CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background and Motivation
Like particular events and festivals, car exhibitions have attracted a certain group of visitors. To join motor events has become a vital motivation for people to have a trip from one place to another place. With the increasing amount of attendees, the number and the size of car events has been enlarging greatly in recent years.
International Automobile-Ausstellung (IAA), for example, one of the five big major international motor events (North American international auto show, Paris international auto show, Geneva international auto show, and Tokyo international auto show) has been the largest car exhibition worldwide, which is held biennially in Frankfurt, Germany. This event, with 112 years history from the year of 1897 to 2009, attracted more than 800,000 visitors in 2009 (IAA 2009). The attention drawn is not only from exhibitors and car fans but also media groups. Around 14,000 media workers from 90 countries report this world-class display, which enables people worldwide to experience the latest innovation and advanced technology (Reuter 2009). Over 100 years development history from local event to Hallmark event, IAA has created a lot of benefits to its host community. Therefore, motor shows affect not only for automobile business but also bring benefits to the tourism and economy. From the event size, holding period, host destination, visitor amount, media coverage, and economy benefits, the larger and more high profile the event, the more impacts and benefits are created.
This phenomenon happened not only in IAA but also in every motor show around the world. Since 1978, Taipei Int'l Motor Show which has been held every two years has been a very important car show in Taiwan. In 2010, the 18th Taipei Int'l Motor Show just finished and attracted 150,000 visitors in the nine days. Compared with the previous one, the number of visitors increases by 30,000 (Taipei Automobile Distributors Association 2010). Therefore, it is shown that motor shows have become one of an extremely popular form of tourism.
Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home (Agnes, 1999). The World Tourism Organization (WTO) claims that tourism is currently the worldâ€Ÿs largest industry with annual revenues of over $3 trillion dollars.
Tourism provides over six million jobs in the United States, making it the country's largest employer. (Mccort and Malhotra, 1993) created a good working definition of tourism as "the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs."
Tourism is widely recognized as one of the worldâ€Ÿs largest industries in the world. It employs 192.3 million workers. It has been identify by Bill Gates as one of the main growth industries for the next century. International tourism arrivals will grow by an estimated 4.3% per year and spending by an estimated 6.7% per year.
Tourism represents 6% of the Gross National Product (GND) of the U.S. With tourism receipts worldwide reaching 605 billion Euros in 2002 - including air transport - the industry constitutes one of the biggest categories of international trade at 7.5 % of total volume. It still generates 500 billion Euros, placing it on a similar footing to oil and automobile exports.
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) claims that tourism is currently the worldâ€Ÿs largest industry with annual revenues of over $3 trillion dollars. It also employs a number of departures exceeds 568 million and arrivals that exceeds 736 million in 2005. Tourism provides over six million jobs in the United States, making it the country's largest employer. Starting September 27, 1980 the World Tourism Organization (WTO) decided to have world tourism day to foster awareness among the international community of the importance of tourism and its social, cultural, political and economic values.
For a long time visitors have been motivated by various events from one place to another place; especially, some special events and festivals with particular theme may offer impressive experiences for tourists (Kim et al., 2001). Motivation has been a key factor to arouse attendees' curiosity to have a trip to visit festivals and events (Crompton and Stacey, 1997). Most of the researches have been done in the field of culture and sport events. Seldom studies deal with the motivation for car events. That motor shows attract visitors is derived from a variety of reasons. By analyzing the motivation of the attendance, it will be understood what the factors for people to join such events are and how these factors change the motivation during these years. Most importantly, this studies will be a useful reference for car event managers to create a successful motor shows.
1.2 Research Objectives
This study is aimed to offer an integrated approach to understanding the motivation of motor exhibitions' visitors and attempts to extend the theoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationships among the push and pull motivations, satisfaction, perceived value and behavioral intention. By the analysis of motivation across different groups of individuals, it can be understood the visitors with what kind of attribute will be attended to motor shows and their motivation. This report can also provide event manager a guideline to manage a successful motor event. Further, it can also illustrate a close relationship between a successful motor event and the development of the tourism industry of the host destination.
