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Example Marketing Essay
Select an organisation of your choice and produce a report which analyses their current marketing strategies and make recommendations for improvements to their marketing strategy.
Date authored: 05 th September, 2014.
This report will note upon the marketing strategy of The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; the association based in Zurich was founded in 1904 and is governed by Swiss law the official website states “It has 209 member associations and its goal, - is the constant improvement of football,”
(FIFA, 2014)but do people recognise FIFA's goal through their marketing effort?
FIFA shows involvement to other associations whose aims are similar to their own, for instance Kick It Out who describe their organisation as football's equality and inclusion, this is done through campaigns on anti-discrimination in football. They work with football, educational and community sections and aim to reduce racism, homophobia and other discriminations within the sport, FIFA's partnership ties to their aim to improve the sport within an ethical
(Kick It Out, 2014)Recently the police and Crown Prosecution Service pledged to tackle ‘all forms of abuse in football,' Morland Sanders
went undercover to some football grounds and found “dispiriting findings [including] fans chanting deeply offensive racist abuse while nearby police officers do nothing.”
(Whitelaw, P., 2014)
FIFA may partner with such organisations to acquire the Halo Effect;
Doyle (2011)defines this as “the perception of positive traits, qualities, or benefits of one entity influences (with positive bias) the perception – of another entity.” With this FIFA may seek positive equity from Kick It Out's perceptions.
Recently FIFA received negative perceptions by publics due to their handling of the FIFA World Cup 2014, the host nation for the competition was Brazil whose economy was emerging from 2003, their share of global output increased by a percent point yearly until 2011.
(Global Sherpa, 2014)In 2007
FIFA accepted Brazil's bid to host the competition due to the strong economic climate they had, a year later a global recession would occur though Brazil, Russia, India, and China saw growth in economy, and these emerging economies have been dubbed the BRICs.
The impact the BRICs would have upon global economy, was still questioned last year and whether that impact caused was permanent,
Sharma, R (2013)
believes the rise of the BRICs was rare stating “By 2007, with three – exceptions, every economy in the emerging world was growing, and more than 100 were growing faster than 5%. This kind of synchronised global boom had never happened before, - and it is not likely to happen again.” And with “only 35 of 185 economies tracked – are developed; the rest have been ‘emerging' forever. It is rare for emerging nations to sustain growth faster than 5% for even one decade.” Though
Mahbubani, K (2013)argues that before 1820 China and India was the largest economies and believes “long term trajectory remains unchanged. Yes, there will be many short-term stumbles or strategic pauses.”
FIFA could have improved their marketing effort in a number of ways; firstly they could have taken notice of the confusion within the economy at the time and taken a safer option by approving the bid of a developed nation. Secondly when the economy of Brazil steadied they could have offered more support towards Brazil, the number of partners FIFA boasts and their aim to progress football could they not provide Brazil with resources to help ease the job.
Most importantly FIFA should have taken consideration of other stakeholders involved, with one stadium built with capacity of 42,000 used for four world cup fixtures, the local team who would use it after get average attendances of 1,000. (
Freeman, H. 2014)
Social media marketing has received significant attention in the past few years. Critically discuss this technique. What makes a successful social media strategy?
Within the past 10 years online communications have become increasingly vital for many companies, once marketers could control their communications, but with the rise of the internet consumers can easily make or break a brand, through social media.
Singh & Diamond (2012)defines social media as “content created and consumed by regular people for each other.”
Marketers have shown growing interest upon this channel because they are popular; Facebook boasts near 1 billion users which is a large amount of traffic, this website's users are a part of a huge database which is ideal for the use of direct marketing. Databases are also available on YouTube, which is more popular than Cable TV, with people not using previously popular channels marketers must find another way to communicate with them.
(Scott, 2013)This interest is now being acted upon by businesses so a company should use the tool their competitors do to ensure they do not face competitive disadvantage.
Guerrilla marketing campaigns can use social media constructively,
Levinson (1993)introduced this concept and believed such campaigns are characterised by low cost but extreme effect in building reputation by generating favourable consumer perceptions, such marketing is creative energetic, and flexible.
Castronovo (2012)believes social media can aid guerrilla marketing as it is a free medium that can create a buzz and allows viral spread, this then “[increases] the relative exposure and effectiveness – compared to offline guerrilla venues alone.”
