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Flay BR, Graumlich S, Segawa E, Burns JL, Holliday MY. Effects of 2 Prevention Programs on High-Risk Behaviors Among African American Youth: A Randomized Trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(4):377–384. doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.4.377
This article discusses the effectiveness of 2 programs intended to decrease the engagement of risky performance amongst African American adolescence. Students, in grades 5 through 8 along with their parents and teachers, were used for a series of evaluations. The interventions used were: The social development curriculum (SDC), comprising of a series of lessons given during a scholar year concentrating on social competence skills needed to control instances in which high-risk situations tend to happen, and the school/community intervention (SCI) consisting of the components of SDC, the schools environment, and parent and societal aspects. The outcomes of the interventions suggest that SCI was meaningfully more successful than SDC for boys, but there were no substantial results for girls, which merits for additional research. The author arrives at the conclusion that social-emotional curriculums offered throughout school grades that are culturally subtle and developmentally fitting can be capable of moderating various dangerous behaviors for African American youth.
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Richardson, J. B., & Brakle, M. V. (2011). A Qualitative Study of Relationships Among Parenting Strategies, Social Capital, the Juvenile Justice System, and Mental Health Care for At-Risk African American Male Youth. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 17(4), 319–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345811413081
The juvenile justice system has developed into the mental health service provider many low class African American families turn to due a deficiency in community mental health programs and no medical coverage. The study present by Richardson and Brakle scrutinize the connections between parenting approaches, wealth, the juvenile justice system, and mental health for African American adolescents. The sample group for the original study was composed of 20 African American males ages 12 to 13 from a city in Harlem, New York and their parents/guardians, from this sample, the author focused on three teenagers and their parents to further research performing observations in school, the community, and in-home interviews for each. He believes that without efficient mental health care involvements in rural neighborhoods, the probability of the youth involving themselves in habitual crime is high and most likely prone for juvenile reentry.
Seaton, E. K. (2003, August). An Examination of the Factor Structure of the Index of Race-Related Stress among a Sample of African American Adolescents – Eleanor K. Seaton, 2003. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0095798403254211
The study presented here makes an effort to measure race-related stress amongst youth. The Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS) considered the stress undergone by 324 urban African American high school adolescents from a large northeastern city, varying in age from 13 to 18, as a result of their encounters with racism. The IRRS is a 46-item questionnaire that gauges four categories: individual racism, collective racism, institutional racism, and cultural racism. Participants pinpoint occurrences that they or family members have faced along with the effect it caused. The results of the study suggest that the results of racism, prejudice, and discrimination have meaningful relation to stress existent in African American adolescents.
Shakoor, B. H., & Chalmers, D. (1991). Co-victimization of African-American children who witness violence: effects on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral development. Journal of the National Medical Association, 83(3), 233–238.
This article reports the pervasiveness of violence and co-victimization happening amid African-American youth. Findings from a violence screening survey collected from several Chicago public elementary though high schools students, aged 10 to 19 years, revealed how many of the adolescents had witnessed some sort of violence scene. The Community Mental Health Council provided the survey of 12 questions in effort of to deliver deterrence programs to decrease the frequency of homicides happening between the African-American population. The author reveals that African-American adolescents co-victimized as a result of their experiences lived are seen as potential threats to society, not victims of any societal issue. The results of the co-victimization of African-American youth are developmental changes happening, like cognitive and behavioral effects, and emotional impacts. Shakoor and Chalmers recommends for children to be regularly screened, identify children displaying early symptoms for behavioral disorders for intervention and support to happen at a proper time and to offer teachings on violence avoidance to put an end to the cycle; similar to the conclusion arrived at by Flay, Graumlich, Segawa, Burns and Holliday.
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Uehara, E. S., Chalmers, D., Jenkins, E. J., & Shakoor, B. H. (1996, July). African American Youth Encounters With Violence: Results From the Community Mental Health Council Violence Screening Project – Edwina S. Uehara, Deborah Chalmers, Esther J. Jenkins, Bambade H. Shakoor, 1996. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/002193479602600607
This article uses data from a survey consisting of 1,035 African American students from middle and high schools in Chicago to evaluate their encounters with violence in the form of eye-witnessing, victimization, and/or participation. The 12 item assessment was used to examine violence occurrences and its effect to possible mental health necessitates. The Violence Screening Form includes inquiries about types of confronts with violence, connections to victims of delinquencies, and weapon handling. The results revealed that the majority of the participants observed dangerous forms of violence. The author disclosed that the outcomes of this study must be understood with carefulness, as the contributors were not randomly selected. The participants were students who participated in school/community violence education programs, but the author states they shouldn’t be any different than other students from any low-income city of Chicago. Due to the elevated ratio of low-income African American students testified to confronting violence, they suggest societal means must be put together to support these adolescents to handle their feelings of defeat and the series of mental problems that arise from their dealings.
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