1.3 Research Procedure
At first, the relevant literature was collected and reviewed for the understanding motivation, event motivation, push and pull theory, and segmentation variables. Then, the conceptual framework, the scope, and hypotheses of this study will make up. After collecting the response questionnaires, they will be analyzed by the following techniques, with the detail descriptions of research methodology and data analysis are described in Chapter Three:
Descriptive Statistic Analysis
Exploratory Factor Analysis
Cronbach's alpha coefficient
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of correlation
1.4 The Structure of the Study
This study contains five chapters and the summary for each is as follows:
Chapter One outlines the research background and motivations, objectives, procedure, the structure of this study.
Chapter Two introduces the previous literature related to motivation, event motivation, push and pull theory, and segmentation variables. Key variables and their respective relationships are identified. Finally, the hypothesized relationships are proposed to integrate the results of previous studies.
Chapter Three presents methodology including the construct measurements and research design for this study. A research model that suggests the general relationships among the key research constructs. Meanwhile, the research design, including the sampling plan, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques, has also been discussed.
Chapter Four presents the descriptive results and purification outcomes of this study. It includes data collection, the basic characteristics of respondents, descriptive statistics of research items, exploratory factor analysis, reliability test results of research items, confirmatory factory analysis and the relationship between the visitors' attributes and the event motivation.
Chapter Five is a summary of the significant findings and conclusions of this study. Suggestions and practical implications of the results are offered to future research.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Tourist motivation can be defined "as the global integrating network of biological and cultural forces which gives value and direction to travel choices, behavior and experience"(Pearce, Morrison and Rutledge, 1998). Motivation has been regarded as needs and wants which arouse, direct, and lead human behaviour (Iso-Ahola, 1982; Mowen and Minor, 1998). Middleton (1994) defined these as the internal and psychological influences affecting individuals' choices. During the decision making process, a motive has been referred as a critical point which may causes or changes a decision. According to this, the analysis of motivation has drawn considerable attention from both the academics and the business.
Many possible explanations have been used for this phenomenon related to motivation. In the year of 2001, Schiffman and Kanuk addressed a five-stage process to illustrate how people make a choice from the beginning to the final decision. Among these five stages, 'Want' attracts the greatest attention because it is the main component to cause human activities to satisfy needs or acquire benefits. In order to receive desirable outcomes, people may take to a set of experiences. Therefore, motivation reflects an internal desire because it provides opportunities to satisfy needs and receive benefits through acquisition (MacInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski, 1991)
On the other hand, Hirshman and Holbrook (1982) categorised motivation as utilitarian and hedonic to provide a further explanation. Generally, utilitarian motives are described as functional, objective, and task-oriented elements which drive people to make decisions to satisfy their wants (Gladden and Funk, 2002; Ross, 2007; Wakefield and Sloan, 1995). Noble et al. (2005) pointed out that these motives include price comparison, immediate possession, information attainment, and assortment seeking (Childers et al., 2001; Sherry, 1990). Alternatively, hedonic motives are described as an element of fun, entertainment and the satisfaction derived from the experience (Childers, et al 2001; Sherry, 1990).
These motives are involved in subjective emotional responses such as excitement, fantasy, vicarious achievement, escape, aesthetics, group affiliation, and social interaction (Funk et al., 2004; Madrigal, 2006; Trail and James, 2001; Wann, 1995). People make a decision simply for pleasure or for the purpose of making them feel good (Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982).
2.2 Event Motivation
The importance of event motivation can be realized from a wide range of studies which has been done to analyze the main elements attracting event attendees. (Measuring the motives of sport event attendance: bridging the academic-practitioner divide to understanding behaviour), for instance, addressed out five major motivations for attendees to visit event: Socialization, Performance, Excitement, Esteem, and Diversion. Similarly, these factors also were considered by Beccarini and Ferrand (2006) as the general motivational measurements for event attendance. These motives then were summarized by an acronym called SPEED (Funk et al., 2009).
