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According to Collins Online Dictionary the stakeholder is a person or group not owning shares in an enterprise but having an interest in its operations, such as the employees, customers, or local community. Therefore, in urban tourism a number of stakeholders can be identified: the public sector including the local authority of council; the private sector, foreign investors as well as local businesses; visiting tourists and tourist organisations and agencies; and local people.
What is the impact of tourism on a city?
There are positive and negative impacts of tourism on a city. Snaith and Haley (1999) state that there are potentially significant positive impacts to a city including leisure and financial benefits. On the other hand, the negative effect is that tourism can increase the crime rate and increase the cost of living for the local citizens.
Snaith and Haley (1999) argue that the impact of tourism vary from city to city because each city has its own unique character and makeup. One positive aspect of tourism it that it can boost the economy and increase incomes for local people. As a result of this, citizens are willing to invest in their city and the local authorities make improve to facilities and transportation. This development could in turn improve the city's reputation and attract further investors to the local economy (Law, 1993). Furthermore, Orbasli (2000) emphasises that tourism increases and protects the urban cultural heritage since raises its awareness and improves the interaction with and conservation of historic buildings and occupying redundant buildings.
Meanwhile, there are several negative consequences of tourism on a city: safety issues, increased property values, traffic and pollution. These are all unwanted consequences (Orbasli, 2000). Furthermore, Youell (1998) describes the term 'displacement effect' which means tourism could turn away basic projects, such as building schools to a different type tourist related projects such as a theme park.
What is the tourist-historic city?
Snaith and Haley (1999, p597) define tourist-historic cities as "places where cultural heritage is concentrated, is visible in the urban scenery and above all embedded in an urban liveliness". For instance, Paris and London have happened to be a major tourist attraction due to their strong chronological and cultural factors.
What kinds of tourists are attracted to Nottingham?
Nottingham has the advantage of being easily reachable by road, rail and air. Therefore, domestic as well as international tourists have easy access to the city.
Nottingham City Council's (2010) website highlight a number of reasons to visit Nottingham. Firstly, to experience the rich culture and history of the city including one its best known landmarks, Nottingham Castle, or possibly to visit the Museum of Nottingham Life to get a view of the city in the nineteenth century. Tourists also visit for Fine Art, to visit Nottingham's five Art exhibitions or for the nightlife for which the city is renowned for a wide variety of clubs and bars. Alternatively people visit Nottingham to shop at one of Nottingham's two big shopping centres and other specialist shop. Nottingham is the home of the designer brand Paul Smith. Moreover, the city of Nottingham is an attraction for families looking for activities such as rowing boat in Highfields or to visit one of the many festivals or fairs such as the Goose fair. In addition, because the city has two huge universities it attracts student from all over the places. Of course, a major attraction for visitors from all over the world is to visit to experience the legend of Robin Hood.
What effect will the Olympic Games have on tourism in London?
Possibly massive investment and development in the city which will see transformation of deprived areas and improvement of transportation services. There will be large increase in tourist numbers and the event 2012 will have an influence onÂ Britain's £74 billion visitor economy. Research by VisitBritain (2006) confirms that the Paralympics and Olympic games will significantly increase tourism not only to London but the rest of the UK. Information from the Nation Brands Index confirms that the Olympic Games will provides an optimistic view of Britain and their willingness to travel.Â Surrounded by 35 countries surveyed,Â of those who actually assumed they possibly to visit theÂ UK if money and time was not a problem, almost third claims that they were more likely to visit for the reason of the games.
Word count: 700 excluding question titles
DLE 2: International Tourism
Basic concepts and models, supply and demand, tourist segments
To what extent is tourism's claim to be 'the world's biggest industry' justified?
There are several statement claiming tourism as the largest industry in the world. A major organisation such as the World Tourism Organization (1999) states "Tourism is the world's largest industry and growing significantly"(n.p). Moreover, Heath and Wall (1992) point out to literature which estimated that by the year 2000 the tourism industry would grow to be the largest industry. Meanwhile, Newsome, Moore and Dowling (2002) emphasise World Travel and Tourism Council's (WTTC) statistics that approximately 200 million people are employed in the tourist industry. They argued that in the 21st century the tourism industry will be one of the largest industries ever seen.
