The Tourist Infrastructure From Natural Disasters Tourism Essay

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There are few main sectors that participants and militaries shaping in the tourism industry in Austria such as; hotel and education

Hotel: There are many tourist visit Austria because of the Starwood hotel such as the Imperial or Bristol which provide sumptuous extravagance to their guests. Also, they are traveling for getting a healthy feeling of harmony between body, mind and soul and that they can get it if they are visiting the Vamed water oases like Dome in Tyrol or Therme Laa hotel and spa resort in Lower Austria. Since Austria economy depends on tourism so they need to develop the hotel for their tourist so they can get their satisfaction.

The table below will demonstrate the development of Austria hotels:

ABA tourism PDF

Education: There are many tourist visit Austria because of of their best education. Their education indicates the best in the world and it is mainly oriented toward the requirement of the business world. There are a cooperation between institutes of higher education and the business community according provide the skills and the knowledge that the business need. Austria government investment in education reached 5.4% of GPD which is about 10974,00 US$ every year in per pupil according to OECD, Education at a glance, 2010. Austria get the highest percentage in share the students in the upper secondary level which is about 76,70 proportions. Austria has a great education strategy which is combined between the theory can practical teaching which is practical in preparing the students for the careers needs apprentice training.

Differentiate between the sectors that constitute the tourism industry and facilitate the delivery of goods and services for inbound and outbound travel. Include potential problems in a tourist based economy in your analysis. This includes but is not limited to the following examples.


Austria located in central Europ, in the north of Italy and Slovenia. The total of the land is 2,562 km. Formerly the focal point of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, After its defeat in the World War 1 Austria was diminished to a small republic. In 1938 subsequent invasion by Nazi Germany and following occupation by the triumphant, in 1945 the Allies have been done and Austria's condition remained indistinct for a decade. In 1955 a State Treaty signed which lead to recognize Austria's independence, and forbade union with Germany. In the same year a constitutional law avowed the country's ''perpetual neutrality" as a circumstance for Soviet military departure. In 1995, Austria's has joined the European Unification after the Soviet Union's fall in 1991, some Austrians have named into question this impartiality. Since 1999, Austria has entered the wealthy, democratic country and the Economic and Monetary Union. (

International world war and conflict:

In 1618, the Thirty Years' War between the Protestants in Bohemia and Catholic Habsburg emperor, this war has been ended because of The Peace of Westphalia at this time Habsburgs affirmed Roman Catholicism as the official Austrian religion. After one year of Habsburg king of Spain died the War of Spanish Series stared between Austria and France and Austria won Belgium and Spain's Italian lands this started from 1701-1714. The Napoleonic Wars were in the late 1700s-1815 after 44 years from the Napoleon defeated Austria declared war on Sardinia but it is defeated by Italian and French forces. Austria joined Germany in fighting the Allies when the World War 1 start and that happen when the Archduke Franz Ferdinad the last heir to the Austrian throne in 1914. The world war 1 has been ended in the 3rd November 1918. After 20 years from the ended of the first war German droves under the rule of Hitler seized Austrian lands and proclaimed its union later on in September 1939 World War 2 starts. As a result, of World War 2 Austrian region was separated into The USA, The UK, French and Soviet Zones. The occupation of Austria has been ended because of the four powers in 1954. (

Acts of terrorism, especially those involving tourists

"Quality of living worldwide city rankings in 2011" survey has been done by Mercer shown that Vienna the capital of Austria has taken the first place in quality of living survey, however, it takes the fifth place in personal safety world

. Moreover, according to Newby who work in Austrian National Tourist Office Middle East as a manager of marketing in middle east said that there are no records of terrorist attacks in Austria. That can prove that there is no terrorism in Austria and it is the best living place in the

A major criminal act or possibility of civil unrest due to unstable economic conditions

People security is one of the most elements for all people around the world according to Maslow's hierarchy it is been the second need that should be provided for people. Austria has been indicated the lowest countries in Europe in terms of the occurrence of crimes as well as fierce crime. According to OECD, onslaught rates have decreased in the past five years. Over the preceding 12 months Austria has been recorded 3.0% people falling in victim to assaulted which is less than OECD average which account it 4.0%. Moreover, the homicide rate in Austria counted to about 0.5. The homicide rate is a former 0.7 for men and later 0.4 for women in Austria . The crime that can occur is theft of personal possessions. Some of this crime can occur as the most frequently report include in Vienna's is the "two largest train stations, the plaza around St. Stephen's Cathedral and the nearby pedestrian shopping area". The theft is targeting the traveler pick-pockets that operate where tourists have a habit of gather