Socialization is referred as an interaction between attendees in an event. To be more specific, attending events has also been associated with an opportunity to socialise with family, friends, and other spectators. (Dietz-Uhler et al., 2000; Fink et al., 2002; Robertson and Pope, 1999; Wann et al., 2004). Uysal and Li (2008) revealed a series of results which have been done in the critical literature review on festival and event motivation. The most frequently motivation was socialization (24.0%), followed by family togetherness (18.8%), novelty (19.0%), and escape (15.7%) (An examination of festival motivation and perceived benefits relationship). Individuals are motivated to seek an event experience for the enhancement of human relationships through external interaction with other spectators, participants, friends, and family. This definition overlaps with group affiliation, family bonding, friends bonding, social interaction, and camaraderie (Funk et al., 2004; Madrigal, 2006; Trial and James, 2001; Wann, 1995).
In addition, performance has been considered as another key factor to motivate individuals to attend events. It relates that people believe that events provide a beautiful, creative, and excellent performance. Individuals are motivated to seek an event experience due to opportunities to enjoy the grace movement. (Funk et al., 2004; Madrigal, 2006; Trial and James, 2001; Wann, 1995).
Excitement represents a simulative experience which an event can provide. Attendees expect a unique experience created by the uncertainty of participation and the spectacle of associated activities (Funk et al., 2004; Madrigal, 2006; Trial and James, 2001; Wann, 1995).
Esteem reflects a certain situation in which attendees are provided by events opportunities for vicarious achievement and challenge that produce a sense of self-esteem (Funk et al., 2004; Madrigal, 2006; Trial and James, 2001; Wann, 1995).
Finally, diversion reflects the extent to which a person perceives attending an event provides an opportunity to escape normal routine of everyday life. From the anthropological point of view, MacCannell(1976) suggests that tourists (of both genders) are persons motivated to escape the routine of everyday life and search for an real experience. Diversion represents a desire for mental well-being. Many attendees are concerned with the overall quality of the entertainment experience much more than the outcome of the event (Kahle and Riley 2004). A certain event, for instance, is chosen because it meets the leisure needs of the attendee (Bhat et al., 2006; Pritchard and Funk, 2006). The degree to which attendance at an event will be felt to meet the needs of the attendee will depend, in part, on the degree to which the attendee wants what the event provides (Besser and Priel, 2006; Caro and MartÄ±Â´nez GarcÄ±Â´a, 2007). That, in turn, depends on the degree to which the attendee's identification with the sport renders the associated motives both salient and desirable (Laverie and Arnett, 2000; Trail et al., 2005). So, the positive effect of attendance on identity should strengthen leisure motivation. The effect of attendance on leisure motivation should be positive and mediated, in whole or in part, by its effect on identity.
Other than SPEED, fan motivation has been regarded as another critical influence on the motivation for the event attendance. Fans are described as loyal followers who are willing to attend every event (Brokaw 2000). Shank (2001) noted that they care about the enjoyment brought by the event more than the outcome of the event, the venue, financial considerations, social dimensions or entertainment (Brokaw 2000). They represent the highest loyalty on the event attendance; moreover, they resist information that may contradict their beliefs or attitudes (Ross 2006). The higher one's fan motivation, the more likely it is that one will be concerned with and consume entertainments. The willingness of fans to make a trip to an event does depend somewhat on their fan motivation (Kim and Chalip, 2004).
Motivations for attendees may be altered by the type of the event. Attendees were motivated by various factors that were associated with the different theme of the festival (Yuan, Cai, Morrison, and Linton 2005). Nevertheless, the main attendee motivations are similar. These studies represent a set of motivations for why individuals attend events and reflect core motivational factors that drive individuals to seek out experiences to satisfy needs and receive benefits.
2.3 Push and Pull theory
A wide range of studies on motivation which have been done are based on the theory of push and pull. This theory, thus, has already been regarded as an effective method to analyse motivation (Dann 1977; Crompton1979; Epperson 1983; Yuan and McDonald 1990). This concept of push and pull as factors of tourist motivation involves the theory that people travel because they are pushed into making travel decisions by internal forces and pulled by external forces of the destination attributes.
