According to the World Tourism Organization tourists are the people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one successive year for leisure, business and other purposes not interrelated to the exercise of an activity rewarded from within the place visited”. Tourism is mainly popular as a global freedom activity.
Tourism is a critical source of income for many countries and it generates income through the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism.
Some of the services offered by these industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis, accommodation services such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues, and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts.
The tourism requires having some of disposable income, time off from work and other responsibilities, proper transportation and accommodation facilities and legal clearance for travelling. More than all, sufficient health condition during the course of travel is required.
There are some countries which have legal limitations on travelling abroad. Any projections of growth in tourism serve as an suggestion of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.
Essay Question: Report for critically analysing a location or sector of the tourist industry, and the key issues affecting that sector or location and suggest a change strategy to address the issues
1. What is meant by Tourism Industry?
Tourism has been identified as one of the world’s largest industries and is more and more developing world wide. Further it is moving for primarily recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. Business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity compensated from within the place visited”. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2004, there were over 763 million international tourist arrivals in UK.
Tourism is very important for many countries, due to the income generated by the utilization of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries are included transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis, accommodation such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues, and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts. (Harrison, 2001)
1.1 Definition for Tourism
The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure
One of the earliest definitions of tourism was provided by the Austrian economist in 1910, who defined it as, “bob total of operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region. (Swarbrooke, 2001)
Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941 state that tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.
1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Tourism
Tourism is the act of travel for the purpose of not only recreation, but also the provision of services for this act. It might occupy local services such as entertainment, accommodation and catering for tourists. It may seem, that tourism brings only benefits, but further consideration shows that it also has disadvantages.
Generally, many countries depend greatly upon travel expenditures by foreigners as a source of taxation and as a source of income for the enterprises. Therefore, the development of tourism is often a strategy to promote a particular region for the purpose of increasing commerce through exporting goods and services.
Secondly, it provides direct employment for the people associated with occupations in bars and hotels. Thanks to it, the average standard of living of people increases well and at the same time unemployment is on the decrease.
However, tourists cause environmental damage through forest fires, destruction of sand dunes and pollution. Consequently this serves negatively as increased pollution disturbs local residents and also it may discourage tourists from further entering the country.
After this, tourism undermines culture by commercializing it and this is often connected with increasing litter, graffiti, vandalism and noise – tourists do not always respect traditional cultures, which is sad but true. In general, tourism is an extremely profitable process in loads of countries, especially those in which the process of development continue to depend on this industry because this industry does not require a lot of literacy and also it yields maximum profits with less investment. (Harrison, 2001)
1.3 Different sectors of Tourism
The tourism industry has been composed of eight different sectors or areas. Those are mentioned below,
- Adventure Tourism and Recreation
- Events and Conferences
- Food and Beverage
- Tourism Services
- Travel Trade
Out of these sector I have selected Attraction sector of tourism for the identify the key issues affecting that sector and suggest a change strategy to address the issues
1.4 Attraction of tourism sector
Considering the one of the country, attractions include historic sites, heritage homes, museums, halls of fame, art galleries, botanical gardens, aquariums, zoos, water parks, amusement parks, casinos and cultural attractions. Many attractions are educational in nature, others are only for entertainment. As an example,Canada has a wealth of cultural and heritage attractions: the Parliament Buildings and National Gallery in Ottawa, the Fortress of Louisbourg in Cape Breton, and Lower Fort Garry National Historic Site in Manitoba. There are heritage communities like Vancouver’s Gastown, natural resource attractions like the hot springs in Banff and Jasper National Parks, and the northern lights in the Northwest Territories. In addition, there are large delight parks like Canada’s Wonderland in Ontario, museums such as the Maritime .To maintain this important part of Canada’s tourism industry, the Canadian Tourism Commission has developed . The sub-committee’s mandate is to plan, direct, mange and put into action by programs to improve and develop cultural heritage tourism in Canada. The sub-committee is made up of culture, heritage and tourism industry representatives from across Canada acting to ensure that cultural & heritage tourism will become a vivacious and advantageous part of the Canadian Tourism industry. But every province and territory in Canada has major and minor attractions that attract visitors and generate tourism income Because of the Canadian climate, many outside attractions and seasonal. Indoor attractions operate year round, and some, like West Edmonton Mall, combine activities, such as shopping with an pleasure park, an ice rink and a water park. All attractions may be large or small and need people to sell food and souvenirs, market the attraction, maintain the facility and manage the operation. The attractions sector important for a wide range of employment opportunities, ranging from seasonal part time to permanent full time positions. Further there is also variety in the types of jobs available. As an example, Casinos are rapidly growing area of the attractions sector, adding many new positions, such as pit bosses and dealers, to the labour pool. According to the statistics of tourist sector, It is estimated that in 1997, 120,000 people were employed in the attractions sector and service is expected to reach 152,000 by 2005.
