Applied To Humanoid Robot Nao Children And Young People Essay

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In this study the tasks that will be accomplish is to make a research about the humanoid robot that currently use NAO robot in order to give a therapy to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this research the subject are children with special ability that mostly involve 6 till 12 year's old child.

In this research there has to be an interaction between the child, therapists, and robots are needed for each other in order to help the child in treatment. So from here we can see in between the therapists and robot interaction the developments of the GUI which are really important for the therapists in order to fully control NAO robot for the therapy. Sometimes therapists are not really knowledgeable in the software in order to improve or adding the data for the NAO robot module that used to help ASD children. If the GUI is less user-friendly that will bring another problem to them to develop a new module data that already added in database sources.

The GUI that going to be developed has to be interfacing each other with the network and also database that created. The GUI is based on the internet platform which everybody could excess it where ever they are in the other words the development of the new website which is give a lot of benefit to the users especially in term of data sharing. In this research we also have to collect the information about the suitable programming language that going to use in develop the GUI connection and development.

Problem Statement

Most of the designs of GUIs interfaces are not that much effective in helping the users during their search and gathering for information at the database website. Some of the GUI that developed for the humanoid robot are less user-friendly and it bring the user became confuse with what should be done in order to upload and download the existing module sessions that consist on the database website. It is because of some of the users are lack of computer knowledge. These kinds of problems bring GUI less effective, inefficient and bring low satisfaction on users.

Simplify the overall interface to the bare minimum, and keep people focused on the important features. Nowadays, there are a lot of development of GUI interface that has being create but the problem is there many interfaces that consist of useless features that only give confused to the users. In order to minimize this problem we must explore literature and find out the most important thing needed to design important features in GUI interface development.

In order to investigate the usability and effectiveness of user-interface features, some research had make among non-technical person that intended to help these autism problems in relation to the interface features with the users. The thing that we mostly focus on users is about the way of interface interact to them, either it is user friendly or not. Are they experienced difficulties in the use of this user-interface in explore the information for the first time, and we also focus on the characteristics/background of the interface that going to be develop in order to know either this problem also will bring an influences for them to explore the ability of this user-interface or not.

Objectives+ aims


To develop a GUI of a robot based on the internet platform using the suitable programming language that can interfacing each other with network and database so that the user can be easily interact with the robot using the module that provided for the therapy process.


In this research the main objective that we should accomplish are to develop graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used by the non-technical person to access the network and database of robot-based interaction program for children with autism. The development should have included the simple and attractive GUI interface with the compact important features to avoid users from making a mistake due to getting a module from database website to help them in the therapy process.

Besides that, other objective that has to be achieve are to explore literature regarding development of GUI for robotic application and create simple modules of interaction for children with autism using humanoid robot NAO.

Scope and Limitation

In this research is all about the interactions between the child, therapists, and humanoid robot NAO in an effort to help the ASD children treatment. The focus patients are children with their age attempt in between 6 and 12 years that involved with these disorder ability since they born. In the development of the GUI interface the most things that have to be focus are on the users with or without technical knowledge about the software including therapist, parent and etc.



Before we start research the thing that we considers as the important are about the selection of the literature review that bring us to the right path of the research which is included the past research journals, magazines and also books. The review has to be related to the main topic of the research which is about the interactions between the child, therapists, and humanoid robot NAO in order to help the ASD children treatment and then has to develop a good GUI interface using all the information gathered. In this development we have to make sure it is interfacing each other with the network and database sources that were constructed by other members.

In this chapter we will cover the area of Autism, Robotic, and Therapy and also about the Graphical user interface.


For the first section of review of the autism, there is lots of important information that we gathered about the autism that in a way helps the research. In this research the main target is to help the ASD children treatment with assist of the humanoid robots which are currently use NAO robot as the main tool. There will be some explanation will be covered in this section about the autism.

What is autism?

Not everyone knows these kind of disease even though it already existed long time ago. Autism generally named as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It is some kind of brain developmental disability. People with this ability mostly got difficulties with communication and social skills and they also have unusual behaviors and interests.

Usually this special ability can be detected when the obvious signs of autism and symptoms of autism appear to the individual when their age attempt in between 2 and 3 years [2]. From the latest report of Health Ministry the roughly estimated of the children with autism born are one in 625 children in Malaysia [3].