Push factors are considered to be an internal motivate or force that makes tourists to seek certain activities to satisfy their desires. Alternatively, push factors refer to a socio-psychological construct of the tourists and their environments that help to explain the needs to travel. Most of the push factors are intrinsic motivators such as the desire for escape, rest and relaxation, prestige, health and fitness, adventure and social interaction. They have also been related to Maslow's (1954) hierarchy of needs by Hudman (1980) who suggested that the need for self esteem, belonging, self actualization, recognition and status are part of the internal motivation for travel. Smith (1983) illustrated how socioeconomic variables, attitudes, interests and opinions influence travel motivations and, hence, decisions. People attempt to use tourism as a respite from the feelings of alienation and powerlessness that come from the day-to-day tedium of life. Thus, push factors can be seen as an escape from alienation.
Pull factors are destination generated forces and the knowledge that tourists hold about a destination (Gnoth, 1997). Push motivations explain the desire for travel while pull motivations determine the actual destination choice (Crompton, 1979). Results of a study on mainland Chinese visitors to Hong Kong showed that "knowledge," "prestige," and "enhancement of human relationship" were the most important push factors; whereas "hi-tech image," "expenditure," and "accessibility" were the most significant pull factors (Zhang and Lain, 1999). Cohen and Taylor (1976) discuss push factors when they argue that holidays are "culturally sanctioned escape routes for inhabitants of the western world."
Dann's study recognizes the existence of push factors associated with tourism, and the possible gender differences of travel motivation. Pull factors are those that emerge as a result of the attractiveness of a destination as it is perceived by those with the propensity to travel and include both tangible resources, such as beaches, recreation facilities, and cultural attractions, as well as travelers' perceptions and expectations, such as novelty, benefit expectation and marketing image (Smith, 1983).
These destination attributes may respond to, stimulate, and reinforce the inherent push factor motivations. For example, Pyo, Mihalik and Uysal (1989) demonstrated the nature of the relationship between two sets of factors, motives and destination attributes, by utilizing canonical correlation analysis. They found that it would be possible to combine at tract ion attributes with motives on the basis of their interrelationship. One of their four varieties indicated that tours to museums and galleries should appeal to intellectual needs. On the other hand, destinations with attributes of outdoor recreation, night-life activities and amusement parks should attempt to cater to social /stimulation motives.
Knowledge about the interaction of these forces can aid marketers and developers of tourist destination area in determining the most successful match of push and pull factors. Uysal and Jurowski (1993) studied the nature and extent of the reciprocal relationship between push and pull factors of tourist motivations for pleasure travel. The results of the study suggest that a reciprocal relationship exists between push and pull factors and that this correlation is associated with Iso-Ahola's (1980) approach and avoidance classification of tourist motivations. The analysis implies that the attractiveness of destination attributes (pull factors) changes with variations in motivations and that push factors change with modifications in pull components. More recently Oh, Uysal and Weaver (1995) and Baloglu and Uysal (1996) also examined the relationship between push and pull factors of motivation by utilising canonical correlation analysis. Both studies demonstrated that certain pull (destination attributes) motivation variance could be recovered from certain push motivations. The conclusion reached suggests that push and pull factors may react with each other in a reciprocal relationship where destination attributes depend upon motivations for attractiveness while at the same time they contribute to motivating tourist activity; and where intrinsic motivations may depend upon destination attributes for expression and fulfillment while destination at tributes may depend upon motivations for their attractiveness. The review of studies on the concept of push and pull motivation implies that simultaneous examination of destination attributes and tourist motivations would be useful in designing promotional programs and packages and in destination development decision making.
The application of tourist motivation theory to event is very important and relevant, because motivation is considered a critical variable in the tourist decision-making process.
Therefore, this paper will conduct the exploration research on the "push-pull" motivation factors which influence on the tourists' attendance motivation in motor shows.