In the UK attractions are at the heart of the tourism industry. Visit attractions are typically the main motivator for both domestic visitors and international tourists. They are organized trips for visit the various places for their entertainment and keep mind rest.
Normally, there are four main types of attractions are identified and it is illustrated below.
Source: Article of Key Issues in Visitor Attraction Management in a Competitive Market, 2001
2.0 Key issues for attraction sector
There are also some issues can be identified as arise of issues from attraction sector. which are specific to particular sectors of the attractions business, some of which are identified below:
2.1 Heritage attractions
making use of the latest technologies for explanation but ensuring that the medium does not become more important than the message
incorporating recent history and the varying nature of society in the UK, such as the growth of ethnic communities,
linking the community whose story is being told by the heritage attraction and
Deciding what stories should be told and how they should be told.
When a community’s heritage is the tool of what it offers visitors, protecting that heritage is essential. Therefore the major challenge in cultural heritage tourism programs is ensuring that increased tourism does not destroy the very qualities that attract visitors in the first place. (Swarbrooke, 2001)
Further some problems related to. Heritage attractions.These problems are travellers increasing in numbers and adding stress and strain to infrastructure and heritage sites are, as Safer says, only beginning, and the travel industry is already addressing them. But a challenge results not only from visitor impact, but also from visitor opportunity of quality products and services. Tourism is essentially in the service industry, which means it depends on the capability of people in many different jobs and locations. In addition to tourism is an attractive form of economic development
2.2. How to improve Heritage attractions
Cultural endowments such as traditional design, unique street-scapes, and historic sites are increasingly recognized as important economic resources in both developed and developing countries. Cities are regularly an important focal point for development based on these resources because they provide concentrations of heritage assets, infrastructure services, private sector activity, and human resources. Improving the preservation and management of urban heritage is not only important for preserving its historic significance but also for its impending to increase income-earning opportunities, city livability, and competitiveness. (Harrison, 2001)
The World Bank-financed projects have identified that heritage conservation has increased city liveability by preserving streets and neighbourhoods built at a human scale, public areas that support positive community relations, and green spaces that offer recreational activities. By preserving their heritage, cities can be produce a unique sense of place and singular urban landscapes, developing strong branding and conditions to attract investors. This is principally true for investors in tourism and which is one of the major industries in the world today and has a pathway record of creating significant levels of employment for unskilled and semi-skilled workers. In addition to improving a city’s self-image and identity through identification of heritage resources has been shown to increase public satisfaction and energize communities to actively address a wide range of development and livelihood issues. (Kotler 1998)
Further the conservation of cultural heritage supports urban recovery by preserving city liveability, increasing competitiveness, and creating a wide range of income-earning opportunities.The Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Thematic Group (CHST) was established in 2004 as a network of practitioners to mainstream support for heritage conservation into infrastructure, private sector, and social development projects. The thematic group reflects the multi-disciplinary characteristics of the CHST family, prominence by the wealth of information and experience available among more than one hundred Bank professionals. In the urban sector, it is clear that infrastructure projects can supply an entry point for useful interventions in heritage conservation and development. on the other hand, many task team leaders find that discussions of lending that recognize the value of local heritage provide a positive starting point for dialogue on downstream lending operations addressing broader-based infrastructure investment needs. This note focuses on the rationale for World Bank-financed infrastructure projects that include or focus on conservation of cultural heritage belongings either for their own value or as a element of infrastructure and economic development strategies.