Guerrilla marketing highlight's how integrated marketing communications can be used effectively
Clow & Baack (2007, p.419)states marketers should “resist the temptation to create Web [content] that attempts to be everything to everyone.” In fact online communications need to reflect the offline; overall social media should be used for communicating elements of brand equity in a more social enigma relating to the target.
‘B2B branding and B2C branding are exactly the same' Critically discuss this statement, do you agree?
One brand that seeks business both B2B and B2C is Tesco, upon online communications they have to separate websites that targets the interest of both. Their main site (www.tesco.com) targets the consumers and supply links to the services sold to consumers, they also show their tagline “Every little helps” Though the branding remains similar upon the PLC site ( www.tescoplc.com) they have dropped the tagline and now they boast upon the company's achievements, current share price, and major shareholders. This differs from the product based approach upon the consumer site.
In 2013, Tesco was involved with the horse-meat scandal, one of Tesco's suppliers included horse meat within their products, and when this was found out consumers were outraged. Because of a fault in Tesco's B2B business their brand was suddenly undesirable which produced negativity in their B2C branding.
(BBC, 2014)If a B2B branding causes positive/negative perceptions to a business this could then show the same effect in B2C branding and vice-versa, for instance Innocent smoothies possess a large section
of the smoothie market, Sainsburys acts as an ambassador for the brand and with Innocents ethical approach they may reap the halo effect, it may be more expensive than competitors but it still obtains high volumes of interest both B2B and B2C.
Viral marketing is often cited as being a cheap and effective way of marketing a brand. What makes an effective viral marketing campaign?
Perry & Whitaker (2002)define viral marketing as “the voluntary spread of an electronic message from one consumer to one or many others, creating exponential and self-perpetuating growth in its exposure.” Though
Kirby & Marsden (2006)contradict the previous definition and believe viral marketing “describes any strategy that encourages individuals to pass on marketing offer to others,” the contradiction in the statements lies in whether the spread is voluntary or if it is implemented from a strategy. The spread of such marketing messages could be believed to be voluntary but can be adapted into a marketing strategy,
Walter (2013)states “viral content can't be predicted – but brands and content producers can still learn from successful viral campaigns.” Looking at successful campaigns what can be implemented to another campaign to make it effective?
To make a successful viral marketing campaign is to ensure consumer engagement with the brand, for instance 3's #DancePonyDance Campaign
(Appendix 1)had users of Twitter ‘tweeting' the amusing video, which many people shared it and thus the campaign became viral.
Appendix 2is the Dorito's advertisement “Goat 4 Sale” Dorito's ask people to create an advertisement for them and the winner's advertisement is first aired during the Superbowl.
The winner created the Goat 4 Sale ad, but with the amount of interested consumers,
proves a lot of brand engagement.
Appendix 3was Dove's campaign “Real Beauty Sketches” with majority of their target market being females they related to the market by having women draw pictures of themselves, that usually showed what they believed to be physical imperfections but when drawn by another person their beauty was accelerated, this campaign went viral because it understood a psychological belief of women and provided a positive insight, also the campaign was available in
of languages so it could reach a larger audience. Finally
Appendix 4is a screenshot of the Walker's site during the “Do us a flavour” campaign, in which consumers provided walkers with flavours for their product, the most favourable by the company was then put to a public vote which decided which product they would provide more long-term.
Evidence from successful viral marketing campaigns would provide the following recommendations to other campaigners who seek to become viral:
· Ask the consumer to engage with the brand on a different level whether this is as simple as social media engagement or more complex as creating a possible advertisement.
· Ensure the campaign does not stray from brand equity, using a fundamental of the campaign's brand will appeal to the correct audience for instance Dove is a beauty product, their campaign on beauty reflected this and thus spread.
· All target audience should understand the campaign, Dove ensured the video was available in an array of languages to target consumers worldwide. This attribute is also seen in 3's campaign which has the tagline ‘Silly stuff. It matters,” tying this with social media where consumers use the channel to socialise, humour may target them on this channel.
Why is it important for an international marketer to study culture? Outline the main techniques available for undertaking cultural analysis?