Why is tourism so difficult to define and what are the implications of these difficulties for the measurement of tourism?
Tourism is difficult to define for several reasons. This is because tourism has many factors and any terms or definition may lacking or overwhelmed (Fennell 2007; Youell 1998). Likewise, the definition may vary depending on the stakeholders and the way they define tourism (Hall 2008). The Economist (1991) illustrates this point with a neat example:
At its simplest, the [tourism] industry is one that gets people from their home to somewhere else (and back), and which provides lodging and food for them while they are away. But that does not get you far. For example, if all the sales of restaurants were counted as travel and tourism, the figure would be artificially inflated by sales to locals. But to exclude all restaurant sales would be just as misleading.
Many researchers agree that the tourist industry should create parameters to generate accurate data so that a measurement of tourism can be undertaken and therefore economic impact on the world economies can be determined (Gee, Makens and Choy, 1997; Theobald, 2005; Cooper, 2008). Another view is that tourists are considerably active people, making statistical sampling procedures difficult to establish (Page and Connell, 2006).
Explain the value of Butlers Resort Life Cycle in explaining tourism growth and development?
The Butler's framework was developed from several earlier concepts (Mason, 2003). The framework is simple yet powerful tool that use five levels to indicate the status of development and growth of a destination, by applying the number of visitors to illustrate the stage reached for the location over a period of time (Butler, 1980; Hall, 2008). The key value of this model is that it presents a method to assess the stage of a resort and aid stakeholders to develop polices on production and consumption, to seek long term investment and enhance the growth of the resort (Hall, 2008; Mason, 2003). However, Lundtorp and Wanhill (2001) have affirmed that the framework is rather descriptive, than evaluative.
Identify the different types of tourists that are attracted to destinations at the different stages of Butlers Life Cycle?
Butler (1980) states that the Lifecycle contains five stages, which are either in rejuvenation or decline. Plog's (1991) illustrates the five stages in his framework (see Figure 2.1) and many researchers have reviewed the characteristics and behaviours of the tourist on all stages of Tourist Area Life Cycle using this framework (Butler, 1980, 2006; Mason, 2003; Ryan, 2003).
Distribution of tourists in each typology
Exploration: The Moon
Involvement: Abu Dhabi, UAE
Development: Madrid, Spain
Consolidation: New York
Rejuvenation: Atlantic City
Stagnation: Costa Brava resorts of Spain
Decline: Miami Beach
Author's own Figure 2.1
Plog (1991) explains that 'Allocentric' tourists are independent travellers who may have above average income seeking adventure. The 'Mid-centric' tourist accounts for the majority of travellers as illustrated in figure 2.1., who visit well-known and popular destinations unlike 'Allocentric' tourists. While the 'Psychocentric' tourist at the other end of the scale prefer to visit familiar destinations similar to their home.
Review the major elements of Leiper's tourism system - how do they relate to each other?
Leiper's tourism system has three elements (see figure 2.2) which includes the tourism generating region and the destination region (Mason, 2008). This system provides an overview of the whole process of tourism and details the important elements such as regions (Page, 2007). In this system the tourist is the demand side; the tourist sector, such as the organisations and agents, are the supply side; and the regions are the places which tourist visit (Cooper, 2008). However, it has been argued that this system is too simple to illustrate the whole process of tourism (Prosser, 1998). For instance, the framework fails to show if the tourist went to more than one 'tourism receiving area' in their trip.
Words count: 710 excluding questions titles
DLE 3: Socio-cultural landscapes and tourism
The case of Stonehenge
What do you understand by the term 'cultural landscape'?
