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Since the ancient times, people have always been eager to explore new lands, to get acquainted with people of other nationalities and identities, to learn their culture and languages, to taste unknown cuisine and admire architecture and works of art. Already in the times of the Roman Republic, the rich were travelling for good coastal resorts like Baiae. Thus, in Europe seaside resorts were first of all developing in the Mediterranean, while in the United States first resorts of that kind appeared in Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York. The Great Geographic Discoveries opened plenty of opportunities to travel for business and entertainment. With time, leisure travelling became rather popular with wealthy, educated people who really could take much from other cultures and simultaneously to bring something new to those lands as well. In this way new sphere of life and new way of spending free time has become popular and known as tourism (the word put into circulation in 1811). If to approach it broadly, tourism hides a lot of treasures and dangers within itself, though once experienced, people usually would like to travel again. As Paul Goodman (1911 - 1972) wrote, "The important thing about travel in foreign lands is that it breaks the speech habits and makes you blab less, and breaks the habitual space-feeling because of different village plans and different landscapes. It is less important that there are different mores, for you counteract these with your own reaction-formations" (Beaver 2002).
According to the cultural habits, customs and traditions, each country has different demands and expectations to leisure. It is interesting to note that the first official appraisal of leisure activities have been introduced by Britain when its middle class was actively developing due to the industrial growth and economic prosperity in the 19th century. As a result the newly formed British oligarchy, factory owners and traders could afford to have rest of high quality. The first official company that provided traveling services was Cox & Kings (since 1758).
Further, each country has this or that amount of attractiveness for tourists, and thus different corners of the world are more or less popular destinations. Today, the majority of the most popular destinations are traditionally on the European continent that is competing mostly with the United States, though Asian countries are actively catch up with those leaders. It is quite natural that traditional destinations somehow live out, and the growing numbers of tourists look for new experiences and original places. "Roads built into places like the Amazon to serve primarily as transportation routes for extractive industries such as oil, logging, and mining inevitably become new corridors for colonists, including tourists" (Wurzburger et al. 2009)
Many countries benefit from providing exotic impressions for those who have not got anything similar in their lives before. According to the data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), there is a list of ten most visited countries. This top-ten list (gathered from 2006 to 2009) included France (especially Paris and well-known Côte d'Azur), Spain, Italy (these three most appreciated for climate and high-quality resorts), then the United States with plenty of various opportunities, the United Kingdom and Germany attractive due to their traditions and customs, then Turkey, China and Malaysia contributing to the Asian continent development in touristic sphere, and Mexico as well, while this is a country impossible to compare with something else. At the same time a great number of leisure-oriented tourists prefer tropical countries available throughout the year including Indonesia, Brazil, Thailand, the Dominican Republic, Barbados, the Bahamas, and other islands. Winter tourism along with the winter sports began to develop in 1970s with ski resorts in the Alps, in particular in Switzerland. The Swiss resorts were followed by Austria, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Poland, California, Argentina, Japan, Kenya and so on.
As the sphere of tourism is broadening, the number of terms also grows. Today the dictionary of academics and everyone involved in tourist industry includes dozens of neologisms and word combinations like agritourism, heritage tourism, culinary tourism, geotourism, nautical and religious tourism, space tourism and wildlife tourism, pop-culture and slum tourism etc.
The profitability of touristic business can be evaluated, if to pay attention to receipts coming from international tourism. In 2008 they grew to the number of US$944 billion, or â‚¬642 billion. By these figures, the United States are leading and followed by the same countries from the list above, plus Australia and Austria. Paris, London, Singapore, Hog Kong, Antalya, Kuala Lumpur, New York, Bangkok, Istanbul, and Dubai make up the list of the most visited cities in 2010.
Tourism experienced different times in its development, but it goes without saying that it gained much from the advancement of international links and economical progress. Only "the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time" could push forward the development of mass tourism (Cooper 2005). In other words, "Global infrastructures such as transportation and communications and global policies for free trade have created a situation where people and businesses in the global North can easily access natural resources and cultures in the global South" (Wilkerson 2003).
"To be more specific, technological development contributed to transport infrastructure presenting such innovations as jumbo jets, then airlines of low cost and more accessible airports. Progress has made different types tourism much more affordable for people and at the same time more profitable for tourist companies.
Speaking about progress and international links, it is impossible to draw a veil over the effects of globalization. This term can be approached in different ways, but on the whole it stands for all the processes that integrate different states into one global community through the set of political, cultural and social ideas spread by means of communication, transport and trade. Globalization as "a multi-faceted and irreversible phenomenon within the system of the market economy" (Croucher 2004) has become the result of intensive expansion of transnational corporations. It is significant to underline that the method of globalization consists in taking off different economic barriers between countries and thus in facilitating the flows of goods and services, finances and human resources. By the definition of Tom G. Palmer, globalization is "the diminution or elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result" (Friedman 2008). Thomas L. Friedman admits that globalization that is reflected in the globalized trade, supply chains, outsourcing, will continue quickening.
