Information technology is concerned with improvements in a variety of human and organizational problem-solving endeavors through the design, development, and use of technologically based systems and processes that enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of information in a variety of strategic, tactical, and operational situations. ITs takes a major part of developing and bringing tourism industry to accompany the technological revolution, and we will never reach the best quality level of representing tourism without using the methods, tools and sectors of Information Technology.
Today tourism is among the most important applications domains in the world wide web (WWW). Estimates state that between 33% and 50% of internet transactions are tourism-based. This represents an empirical proof of the thesis, that tourism and IT fit well. Tourism is in direct competition to other products in the household income basket such as books, newspapers, entertainment, and brochures.
IT improves the quality of tourism in different ways in marketplace, and it helps the consumers to find out all the destinations, accessibility, facilities, attractions and activities. This could be the main aim of use of information technology in tourism because tourists become sophisticated and more demanding and requesting high quality products and value for their money. Customer and travelers always look for satisfaction, lots of selections and finding new services in term of visiting the countries which have been so developed in using IT tools in their tourism industry.
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The hospitality and tourism industry has always been among the first to capitalize on new technology. Because itââ‚¬â„¢s an information-rich industry, it depends heavily on finding and developing new means to distribute travel and hospitality products and services, marketing information to consumers, and providing comfort convenience to travelers.
Consumers are constantly seeking new sources of information to help them make decisions before purchasing travel services to make their trip more satisfying. It is not surprising that tourism and travel e-commerce is among the top four growth categories, second only to finance insurance services.
Suppliers, such as, hotels, airlines, rental car companies, restaurants and transportations are beginning to offer online real-time reservations. Indeed they not only make reservations available online but also use incentives to encourage travelers to book online.
Some of the Airline companies established web sites using their biggest cities as destinations that contained in-depth information on the city from a variety of travel guidebooks as well as data on the newest restaurants, clubs, theaters, shopping malls and art exhibits. Visitors to those sites could also buy online tickets and reserve hotel rooms.
Airport is the first place where we should represent tourist's demands and requests to achieve the best quality of tourist satisfaction, so the travel industry has undergone rapid technological change and the role of technology as a main part of tourism in the airports should provide a competitive atmosphere for travel agents and airline companies to spread all information related to this sector. Airport use information technology almost in all its activities such as in: reservation system, ticketing, tariffs and prices of the tickets pilots, tourism marketing, agency accounts, ÂÂ geography of tourism and aviation, systems and regulations of the tourist, in the sales conversation, and in IATA system.
Also the use of information technology in hotels is very important to provide the best and faster services for the customers around the world. As they mentioned hotels are using information technology in many activities such as in : booking, check in, check out, computer system in the hotel,correspondence and reports of the hotel, supervision department of homeland, hotel security and safety, front office operations, hotel Accounting, systems and regulations of the hotel, hotel marketing, and also in payment system.
And all this is being done by a particular system in order to avoid the mistakes that they may occur before entering the technology and also to avoid any complaints from visitors to the hotel. There are many studies that have demonstrated through the success of information technology in the hotels and also they found that ITs make things easier for people during their stay in hotels, and they are encouraging development in this area to provide better and better services.
Restaurants also another area in tourism which is no less important than the other areas that use the information technology in their facilities. And Restaurants vary according to their ratings almost all luxury restaurants use same technology while providing their services for the customers. Restaurants need to use information technology to facilitate and organize their work by following special regulations for financial management because of their importance to avoid mistakes, disagreements and conflicts that may cause negative results, restaurants use ITs in their many processes such as for: payment system, reservation, organizing client accounts, to make orders through different programs by using internet, to store employee information, to organize accounts such as staff salary and benefits, and because the restaurant is one of the economic unit in tourism industry so the restaurant needs especial advanced systems for organizing the losses and profits in it. Actually there are two main types of restaurant: 1- on the table service restaurants.2- restaurants serving fast food, and both of them use ITs while providing their all services for the customers in the best way because of the speed of information technology in restaurants activities.
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(By continuously raising the speed of urban travel and reducing its costs, innovations in transportation technology and investments in the resulting physical infrastructure have provided a powerful impetus for continuing decentralization of urban areas. These same developments have also fostered rapid growth in the demand for transportation services within urban areas, reshaping the spatial and temporal patterns of personal travel and freight transportation at the same time as they have influenced the developing geography of urban land uses. This chapter discusses the following topics: transportation costs and location decisions; effects of changes in transportation costs; transportation's influence on urban land use; land use and transportation models; the effect of land use on travel behavior; transportation and land use). *
Information technology is used in transportation for various aspects such as in: reservations - ticketing - and parking- petrol stations and in issuing licenses to drivers. Also there is another system for earth observation of the passage of aircraft, trains and cars which is a radar system. With the development large companies began to employ information technology in various purposes in the field of transport through the use of some of the techniques that won the applause of people such as buses or trains that contain all the services in which passengers can accomplish many of their business through laptops in buses and trains. These days a lot of companies use sophisticated software to protect the environment from the pollution that stems from the transportation. There are many studies in the field of transportation that have proved that there is growing concern about the total costs of transportation. Also Information technology used in transportation to improve the organization of transport in all countries, and also the transport of goods and passengers in accordance with the regulations and rules. Tourism government use information technology to develop a comprehensive plan for transportation facilities and supervision of all transportation projects, using these technologies make all tourism operation easier.
Information desks are one of the sections that use information technology in tourism government and we can find information offices in hotels, airports and in many places that requires information desks in their companies for customer's inquiries and to provide services through special programs that customers query what they want by themselves. Also they used information technology in information offices for: data organization ââ‚¬" Save all data - special programs for visitors through different websites - special programs in various situations such as inquiring about a specific place or purpose of the disappearance of the purposes of tourists and all these practices have been done through information technology's program.
Through the use of information technology in many places IT improve its system as the most important causes of increasing income and improving the physical and today information technology the main reason for Increasing incomes and developing the world.