2.4 Segmentation Variables
There are variety of different variables may influence the motivations. Numerous studies show that attendance for event motivations are varied and mainly include: economic, environmental and socio-demographic factors as well as accessibility, entertainment, performance, attractiveness of the event, emotion and individual preference for the product (Brokaw 2000; Greenstein and Marcum 1981; Hansen and Gauthier 1989; Robertson and Pope 1999; Schofield 1983). Therefore, event attendance motivations segmentation variables can be involved of inherent event characteristics, the stadium or event environment, social experiences and emotions. Consequently, an empirical understanding of attendance motivations would be valuable to event managers, venue operators, and government administrators
1. Economic motivation
A main factor in people decision making for event attendance (Zhang et al., 1997) is economic variables which including promotions, ticket pricing, and advertising (Hansen and Gauthier, 1989; Zhang et al., 1995). Promotions have been found positive relevance in event attendance, while ticket price, advertising, and available entertainment alternatives have generally been found to negative relevance to event attendance (Baade and Tiehen, 1990; Bird, 1982; Siegfried and Eisenberg, 1980; Zhang et al., 1995).
Admission price is typically included in market demand models as an economic variable explaining attendance. Consistent with demand theory, the expectation is that as price increases attendance should fall. In practice, studies of the demand for professional team sports have reached mixed findings. Cairns (1990) notes that only five of the 12 studies he reviewed which included price as an explanatory variable found price to have a negative and statistically significant effect on attendance. More recently, though, studies such as Borland and Lye (1992) (Australian Rules football), Welki and Zlatoper (1994) (NFL football) and Wilson and Sims (1995) (Malaysian football) have found statistically significant price effects.
2. Environmental motivation
Wakefield and Sloan (1995) have tried to identify environmental factors which affect attendance motivation in sports games. In the study, stadium qualities have been considered major environmental motivation factors include parking, cleanliness, comfort (or convenience), food service, and fan behavior. Where stadium parking spaces are ample, visitors' enjoyment of the stadium experience may be enhanced. Conversely, low-tolerance and task-oriented individuals may experience frustration if locating a parking space and/or walking in to the stadium require excessive amounts of time (Bitner, 1992; Snodgrass, Russell, and Ward, 1988). Spectators dissatisfied with parking conditions are relatively likely to leave a game early and express less satisfaction with their stadium experience.
The cleanliness of a stadium is primarily a function of stadium service quality. For instance, as a game progressing, restrooms and concession areas can fill with trash and spilled food and drink. Spectators confronting such refuse may feel unwilling to use the facilities and may become dissatisfied (Wakefield and Sloan, 1995).
As Melnick (1993) found, physical facilities comfort in a stadium is also another important factor affecting spectators' attendance. The width of aisles and hallways, the arrangement of seats, and the amount of room afforded for concessions and restroom facilities should be sufficient to accommodate social interaction and facilitate enjoyment of the game. A spectator who feels uncomfortable because other spectators are too close or who feels hampered in exiting the stands and accessing restrooms or concessions may leave a game early and hesitate to attend further games (Wakefield and Sloan, 1995).
From a food service perspective, spectators are virtually held captive in the stadium for the three or more hours before and during a game (Wakefield and Sloan, 1995). By offering a variety of appetizing foods, a stadium facility enhances the spectator's sports encounter.
4. Demographic factors
Demographic variables also influence attendance motivations. The relationship between demographics and consumption is well documented that market research and market segmentation techniques routinely make use of demographics, particularly age, gender, and income. All three variables factors have been widely demonstrated to predict sport consumption (Greenwell et al., 2002; Hofacre and Burman, 1992) and tourism behaviours (Gibson and Yiannakis, 2002; Kinnaird and Hall, 1996; Lim, 1997). Most studies discussed these factors and generally tourists could be classified from age, gender, education level, income, and residence.
(1) Age and income
In a study on horse racing events by Coghlan and Williams (2001), it was found that business and income can be a primary motivating factor for attendance. Also in numerous demographic studies both in the USA and in the UK, the variables of education and income can be used as predicators of arts attendance. In 1997, the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) sponsored a research study of 12,349 individuals on arts attendance. The study asked questions on demographics and arts attendance as well as seeking information about personal preferences and found that as education and income increased, so did attendance.