Possibility of damage to the tourist infrastructure from natural disasters

Austria experiences a range of natural hazards including landslides, avalanches, Strom , mass movement. Wet, Extreme temperature and earthquakes. These events cause great economic hardship for example in 2002 the flood damage was about 2,400,000 ( US$ Ã- 1,000) but in 2005 it was 700,000 ( US$ Ã- 1,000). When this event happens many tourists will not visit Austria and that will lead to decrease the economy in Austria since the economy depend on tourism. As the graph below shows that the flood has very high percentage this may damage the tourist infrastructure such as; hotel, restaurant, shopping mall, road and other building.

This table below will demonstrate the natural disaster from 1980-2010 in general:

No of persons murdered


Average murdered per year


No of persons affected


Average affected per year


Economic Harm ( US$ Ã- 1,000)


Economic Harm per year ( US$ Ã- 1,000)


The statistic below present the natural disasters in general in Austria

Contraction and spread of contagious diseases

There are some medical disease anxiety are more common in travel to Austria such as; hepatitis B, cholera, typhoid fever and lyme disease, however, the rare diseases that found in Austria is yellow fever and malaria . When you think to visit Austria you may require to get some vaccinations and medications for vaccine-preventable illness and other diseases you might get in your destination. The Vaccine-preventable disease that you need to take before visit Austria is Routine and Hapatitis B

There is some advice that travelers can follow to reduce any health risk :

Don't drink beverages with ice

Insect bites protection

Don't eat food that sale on the street

Don't share needles with anyone

Identify and examine the key economic, sociocultural (involving both social and cultural factors) and environmental impacts of tourism. This includes but is not limited to the following examples.

How has tourism changed the culture in your chosen destination? Explain why or why not in each of your choices

Austria is a country which steal stuck with their culture and the tourism does not impact their culture. A great example is the building architecture in Vienna which give you the feel that you are living in Hofburg era. Moreover, when you visit Vienna or even Salzburg you will still see some ladies and gentlemen wears their traditional dress. Furthermore, Austrian people always promote their classic music that Mozrate played accompanied in their hotel, restaurant and in many shops. In addition people in Austria encourage the visitor to participating in their celebrations as well as you can still find many traditions and customs are still events celebration that let you feel that you are in the era of the Celtic or Roman times, Slavic neighbors and Bavarian. Finally, Austrian people still have Vienna Boys' Choir it considers to be the oldest boys' choirs in the world which is about 500 years it is one of the continuing symbols in Austria. from all this example we can notice that the tourism does not change the culture in Austria.

Does the UAE have positive relations with your chosen destinations?

In the first of May 2009, The UAE and Austria sign an agreement exemption of diplomatic and special passports from visa. The agreement was signed in Dubai between Dr, Tariq Ahmed Al Haidan who present the UAE and Johannes Kerala present Austria. This agreement will be added to the balance of the agreements signed between the two countries, for example, the convention on the prevention of double taxation on income and the elevation and protect of investments between the two countries and air transport agreement where all contribute to the reinforcement and improvement of two-sided relations between the two friendly countries. That shows that the relationship between the UAE and Austria is very good.

What can their economy provide that can help the UAE and specifically Ras Al Khaimah?

Austria economy is very strong with metallurgical products, machinery and textiles of the particular importance but the most important industry for it is tourism. The commodities Austria exports are looked upon as vital to their economy. Most of Austria exports to other EC countries but mostly German and the countries overseas about 15%. The product that Austria export and it is the core is commodities are motor vehicles and parts, metal goods, paper and paperboard, machinery and equipment , iron and steel; textiles, foodstuff. According to the commodities that it is exported Austria can investment in RAK by doing a manufacture for paper since there is no factor for producing paper in RAK. By doing this investment will help the RAK economy because it will sell it for many organizations. Also, will save the money that will spend in buying the paper from the countries that they sell it. Moreover, they can make an investment in machinery and textiles manufacture since many shop in RAK are tailor and women in RAK are addicted in the dressing, this will be a great business that can help RAK economy.

Can the increase in tourism to your cities or countries have an impact on their cultural norms?