History of autism?


Social development



humanoid robot


Assistive Robotics(AR)

The applications of Assistive Robotics are widely used in order to investigate the application of the robotics with their involvement in the field health care and education. These investigations are important to achieve the best procedure solution to recovery for persons with impairments due to various diseases especially related to the brain function like autism.

The assistive robotics is focus on developing robotic aids for supporting independent persons who have chronic or degenerative limitations and also who got problems with brain disabilities as therapy and supportive tools [8]. AR are related to many application areas that already being exposed by the past researcher in effort to improve human comfort.

From the study that conducted by Mason and Christensen [11] mention that assistive robot are developed from different application areas in order help human for their life such as:

Manufacturing. In this area the robotics systems are widely deployed for the product manufacturing.

Medical and healthcare are commonly used of the Assistive Robotics for the patient especially in term of Recovery and Rehabilitation. The patients that usually involve in this kind of treatment are the one that got the problems with the physical disability. The robot will assist them with the suitable method that can be applied to them by the aids of the robot till the progress achieved. Beside that the other researches also mention that this area also covered the application of mobility problems and also used for elder care [9][11].


Socially Interactive Robot(SIR)

Socially assistive robotics(SAR)

Based on the study that had done by Seifer and Mataric, the Socially Assistive Robot (SAR) is defining as the intersection between the Assistive Robot and Socially Interactive Robot. SAR and AR are similar in term of assist, but for the detailed SAR is more to the social than physical interaction. Meanwhile in the perspective of the social interaction SAR is more similar to SIR in term of their focus, which is to develop and also create an interaction with a user in purpose to give assistance especially in the field of treatment [6].

Nowadays these kinds of interaction are concerned especially for the person that doesn't have an effort or energy to help them including in process of recovery and rehabilitation. For this study we focused the SAR on helping the autistic children where got a problem in their brain development. It is because some of these children are showing their enthusiasm and mimicking character when their face or go through interaction with the robot [01631756]. SAR in this case can be used as assist for the user to improve the mental health of child by reducing stress, loneliness and depression that happened to them [7].

Robot and autism

In order to make a connection between these humanoid and ASD children for the treatment, the research that we conducted had consider all possibility and also the consequences that can be happen during the treatment because of the condition of the ASD children which is differ with the normal child on their characteristics. For this review we can take a look for the moment either these kind of treatment are useful or not.

The robotic systems are firstly used in the treatment for the autism since 1976 by Sylvia Weir and Ricky Emanuel using a mobile turtle-like robot named LOGO at university of Edinburgh [1]. Since then, these methods of treatment become most interactive topic that chosen by the student in university for their research to develop and improve this method of treatment till now. Their comes up with differences and new development from all the research that already developed and all the data that collected in their research has become a reference for the next generation to improve and also develop new research.

The interaction between children with autism and robot are difference depends on the individual age. The research had made by Hideki Kozima and Cocoro Nakagaw using the robot called as KEEPON to interact with the child. The result shown that mostly child that age below 1 year they make an interaction with the robot only by using hands and mouth and did not care about the robot ability. But for the child with age 1year old they make an interaction with the robot based on the robot attentive and emotive actions. And the research on 2 year old child shows that they want to create a social interaction with the robot by showing something to them and also make a body contact with it [12]. From that we consider it as the important matter that we have adapted for the research and then applied the suitable module based on their age. This research also show the improvement of the autistic children when they interact with the robot. Mostly they showed to their trainers what they have already learned.

What Is The Advantage And Disadvantage

Graphical user interface ( GUI)

In this section it will be the most important parts that where the reviews are going decided what are the most important thing has to be included in the GUI development that has to be interfacing each other between networking and the database, beside help the user to solve the problem in develop new module or other thing that related to the program for the treatment and then achieve the objective also the aims of the research.

The GUI developments are really important for the user especially to someone with a little knowledge in the computer development. The interface will guide the users through different stages towards the accomplishment of the tasks. The multi-task and difficult interface could bring another problem for the users to improve their skills. In this review it will guide about something that related to the best GUI development for the research.

What is GUI?

Application of GUI

Characteristic of the best GUI

Example of the best GUI layout

Types of software interface design

Types of the programming language that can be used