To understand the importance of the concept of culture for international marketers, primarily the concept must be defined. Culture is a set of control mechanisms that administrates people's behaviour; culture is not a characteristic of the individual but rather bestows characteristics upon an audience. Culture perception from people ultimately corresponds from the socio-cultural environment which
de Mooij (2010)believes “includes shared beliefs, attitudes, norms, roles, and values found among speakers of a particular language who live during the same historical period in a specific geographic region.” Overall one society may perceive one object in a different view than others, and understanding this will benefit a marketer.
Kaynak, & Herbig, (1998)states “Americans find it peculiar that the Chinese believe a dog is a delicacy, – while the Chinese find it peculiar that Americans – keep dogs as pets.” Therefore if a marketer who is used to a Chinese market should not market a dog as being a delicacy as it is far from the citizen's perception of dogs.
When conducting international marketing research
Craig, & Douglas, (2005)
believes “secondary data [is] a key source of information – due to [it's] ready availability, their low cost - and their usefulness in providing background information relating to a specific country or industry.” Secondary sources are vast “ranging from print and CDROM to various Internet-based sources and web sites.”
A PESTLE analysis is an effective yet simple tool used by marketers (Should the tool be expanded upon?) the circumstances of each area of the PESTLE may differ overseas which highlights the importance of analysing cultures when exploiting new geographical markets. If a PESTLE is used before exploiting new markets some issues may arise.
Appendix 1 – 3 monkeys communications, (2014)
Appendix 2 – Dorito's, (2014)
Appendix 3 – Dove, (2013)
Appendix 4 – Bussey, (2009)
3 monkeys communications. (2014). Dance Pony Dance. Available: http://www.3-monkeys.co.uk/dance-pony-dance/. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
BBC. (2014). Equine Cuisine. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-21457188. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Bussey, N. (2009). Builder's Breakfast wins Walkers "Do us a flavour" competition. Available: http://www.brandrepublic.com/news/903435/Builders-Breakfast-wins-Walkers-Do-us-flavour-competition/?DCMP=ILC-SEARCH. Last accessed 05/09/2014
Castronovo, C. (2012). Social Media in an Alternative Marketing Communication Model. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness. 6 (1), 117 - 131.
Clow, K.E. & Baack, D. (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, And Marketing Communications. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. 419
Craig, C.S. & Douglas, S.P (2005). International Marketing Research. 3rd ed. Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
de Mooij, M. (2010). Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. California: SAGE publications.
Dorito's. (2014). Goat 4 Sale. Available: http://www.doritosgoat.com/. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Dove. (2013). Real Beauty Sketches. Available: http://realbeautysketches.dove.com/. Last accessed 05/09/2014
Doyle, C (2011). A Dictionary of Marketing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
FIFA. (2014). The Organisation. Available: http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/organisation/index.html. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Freeman, H. (2014). How Brazil's World Cup has sold its people short in the Amazon. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/football/blog/2014/jun/17/brazil-world-cup-people-amazon-fifa-manaus. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Kaynak, E. & Herbig, P (1998). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing. New York: The Haworth Press.
Kick It Out. (2014). About. Available: http://www.kickitout.org/about/. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Kirby, J. & Marsden, P. (2006). Connected Marketing: The Viral, Buzz and Word of Mouth Revolution. Burlington: Elsevier.
Levinson, J. (1993). Guerrilla Marketing: Secrets for Making Big Profits from Your Small Business,
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Mahbubani, K (2013). The BRIC economies. Available: http://www.economist.com/debate/days/view/1001. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Perry, R. & Whitaker, A. (2002). Viral Marketing In A Week. Essex: Hodder and Stoughton.
Scott, M. (2013). 5 Surprising Social Media Statistics for 2013.Available: http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/5-surprising-social-media-statistics-2013. Last accessed 05/09/2014
Sharma, R. (2013). The BRIC economies. Available: http://www.economist.com/debate/days/view/1001. Last accessed 05/09/2014.
Singh, S., & Diamond, S. (2012). Social Media Marketing for Dummies. New Jersey: Hoboken
Whitelaw, P. (2014). Dispatches. Available: http://www.radiotimes.com/episode/cs9xvr/dispatches--undercover-hate-on-the-terraces---channel-4-dispatches. Last accessed 05/09/2014.