One quotation provides a useful insight into the term 'cultural landscape. According to Sauer (1925) the "The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape [is] the result" (p46). This quote proposes three elements: the culture the nature (landscape) and the consequence of the two elements. It can be concluded therefore from this is that cultural landscape could be a building that was created for a cultural purpose, for instance, the historic centre of Cordoba in Spain (see picture 3.1).
Who owns Stonehenge?
Stonehenge located in Wiltshire, UK and is a World Heritage Site (WHS) and was constructed approximately 5050 years ago (see appendix 1) (Leslie and Sigala, 2005). There are a number of stakeholders of the Stonehenge (English Heritage, 2008). This can be seen in the table below:
Size of share
The state managed by English Heritage
Stonehenge and Woodhenge and parts of Durrington Walls
The majority of the landscape surrounding the stone circle, 827 hectares (31%).
Ministry of Defence
Larkhill and its nearby land in the northern part of WHS.
Some major routes like: A303, A344 and other miner routes go throughout and on the edge of the WHS.
Farmers and householders
Around six private owners.
Total land of Stonehenge
2,665 hectares - 26.6 square KM - 6,500 acres.
There are many other stakeholders of the Stonehenge landscape namely: Natural England, RSPB, Parish councils, Wiltshire County Council, Salisbury District Council, Department of Culture Media and Sport and DEFRA (English Heritage, 2008).
Why is the visitor experience at Stonehenge so poor?
There are many different reasons behind the poor experience of visitors to the site. Shackley (2001) has been highly critical of this issue pointing out several problems that tourists face, such as shortage of car parking, poor catering and franchising services, added fences restricting access and limited walk paths. A conducted survey by Leask and Fyall (2006) found that some visitors complained of unfair charges compared to their experience. This could be because of the extra fee charged for the audio tour device. In addition return visitors were unhappy of increased access restrictions to Stonehenge.
Source: Dana and Ron's (Flickr.com) Picture 3.2However this issue is actually related to problems with visitor access to the monument. Over years that Stonehenge been in existence, there have been several incidents where visitors have caused some damage to the monument (Golding, 1989). This has resulted in measures to widen the boundaries and pull the walk path further away from the monument. Furthermore, Stonehenge has suffered from pollution damage as a result of nearby roadways such as the A344 and A303.
Another major factor is that Stonehenge is a seasonal destination which is crowded in the summer and spacious in the winter (Shackley, 2001). Mass tourist organisations, who tend to bring many tourists (see picture 3.2) at a time to the site, could also contribute to poor experience. Furthermore, some of those organisations because of limited time at the attraction decide to bring food and drink with them. This then results in less spending at the attraction (Leask and Fyall, 2006).
Will the Stonehenge Project allow visitors to understand its archaeological/cultural context?
The Stonehenge Project was announced on 13th of May 2009 by the Prime Minister (English Heritage, 2009). In a letter from Marsden, Head of the World Heritage, to Francesco, Director of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, he stated the overall vision of the project:
We will also ensure that its special qualities are presented, interpreted and enhanced where necessary, so that visitors can better understand the extraordinary achievements of the prehistoric peoples who left us this rich legacy. (Marsden, 2009:2)
This indicates a commitment and purpose of the project to enhance visitors' knowledge of the monuments' archaeology and culture aspects. Picture 3.3 illustrates the project plan and depicts the current situation with the future plan.
Source: English Heritage (Heritage-Key.com) Picture 3.3
Why is it necessary for visitors to understand the relationship between an historic site and its surrounding landscape?
Since the historic structure and its surrounding landscape shares many values, then it is important for visitors to understand the relationship between the two. Visitors would widen their knowledge and experience if they understand the relationship between the site and the landscape. In particular, the affects that has influence the historic site by its surrounding landscape (Historic Scotland, 2009). Moreover, if visitors are encouraged to understand both the historic site and its surrounding landscape, they are more likely to enjoy and enhance their experience to learn the culture of the site (Rogers, 2006).
Word count: 750 without question titles
DLE 4: Tourism Planning
Which are the main deficiencies and shortfalls in Turkey's tourism planning process?
