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Tourism has both positive and negative effects at the same time on the human environment. It has returned to benefit the environment through incentive measures to protect the physical features of the environment, historic sites, wildlife, and monuments. This is usually the target of the establishment of Reserves for natural protection and enjoyment of natural and cultural inheritance and the maintenance of biological diversity. Moreover, the preservation of ecosystems present and future generations, and then come to recreation and tourism as objectives core of the establishment and development of national parks and many other types of protected areas, and has natural areas. It has become a major factor in attracting and formed the basis of what is known as the tourism Environmental or (eco-tourism) sea-based and tourism complexes of animals and plants the wild.
The relationship between tourism and the environment are closely balanced between development and environmental protection.
The study and analyze the behavior of the tourist is one of the most important marketing activities for tourism organizations. This has been created by developments in the external environment because of competition, and increasing the size and type of alternatives available to tourists on the one hand, and the changing and diverse needs and desires of the other hand, is now imposed on the organization need to excellence in their tourism products both in terms of quality, price or method of advertising and in a manner consistent with the tourists and its financial possibilities, and this is to ensure a lasting acquisition, enabling the organization of the growth, survival, and this can only be achieved through the activity of marketing is based on the study of the behavior of tourists and overall conditions and factors that affect and specific preferences and consumption patterns through investigation and surveillance continued all his actions and opinions about what put him and what he wants and wishes to obtain it.
In order to provide a real example of this topic, this paper would investigate the environmental factor that affected tourism in Egypt.
Egypt is characterized by vast areas with an area of about 1.02 million km 2 of Western Sahara 681 000 km 2, the Eastern Desert area which is about 223 000 km 2, Sinai 61000 km 2 and the Nile River Basin approx. 40000 km 2. The Nile also extends to the sea shores with an average of about 1200 km and the Red Sea around 1220 km in addition to the Gulf Suez and Aqaba. These natural resources include the Suez Canal, as an area of inland waters (Nile and its tributaries and lakes And ponds, irrigation canals, etc.) about 8047 km 2 area around the coastal lakes 1570 km 2 and inland lakes about 610 km 2. It is clear from those enjoyed by Egypt Water area containing variety of natural resources is a national treasure for the content of materials Important genetic reveals the world and the scientific importance of marine waters and freshwater of the most important sources Food protein to humans in terms of increased demand with the steady increase in the population.
Egypt includes Oasis as well as its Nile Valley and Delta. It has huge agricultural land that is estimated about 4% of the Land of Egypt, an area of about 42000 km 2 where about 96% of the population of Egypt are yet surviving surround.
The environment is a key element in tourism development, a continuous artery that breathe
in which the tourism industry. Therefore the lack of preservation of the environment means to denigrate destination Tourism. Increasingly, environmental issues are important hub in international forums of tourism. Government must achieve continuous development to meet social and environmental needs of present and future generations. The environment must be kept as it is in order to attract tourist to the tourist destination. This would require establishment of a system of continuous use of resources while preserving the environment and cultural heritage.
Government would not do everything, while, local people have to stand besides the government to protect their lands and to get benefit from preserving their land. This is due to the role of tourism which is considered to be a driving force in achieving cultural exchange and the preservation of environmental resources.
Governmental association has to raise awareness of nature conservation as a vital source in the development of human resource capacity creative. They have to train local people to behave with tourists, construct their own tourism products in a way that would not harm the environment.
In regards with the environment and the Egyptian government, the mainstay of the tourism boom as increasingly convinced of the political leadership of the importance of preserving nature, which is one of the most important sources of attraction.
Egypt is rich by the diversity of the coral reefs at the Red Sea. The tourism investment is built day after day. Millions of tourists are fond of travelling to relax, enjoy at red sea resorts. There, tourists can enjoy several tourism activities related to the environment orientation. For instance, unique environment, Wildlife Photography, Bird Watching, trips through the desert and the vast seas of sand and the mountains. The Egyptians are smart to provide travelers with trips to study wild plants, rocks and fossils - river cruise sailing - as well as to the nature reserves, which represent the open-air museum of tourism.
Not only red sea is the only protected areas where tourists like to visit. There are also five oasis kept far from the human interference. This characterized by the western deserts and rare natural phenomena where there are many depressions and has the Great Sand Sea which is the largest manifestations of desert tourism in the world. The Egyptian Deserts account for about one third of the earth's surface.
The tourists want to return to their nature and out of the daily routine throughout the
year to visit Places of tourist attractions of the environments that have not invaded by development in all its forms.
The natural environment in Egypt is one of the most important sources of tourist attractions. This has been clear for the amateur tourism environment which is evident by the growing number of European tourists who wish to visit Egypt. The climate of Egypt is fine along the year. This one of the main motivation for tourists the sea resorts in Egypt.