Finally, participation in the arts has been shown to increase as people reach their mid-30s to early 60s and then drop off (Nichols, 2003). In addition, participation increases as income rises (NEA, 1988), with high-income arts attendees tending to be overrepresented at arts events (Nichols, 2003). Demographics are used to divide users into different age and income ranges, but the motives behind someone visiting a museum go beyond how old someone is and what they earn (Thyne, 2001).
Todd and Lawson (2001), using lifestyle segmentation, inferred a number of reasons for museums/gallery visiting in New Zealand. They found that frequent visitors were similar demographically; however, older (55 years or older) individuals from middle-income households that valued traditional principles visited primarily for entertainment and educational reasons, whereas high-income professionals between 20 and 39 years of age appeared to be motivated by social and image concerns. McCarthy and Jinnett (2001) found that most arts organizations used only demographic characteristics when identifying target populations. However, demographics alone cannot explain participation differences. Identification of motivational differences and their relationship to demographics and behaviors could yield new insights among segments of an art organizations consumer base.
Age differences in tourism preferences are most readily explained with reference to life course expectations (Gibson and Yiannakis, 2002). As people age, they normally shift their consumption away from sport and increasingly to the arts (Hofacre and 168 R. Snelgrove et al. Burman, 1992). Thus, sport is socially considered to be a choice for younger consumers, while the arts are deemed a particularly appropriate substitute as consumers age. Consequently, older consumers may require a higher threshold of motivation and identity than younger consumers require in order to attend a sport event.
Higher levels of income are deemed to enable higher levels of sport and tourism consumption (Greenwell et al., 2002; Lim, 1997). Higher income renders greater discretionary spending capability, with the result that it is easier to purchase sport tourism experiences. When an income is low, more budgetary adjustments and trade-offs are required to enable travel and event attendance than would be required when an income is high. Consequently, as income rises, the motivational threshold required to attend sport events should decrease.
We further extend our study of individual psychological motivations by investigating possible gender contrasts. It has been posited that males are guided by self-focused goals that are marked by self-efficacy, self-assertion, and achievement orientation (Bakan, 1966; Meyers-Levy, 1988; Meyers-Levy and Sternthal, 1991). Communal concerns are believed to guide females. The female sex role emphasis is characterized by fostering harmonious relations, affiliation with others, and a strong concern for other people's feelings (Meyers-Levy, 1988; Shani, Sandler, and Long, 1992). Male and female sports spectators have been found to score significantly different on some of the motivations investigated in the study. Generally, male sport spectators have been found to exhibit consistently significant greater scores for the motivations of aesthetics, escape, and self-esteem (Wann, 1995; Wann, Schrader, and Wilson, 1999). Gantz and Wenner (1991) found socialization opportunities to be particularly important to female sport spectators. Differences such as these suggest that gender may be associated with differing motivations for attendance at live performances. Gender differences in sport consumption are typically described with reference to gender roles (McCabe, 2007; Robinson and Trail, 2005). Sport is not deemed socially to be feminine, so social norms and expectations discourage women from attending. Gender differences in sport consumption are typically described with reference to gender roles (McCabe, 2007; Robinson and Trail, 2005). Sport is not deemed socially to be feminine, so social norms and expectations discourage women from attending. Consequently, women may require a higher threshold of motivation and identity than men require in order to attend.
Attendance rates are generally stronger for those individuals with higher levels of education, particularly those with 4-year college or graduate degrees (McCarthy and Jinnett, 2001; NEA, 1998). Toffler (1964) suggested that appreciating the arts often forces attendees to think in the abstract, a skill frequently developed at higher levels of education. Although differences in attending the arts have been found to vary by level of education, there are attendees who come from all levels of education. Specifically, "education does not 'explain' participation" (McCarthy et al., 2001, p. 15). The question of whether there are motivational differences for individuals at various educational levels has not been addressed.
Motives are important to marketers because they provide useful insights regarding
the best ways to appeal to target market segments, particularly in tourism contexts
(March and Woodside, 2005; Swanson, and Horridge, 2006).
Examining the literature on tourist attendance motivations and the application of push-pull theory and understanding tourists' demographic profile can be a very important element for the event administrators to have a successful event with maximizing ticket sales.