There are many tourist visit Austria every year but those tourists does not change the Austria culture. Even if the tourist increase will not affect the Austrian culture because it is depend on their culture and their history as well as their natural view to promote their country. If it is allowed to the tourism affect their culture then it will lose many of their culture and that will lead to forfeit their tourist which play an important part in their Austria economy.

Environmental impacts include depletion of natural resources which include but are not limited to the following.

Local resources and land degradation.

There are many natural resources in Austria such as; oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower. Crude oil is a great example of natural resources which refined to produce a variety of petroleum products such as; ethane, butane and lubricant. The graph below will present the percentage of crude oil production and consumption by the year.

From the graph we can notice the percentage of production is less than consumption.

Pollution includes air and noise pollution as well as disposal of solid waste, sewage and littering.

It is very important to take care of the earth that we live because the earth is the only place that support the human life. There are many activities that people do to damage the earth. The pollution index in Austria shows that it is about 29.21 in all over the city. The highest pollution that Austria face is air pollution which is counted 33.93 and the lowest is drinking water and unaccessiblity which is around 5.77. There are many earth pollution that Austria face and the table below will demonstrate the pollution in Austria in detail.

Pollution in Austria

Air Pollution


Drinking Water Pollution and Unaccessibility


Unsatisfaction with Garbage Disposal


Dirty and Untidy


Noise and Light Pollution


Water Pollution


Unsatisfaction to Spend Time in the City


Unsatisfation with Green and Parks in the City


Physical impacts include but are not limited to construction activities, deforestation, marina development and trampling from excessive tourist usage.

Construction activities:

In 2010 Austria construction cost index for suburban building, road and bridge construction an amendment ( "new basket of good and a new weight scheme"). This was essential to consider the seeming changes in building techniques and technologies in addition to new environmental criteria and descriptions of construction groups in the computing for the construction cost index. In 2010 the construction cost index for construction of suburban buildings reached 101.8 index points for January 2011, according to Statistics Austria calculations. This currently increase to about 0.9% compared to the preceding month December 2010 and increase 3.7% over January 2010.

The table below presents the fallouts (overview): construction cost index general construction costs for 2010:


From 13,00 years old Austria tends to cover forests in all countries and even a mountain, but since the country change and develop the deforestation of forest occur. The lowland areas had been cleared at the beginning of Neolithic farmers, because of the decline tree lines, the moorland areas started to be clear at the middle ages. In the ancient era, communities use the forests, but later those forests taken over the private owner and government that was in the middle ages. Industries and salt works have taken the advantage of most of the forests. In 1848 the revolution changes the giving the forest to be ownership to farmers, partly to the state, aristocrats and villages and towns. Presently, 1% of 214,000 forest owners clutch area greater than 200 hectares and 65% grasps are less than 5 hectares, but stagnant 80% of the forests for private and 20% for state owned. Nowadays, just 47% of Austria is covered with trees, about 3% are older forest, semi natural account by 22% and imitation estate which is about 8%. Because of the strict laws in Austria the cleared forest is not the core issues, however, the forest humiliation is core conflict. The pollution of industrial are Sulphur and nitrogen oxides is extensively spread and is causing an enormous amount of harm to plant life, ecosystem and mostly forests. Today 93% is Sulphur contaminants is coming from Austria borders which is cause dangerous for all the countries that is around Austria. Hunting is a very popular sport in Austria, this will owing to deforestation which will damage the forests, decline in soil quality and loss of biodiversity.

The table below will demonstrate the deforestation figures for Austria

Forest Cover Statistics for 2000

Total Forest Area („000 ha)


Forest Cover (% of land)


Plantations („000 ha)


Tropical Forest Cover (% of land)


Tropical Forest Cover ('000 ha)


Subtropical Forest Cover (% of land)


Subtropical Forest Cover ('000 ha)


Temperate Forest Cover (% of land)


Temperate Forest Cover ('000 ha)


Boreal/polar (% of land)


Boreal/polar ('000 ha)


Marina development:

