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Help with grammar

We have put together a collection of essay writing help guides covering some of the main areas that students often find difficulty in.

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Below are guides to the correct use of grammar. Our guides for the use of correct punctuation are below grammar.

Punctuation guides

Grammar: The correct usage of Adjectives and Adverbs

Though most people know what an adjective is, there is frequently confusion over the use of the adverb; in fact, most might not even know what an adverb is. Basically, both of these words are used to describe or qualify:

Grammar: The correct usage of Capital Letters

The correct usage of capital letters is something to which you will have been introduced since your earliest days at school. Despite this, there is still confusion over certain usages of the capital letter.

Grammar: Frequently confused words

Confusing words are usually words that sound very similar but have different meanings and spellings, usually called homophones or homonyms. Examples of these would be the different spellings of 'there', 'where' and 'here'.

Grammar: Fragments and Incomplete Sentences

Fragments are incomplete sentences, usually subordinate clauses of a complex sentence. The reason they, like most grammatical errors, are considered incorrect is because they obscure clarity.

Grammar: The use of Prepositions

Prepositions, simply expressed, are words that show the relationship between nouns.

Grammar: The use of Pronouns

A pronoun, expressed very simply, is a word which stands in place of a noun in a sentence.

Grammar: Subject and Verbs

It is crucial that a sentence contains both a subject and a verb; this is an unbreakable rule to which you must always adhere. To put it simply, the subject is the person or thing carrying out or interacting with the verb in a sentence.

Grammar: Who and Whom

The use of 'who and whom', both pronouns replacing the noun in a sentence, is very often incorrect. In most cases the distinction is very clear: 'who' is applied to the subject in the sentence and 'whom' is applied to the object in a sentence.

Grammar: Who, Which, That

Once again, these fairly straightforward terms are often misapplied. Stated simply, however, 'who' applies to people, 'which' applies to things and 'that' can be used for either..

Grammar: Whoever and Whomever

'Whoever and whomever' are used in much the same way as 'who and whom', in other words, ‘whoever' is the subject form and 'whomever' is the object form.

Help with Punctuation

We have put together a collection of essay writing help guides covering some of the main areas that students often find difficulty in.

Below are guides to the correct use of punctuation. Our guides for the use of correct grammar are above.

Grammar guides

Punctuation: The Apostrophe

An apostrophe has two uses, to indicate a missing letter in compound words (or contractions), and to indicate possession.

Punctuation: Brackets

Brackets are used to add supplementary information to a clause or sentence.

Punctuation: The Colon

In essays, a colon will commonly be used to introduce quotations, lists or explanations. A colon can also be used for rhetorical effect to add emphasis to a point being made.

Punctuation: The Comma

Commas separate clauses and phrases in a sentence. Unlike colons and semi-colons, commas do not always separate grammatically complete clauses.

Punctuation: Hyphens and Dashes

On a conventional keyboard, a hyphen is a single horizontal line used to combine words into compound words. A dash is a double-length hyphen used to separate sentences, clauses and phrases in place of a full-stop, comma, colon or semicolon.

Punctuation: The Question Mark

Question marks, or interrogation marks, are the termination marks used to turn a statement into a question.

Punctuation: The Quotation Mark

Quotation marks, which are also known as inverted commas, have two types - single and double.

Punctuation: The Semicolon

Like colons, semicolons are used to indicate a connection between sentences or clauses which could otherwise be treated as distinct and grammatically complete in their own right.

Punctuation: Termination Marks

Terminating marks have a very straightforward function - to end sentences. There are three types of terminating mark: full stops, exclamation marks and question marks.

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