Tosun and Jenkins (1996) and Tosun (1998) put forward several arguments on Turkey's planning process. Firstly, Turkey's tourism planning process has lacked to fulfil the implementing stage. Moreover, the authors explain that the plans were not prepared in an integrated manner and that the social and environmental perspectives were left out of the tourism development plans.
Another problem is that "Turkey's governance is strongly centralized, with considerable power vested in national government, in the President's office, Council of Ministers, and ministries" (Yüksel, Bramwell and Yüksel, 2005:871). The locals were not involved in any of the developments phases and were unable to contribute result in negative feelings from the locals thus creating "social unrest in local communities" (DHKD 1996, cited in Yüksel, Bramwell and Yüksel, 2005:875).
Furthermore, Turkey's lack of short and long term tourist vision was reflected in the plan by its lack of consistency and continuity (Tosun, 2001). Henceforth, the tourism industry is driven by international and multinational companies which is affecting sustainable tourism development planning and policies (Yasarata et al., 2010).
What are the main problems created by the lack of strict planning regulations in Turkey?
This relates to the previous issues and results in for example the environment aspect not being fully taken into consideration at the tourism development and planning stage. As a result the environment has been polluted in many areas because of a lack of controls and stringent regulation. Meanwhile, some cities those have experienced a rapid growth in tourists which has resulted in the abuse of its natural resources. One example is the abuse of Pammukkale's thermal spring waters (Tosun, 2001; Alipour, 1996).
In another area, Ministry of Tourisms' drive to raise tourist revenues may certainly have encouraged firms to 'mass produce' in order to increase their profits. Consequently, businesses were growing their businesses and generating profits without considering the effects on the environment or communities resulting in 'over-commercialisation' (Tosun, 2001). In fact, over-commercialisation has been evidenced as causing uncomfortable situations for tourists, which inevitably affects their experience and in turn impacts on the number of tourists (Kozak, 2004).
Explain the reasons that a regional planning approach integrating tourism into national development is necessary in the case of Turkey?
The regional planning approach would be more suitable in Turkey's situation (Hall and Page, 2006). That approach would enhance tourism, as Turkey is currently experiencing difficulties in the national planning approach (Tosun and Jenkins, 1996). In fact, being centralised at a national level makes it difficult for the government to handle all the essential elements, such as social, environmental, and economic conditions, at a regional level (Yüksel, Bramwell and Yüksel, 2005).
In addition, implementing a regional planning approach will promote community involvement, which is a crucial aspect that contributes to the development of a sustainable tourism strategy (Huybers, 2007; Yüksel, Bramwell and Yüksel, 2005).
Why is it important for Turkey to reduce regional imbalances?
First of all, regional imbalance is a undesirable effect for many reasons and therefore, it is important for Turkey to reduce regional imbalances to prevent massive socio-economic problems (Seckelmann, 2002). To reduce such undesirable effects requires a number of measures to be implemented in future planning in order to improve service quality, develop appropriate infrastructure and perform marketing and development. These points are more likely to enhance the overall economic development and allow the country to provide a consistent level of service in all areas and reduce the burden of tourism in specific locations (Constantin, Daniela-LuminiÅ£a and Mihaela, no date).
Identify the main goals of future tourism planning in Turkey, if the aim is to achieve sustainable tourism development?
Turkey's future planning for sustainable tourism development has improved significantly. The vision provided by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (2007:4) is:
With the adoption of sustainable tourism approach tourism and travel industry will be brought to a leading position for leveraging rates of employment and regional development and it will be ensured that Turkey becomes a world brand in tourism and a major destination in the list of the top five countries receiving the highest number of tourist and highest tourism revenues by 2023.
Furthermore, the report (Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2007) lists many aims and objectives in man areas. Some of these aims are:
Distributes many activities to attract tourists all over the year. Implement several attractions with different type of tourists such as, business centres and holiday resorts.