The variety of the tourism activities is one of the main motivators that stimulate tourists and travellers to visit Egyptian sites and deserts. The statistics of the Egyptian government shows the trend of tourists who loved to do such varies activities. These activities include bikes, diving, snorkeling, sand boarding as one of the recent innovative there.
Eco-tourism is not considered to be new for the Egyptian tourism since numerous travellers who preferred Egyptian oases, Sinai, and Fayoum to visit.
The main motivations that can be identified for the Egyptian tourism products can be summarized as following:
1 - motives natural areas (Beauty and Landscape and sun & beach)
2 - motivated cultural (historic places in the sea era such as in Alexandra where Egypt has museum under water)
3 - motivated health (recovery in some areas, such as sand used in the Red Sea and Sinai for treatment)
Tourism can be affected by bad behaviors of certain tourists who used to use ships, yachts for protected areas and destroy coral reefs there. The Egyptian government is aware of this problem; hence, they have strong system to protect the environment. This system is represented in providing instructions to the tourists; prohibit diving in certain areas as well as punishing tourists and ships by high taxes that could barrier their rules.
The climate change would affect the shape of the Egyptian Delta. This was also acknowledged by the state. Therefore, Egypt is taking some actions toward this future problem by raising the awareness to both local people and tourists.
Seasons at the height of the phenomenon of chronic and many countries were forced to close
some beaches in Temporary because the quality of water is no longer valid for the shower.
Tourism also created excessive pollution Seasonal in addition to the atmosphere in some areas with a seasonal pollution of the atmosphere because of tourism the highest in the Mediterranean region.
It is therefore essential that the relationship between tourist and environment and symbiotic
relationship with a delicate balance Between development and environmental protection must also be emphasized that the needs of tourism should not be met In a manner detrimental to
social and economic interests of the inhabitants of the tourist areas or the environment or
Natural resources and historical and cultural sites, which is the main attraction for tourism,
It is also necessary for local and international communities to take the necessary steps to
Preserve It is also long-term planning and environmentally sound is a prerequisite for
establishing a balance between tourism And the environment in order to become a tourism development activity around to continue.
Forms of eco-tourism beach in Egypt
1. Diving equipment and underwater cameras in places that are unique types of coral reefs
and aquaculture different in the Red Sea and the islands scattered in the Egyptian territorial waters.
2. View mangrove forests for breeding seabirds in the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez
3. Diving to see the effects and remnants of the sunken World War I and II on the northern coast
West of the city of Alexandria.
4. View snails, mollusks and shellfish and marine animals and coral reefs.
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 77.4 million live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000Â square kilometers (15,000Â sqÂ mi), where the only arable agricultural land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak and the Valley of the Kings, are a significant focus of archaeological study, and artefacts from these sites are now displayed in major museums around the world. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East.
Natural forms of tourism in sea and beach
1 - Water skiing or sailing on the Red Sea, one of the most attractive sports for the Youth Tourism Europe.
2 - Fishing in the Red Sea because of the large number of large fish and coral reefs.
3 - Fishing the Nile Valley, both in the river or its tributaries or lakes such as lakes And Lake Nasser, and others.
4 - Hunting in many wetlands, including ponds and swamps in certain seasons and in accordance with the instructions of an annual in this area.
5 - Hunting wild animals such as some reptiles and small mammals may be caught in accordance with Instructions indicate the number of annual catch, quality and times of fishing.
The negative impacts of tourism on environment in the beach and sea:
1- Cracking of coral reefs and collect shells for tourists leads to lack of interest and to the loss of habitat
Usually the natural protection of marine life other small similar
2 - A leak or dumping of sewage treatment or waste in places where the tourists to
Ground water and water to the beach working on the growth of algae, which lead to the killing of Biology Marine and change the water quality.
3- And presence of garbage, consisting of paper with a plastic fishing nets, lead to the pollution
of coral reefs And harm birds, fish, and lead to the creation of a corresponding deleterious.
4- Bad environmental behavior of tourists, such as feed the fish and the collection of coral reefs
and sea shells And fishing near coral reefs and collect eggs from winter dens lead to the destruction of the system Environmental.
Egypt has several forms of protecting their land. The people have awareness toward the future of climate change. The tourists who are visiting Egypt should respect and follow the rules and regulations in order to have harmony between suppliers and customers. These would lead to satisfaction of customers and positive behaviors and attitudes.
Egyptian tourism is efficient to motivate customers to visit their new tourism products such as eco-tourism. The number of tourists' arrivals could indicate to the extent of which correctness is decision of tourists to visit the Egyptian tourists' sites.