Austrian economy depend on the tourism and leisure industry and it plays an essential role in Austria economy. According to the Austrian statistical office, the general annual incomings attained in Austrian tourism is about 30 billion Euro with the preponderance of guests coming from abroad. The Austrian tourism sector in total employs some 500,000 persons. Austria has been ranked the second place global in the term of per capita revenue in foreign currency that been came from tourism, only exceeded by Cyprus and shadowed by Island at third place. There is no methodical information coverage is offered by Statistik Austria about the marine tourism even though marine tourism is a prosperous tourism sector in Austria. "Employment Trends in all Sectors related to the Sea or using Sea Resources" study can be gotten from the first impression of the size and structure of the Austrian marine sector that is been done by cooperation of European Commission DG Fisheries and Maritime Affaires with consultancy company ECOTEC in 2006: there were about 960 persons were employed in the Austrian recreational boating industry in 2003. The percentage of the people work in a boat building sector is 6%, however, marine equipment manufactures counted 28% and there are 66% employed in trade and service. (MARINA PROJECT


Trampling from excessive tourist usage:

One of the biggest lakes in all Europe in Austria called Lake Neusiedl, it is located near Wien this lake is great place for different water sport such as; kite surfing, swimming and sailing as well as the great place for families to enjoy their time because it have a crystalline water as well as rolling hills and kissed by pure all those reason make many tourist visit lake Neusidel which make many trampling their.

Explaining the financial perspectives to the Ras Al Khaimah government is very important. They need to know if or how residents of the UAE and RAK can benefit your chosen destinations through tourism. They request that each example include a chart of the multiplier effect for each of your destinations. (See example in Figure 11.1 on page 281 of the text)

Since RAK airway will open a new destination to Austria there will be many people will travel to Austria for different reasons such as; leisure holiday or business this will affect RAK economy because the tourist will spend their money in Austria, but because tourism consider to be a multiplier effect the money will be returned back to RAK economy indirect way. For example; Khalid is a businessman he went to invest his money in Austria, so he went there and build a hotel 5 start so he spend his money in Austria which will help the Austrian economy. Khalid spends money to the building contractor to build the hotel, the building contractor communicates with other company to build another hotel, the building contractor need to buy cement so, they buy it form RAK cement company in this way the money return back to RAK economy . The diagram below the demonstrate the process in a clear way.

Direct money: will be for the building contracting when Khalid pays for building the hotel.

Indirect money: the money that building contracting will spend it to buy the cement from RAK cement

At the beginning Khalid will spend money to build contractor to build the hotel, then building contractor have many projects they need cement so they will buy it from RAK cement which will lead to reterun the money to RAK economy.


Khalid is a businessman he went to Austria to investment

Khalid pay for the building contractor to build the hotel

The building contractor communicate with other company to build a another hotel

The building contractor need a cement so they buy it from RAK cement company

When the building contractor buy the cement the money will return back to RAK economy

Explain and analyze the types of tourists that will travel to your chosen destinations from a marketing standpoint. Your response should include Plog's Psychocentric-Allocentric Model.

Austria is an allocentic model because their culture, language, food and traditional is very different then our country. When UAE people visit Austria will find a difficult to communicate the people their because they are speaking a Dutch language which UAE people do not know it and rare people can speak English. Also, their food is different then we have in The UAE even the popular restaurant such as; Burger King they include different food then we have in the UAE.

Austria climate

Climate: Austria is placed in a temperate climatic region with a Central European weather influenced by the Atlantic climate. Each season has distinctive temperature and climatic characters.

East: Pannonian weather with a mainland influence - low precipitation, hot summers but only temperately cold winters.

Alpine Region: Alpine weather - high precipitation (except interior Alpine valley areas for example the upper Inntal), short summers, long winters.

Travel times:

The best time to visit Austria especially if you want to hiking and walking is from April to October, however, in July and August is the peak season for the summer holiday and from December to March is considered to be the best time for enjoying the winter.

Austria attraction:

There are many places that tourist can visit when they travel to Austria such as;

Schönbrunn place:

This place is located in Vienna this place is built before 300 years old it former summer residence for the imperial family. This palace where Maria-Theresia live, when you visit this place you can see how Maria-Theresia life and lifestyle of the empire in Austria. It is really a huge wonderful place when you can go on a tour inside the place with tour guide or you can take a small device and it will explain to you the place in your own language. Also, there is a big zoo which includes different kind of animals such as; panda, penguins, elephant , giraffe and monkeys and many animals.

Salzburg's Festival:

Salzburg's city is the place where the popular person in music field born who is Mozart. There are many foreign people visiting Salzburg's for a festival where there they can hear the classical music that Mozart play. This festival is done in winter and it is organized by the International Mozarteum. In this festival include opera production as well as orchestral, chamber music and soloist concerts. It is a great festival for all people who like Mozart music.