This performance always related with groups. (ellis,2005).
Organisational citizenship and behavior
According to lambert "It is defined as behavior that goes beyond the basic requirements of the job" (Lambert, S.J., 2006).
It is tool by which manager can check the performance of the employee and by evaluating the problems he can enhance the performance of the employee.
Definition: leader must play a dual role by balancing the company's future as well as company's workers satisfaction (Mullins,2007). Leadership and management are two different concepts. Leader can accommodate the management group or person .management is related to solving the problems. Leader point outing the problems and management solving those problems (Mullins,2007).
Bass and avolio used two models of leaderships namely Transactional and Transformational
This kind of leadership motivate the employees self interest and with this try to achieve the goal of organisation. In this kind of leadership relation between worker and leader is directly proportional to each other (Mullins,2007).
In this type, self interest of worker is not important for the leader. but how to transfer the work of worker to performance of the leader or achievement of the leader (Mullins,2007).
According to Shamir and colleagues' "In the revised theory of Shamir and colleagues' charismatic theory viewed more as a dyadic process, to one in which it is a collective process .charismatic leadership is likely to be far more motivational when the leader chooses a vision that is congruent with the followers own values and identities". "In conclusion, on the dimensions of leaders behaviours there has been considerable attention directed towards specific behaviours, the leader's expression of high expectations set standards of performance and approval". (Shamir et al.1993).
Factors affecting the leadership
Contingent reward: in this the leader, decide the company's goal, put his expectation and after achieving the goal he appreciate the people involved in his work.
Active management by exception: in this, leader plays the role of monitoring the work and if work deviates he immediately make it correct and smoothen the work.
Passive management by exception: he waits for the things go wrong and then only he corrects the work. Before to that he is like an observer.
Laissez faire: in this type of leadership, he is absent when needed for decision to make. If present, he delays to make decision.
Idealised influence (behavioural): he had his own view towards goal and he try to put his principles and mission in front of the worker.
Idealised influence (attributed): in this type of leadership, he is extra ordinarily confident about his mission and workers are trusting him for every work he wants to do for organisation.
Inspirational motivation: in this type, he motivate the worker by sharing goals and his vision towards the organisation and he is optimistic towards his goal.
Intellectual stimulation: in this type, he solve the problem by discussing them with the subordinate and try to develop new approaches towards any problem.
Individualised consideration: in this, he treated the subordinates not as subordinates and treat them equally for achieving the aims of organisation. (slide by Dr Johannes Rank, email@example.com)
Contingency theory of leadership:
It is theory about behaviour of leader and assumption is, no one is a best leader. According to this theory Leader in one situation may work effectively and in other situation he may not, this also called situational theory.
It is defined as knowing and responding on what is true inside the leader ,inside his team and his organisation. He always act according to the what is practical thing in the world. He will never follow ones thought, or ones organisation. (Bob terry's)
Any employee in the organisation needs a proper guidance and respect from the higher person in organisation. Its his natural need of self respect and Charismatic leaders have such power in their behaviour and in their thought ,they can enhance the task performance by giving them motivational thoughts. He have that power to encourage the employee by increasing the self respect in the worker and self belief in them. With charismatic leader the output of the organisation is always more than the targeted one. This leader have the quality of getting job done. This kind of leadership can enhance the worker to go beyond the job limit and due to this, organisation can improve their organisational citizenship behaviour.
My idea regarding to achieve maximum level of task performance is that the training should contain how to manage the worker softly? If a supervisor want to give some task to them then how could he decide the perfect employee for that? What is practical things happening around the organisation? Training must be practical rather than theoretical. How to handle the emotional bonding with employee? These things must be included in the training programme. And the organisations success will be evaluated on the basis of the small term goal achievement in shorter time and proceeding towards long term goal with effectively.
- Mullins 2007
- Lambert, S.J., 2006
- Shamir et al.1993
- Mccauley and hezlett, 2002