Build stringent laws that protect the environment from construction and any tourism development. In addition, even if the infrastructure of a city causing pollution or any side effect to the environment the local authority would look at the issue and solve it.
The Ministry will look to move away from mass tourism, and rather than catering for mass tourist activity to instead design more customised products tailored to specific tourist needs in and to increasing the tourist satisfaction and experience.
Overall, in the future tourism planning in Turkey will achieve sustainable tourism development if the planning and development processes are effectively implemented.
Word Count: 760 without titles
DLE 5: International Heritage Management
Heritage tourism on Easter Island
Using appropriate web sources, can you update the visitor statistics given in these references?
Sources: (Shackley, 2000; eturbonews.com, 2008) Table 5.1Easter Island or Rapa Nui has been attracting around 4000 visitors each year (Beech, Attwooll and Carillet, 2006). Here table 5.1 shows each year and the number of tourist. There appeared to be a decline in 2003 but no reasons have been presented. However, it is likely that the decline in tourist arrivals could due the September 11th even which affected the world and the South American region (Bedoya, 2006).
What are the main reasons that tourists go to Easter Island?
The main reason this number of tourists are attracted to the Easter Island is because of the mysteries culture and uniqueness of the landscape surrounding many different size of Moai (see picture 5.1) and to hear stories from inhabitants on the isolated island (Beech, Attwooll and Carillet, 2006). Additionally, the island is known as the world's largest museum and many tourists visit for the archaeology or adventure (Shackley, 1998; 2006).
Is tourism to Easter Island sustainable?
Sustainable tourism in Easter Island is possible. although, there are certain rules to follow to maintain sustainability. According to McCarthey and Carillet (2009:454) Tucki, the director of Parque Nacional Rapa Nui, provides an important list of rules to follow in order to sustain tourism. He says:
it's vital to follow a few rules. We have only a few rangers in the park, so it's crucial that visitors behave properly. Visitors mustn't walk on the ahu, as they are revered by locals as burial sites. It's also illegal to remove or relocate rocks from any of the archaeological structures. Visitors should also resist the temptation to touch petroglyphs, as they're very fragile, and should stay on designated paths to limit erosion. Remember that motor vehicles are not allowed on Peninsula Poike or Terevaka and that camping is forbidden in the park. And please, carry out all litter!
McCarthey and Carillet, 2009 reported that one tourist had been found guilty of damaging one of the iconic figures of Moai to take it home as souvenir. They stress that it is important to preserve this beautifully extraordinary island, otherwise, it would end up limiting access to many areas in the future.
Why is it important that Easter Island is a World Heritage site?
to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;
to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;
to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;For a site to be listed as a World Heritage site, it needs to fulfill at least one criterion. Easter Island have successfully fulfilled three criteria (UNESCO, 2005). The criteria are:
Source: UNESCO.ORG Box 5.1
Moreover, as Rapa Nui is wonderful open-air museum site with a lot of interesting cultural heritage aspects, it requires protection.
Do you think that Easter Island should have more visitor facilities?
Politically, the island has been struggling to develop its infrastructure as the Chilean government abandoned the island and view it as peripheral (Shackley, 2000). Additionally, the Rapa Nui National Park covers huge amount of the land while the islanders are left with small spaces. That demonstrates the pressure of increasing local population to avoid utilising the park area to build schools or hospitals (Shackley, 2000).
Furthermore this is an indication of how even basic facilities are missing on the island and, therefore, visitor facilities are not taken into consideration. This is again possibly due to the fact that the National Park occupies a large space.
A possible solution is to develop the visitor facilities to improve the tourists experience and thereby attracting more visitors and generating more revenue. For instance, the islanders could have develop basic businesses that could include tour guides, restaurants, activities and gifts. These funds could then be used by the community and local government to improve their standard of living by providing better transportation, education and health services.
If local authorities deliver adequate services then economy leakages could be avoided, and as a result local people and the tourists would benefit from the economic improvement. Easter Island could significantly benefit many people if not only the visitor facilities were improved but local services and facilities.