2.3 Theme and amusement parks
There is growing pressure for better protection at theme and amusement parks in the light of highly-publicised accidents in recent years, here is a need to incorporate the latest rides, even though this is very expensive and is making it difficult for smaller theme and amusement parks to compete,
parks have to ensure that children can learn something from their visit to the park, and this will help in attracting families and school groups.
2.4. How improve facility of amusement parks
The safety of visitors who enjoy the park’s facilities and services is of dominant concern. Further safety is a collective responsibility. Visitors must take safety measures that reflect the risk involved in their chosen activity. This involves knowledge of natural hazards, proper equipment and provisions, adequate skill and fitness, and the ability to cope with emergencies. Park management will focus on safety information, facility design, and staff training. ark staff continue to work with the local and regional tourism industry, keeping up-to-date on trends and offering reliable experiences based on the park’s key ecological and cultural values. (Kotler 1998)
2.5 Wildlife attraction
wildlife attraction managers are having to come to terms with growing public concern over animals being kept in captivity for the entertainment, or even the education, of visitors,
the opportunity to use Virtual Reality technologies to educate visitors about wildlife.
2.6 How improve Wildlife attractions for tourism
Planning for Action
Biodiversity Action Plan apply for conservation priorities, and it support how to manage and monitor activities of biodiversity including wildlife.
Reviewing your purchasing strategy
Every business consumes products and services supplied by other businesses. By managing what you buy, how you use products and how you dispose of waste you can improve your own, and other companies biodiversity performance.
Managing your environmental impacts
Reviewing and managing your overall environmental performance also benefits biodiversity and can help reduce costs. For example, the energy used to heat and light accommodation will come from the power creation industry. Conserving energy reduces CO2 emissions, Increased rates of climate change adversely impacts on species, habitats and ecosystems. Recycling and waste reduction reduces the amount of landfill and potentially increases the amount of space, which can be left for natural habitat conservation.
Raising Awareness among people
Providing for services or goods by tourism providers that contribute positively to biodiversity conservation can bring visitors closer to wildlife. You can widen the potential for low impact tourism, and help people to make relate between their own environment, lives and communities. Most of the people’s interests in wildlife watching and conservation arise as a direct result of the experience they receive from recreational activities. (Kotler 1998)
Working with others
Many smaller tourism businesses connecting up with forums like Tourism and Environment Forum or local sustainable business forums can be a good mode to awareness creation. Such networks are also important sources of current information about new opportunities, grants, trends and regulations.
3.0 How attraction sector of Tourist industry improve in UK
The attractions sector is very important to the achievement of success I in UK tourist industry. In there managers face wide range of challenges, opportunities and threats, that will determine the future success of the sector. Whether they end up being opportunities or threats may well depend on how managers react to them. For example, for attractions which successfully hold new technologies – such as Virtual Reality and the Internet – these technologies is an opportunity to achieve aggressive advantage.
The UK attractions sector is obviously diverse which accounts for its noticeable fragmentation. There is a need for the sector to become more organized and speak with one voice, so it can have greater influence on the government policy-making process and resulting legislation affecting the industry.
At the same time, the developments in the attractions sector abroad are providing competitive challenges for the UK attractions sector. currently new attractions have been opened in countries as diverse as France and the USA, Spain and Japan, Australia and China. UK attraction managers can learn a lot from successful foreign practices: from design and marketing, to catering and providing for disabled visitors.
Within the UK, the government wishes to take action to create a more level playing field for attraction operators. Subsidies to major national museums and huge National Lottery grants for new projects are probably ‘unfair’ competition for most small attractions. It appears that it is the small attractions that will find the future particularly difficult, as they lack the resources to participate directly with the larger players. The same situation exists in other sectors of tourism, such as hotels and tour operators, and definitely in industry in general. The way ahead for small attractions, as with hotels and tour operators, is the need for interest, differentiation, the use of the Internet for marketing, and an emphasis on personal service. (Swarbrooke, 2001)
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