On the one hand, there are a number of advantages globalization has brought to leisure, tourism and sports, including tourists themselves as well as touristic business. On the other hand, still, the anti-globalists have strong claims against. In fact, it is important to estimate both.
First of all, economic benefits are obvious. "Technology, information and reduction of boundaries have created new forms of service companies, not only the large multinational corporations, but also small niche specialists" (Bhagwati 2004).
As a matter of a fact, there is a strong suggestion on "strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context" (Bhagwati 2004). It goes about the degree of "confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies" (Fiss and Hirsch 2006). In this way, it is shown that there is a mutual correlation between economic advent, growth of political influence and touristic development. It means that when the country is becoming popular with international tourists, it is an indicator of its further involvement in global political processes. And vice versa, if the country's influence in the international context is rising, it will probably attract tourist business as well. It is of no doubt that "Tourism businesses operate globally and many have opted for a competitive advantage" (Bhagwati 2004).
of internationalization Although for big corporations it is profitable to open new sources of cheap labor, new markets with lowest cost location and low pollution regulations, they also force out the local producers. The latter lose their jobs, their sources of income and end up in misery instead of being provided with better labor conditions and so on.
As in any kind of organization, tourist business benefits from the structural advantages when business activities are coordinated from center and information is spread quickly and accurately, overcoming geographical, economical and other borders. Hereby international corporations help to involve global strategies integrated both horizontally and vertically, and at the same time to establish presence at global market for smaller players. Foreign investments are attracted to hotels and tourist attraction and holiday resorts compete at global level.
The positive shift is that when countries become accountable to world government, the citizens become more protected and their rights are guaranteed. Though, sometimes the system of regulations and control is still working only in theory. Besides, "private sector has its own interests to put forward, but as 90 per cent of tourism firms are small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) with limited resources, they benefit from and often rely on education, training and marketing efforts coordinated and directed by the public sector" (Fiss and Hirsch 2006). In order to differentiate strategies, private sector and public sector in tourism should coordinate and work in partnership. "The strength of alliances lies in the fact that they can rapidly take advantage of the brand recognition of several multinational firms" (Longworth 2007). Meanwhile, the opponents of globalization notice that "most of the economic restructuring is in the interest of big business, not in the interest of the public" (Friedman 2008).
Next, globalization has significantly contributed to the development of sports. It supported the chance of renewal of the Olympic Games, and brought to life Commonwealth games, football World Cups and other sports events that unite the nations and also bring benefits to national budgets. They stimulate the state to advance different spheres of life to make the country attractive for international tourists, and thus the level of life is improved while the image of the country is rising at the world arena. Goodin, et al. (2005) states that "The fragmented and interdependent nature of the tourism product means that various agents with influence on the product offered must co-ordinate their operations to provide the overall experience." Therefore, infrastructures are improved, airports are repaired and innovated, transit facilities are organized and new services are provided.
In contrast, the other dramatic political effect is transformation of sovereignty. Explained by David Harris (2005), "As more tourists seek out hard-to-reach "frontier" destinations, those areas become popularized, and soon private industry takes over. Once an area is targeted for tourism development, the process begins with road building and displacement of the local population". When a large investor is coming into the new market, he is free to bring forward a set of specific conditions and even can demand to introduce some changes into the local legislation, if they do not suit the investor. As Martin Khor notes, "globalization is a leading threat to local communities" (Scherer 2007).
Further, the spread of the Internet has opened a lot of new opportunities. First, the advent of e-commerce has made it easier to choose a destination, to coordinate with the agent and order a tour. For touristic companies it has become easier to acquire clients and the demand for intermediaries has grown. Global booking systems are created and computer reserving systems are developing alongside. Without the advertisement in the Web, you becoming less competitive today. Secondly, it has become possible to travel to different corners of the world without special kinds of transport. For many people, photos and videos in the Internet can to a certain extent substitute the real-life trip. However, it is not a disadvantage for touristic business; on the contrary, potential clients can realize better where they want to go, study all the necessary information and feel more confident while choosing a destination and program.
It goes without saying that globalization and internationalization have essentially changed the patterns of leisure and entertainment. There is much talk about "global tourist village." Though some scholars prevent us from mixing up the terms globalization and Americanization, it is obvious that the United States represent one of the most influential body in the process of homogenization of culture and ideology. The united States are forming something like a transnational elite and on a large scale dictate it to the world what to read, what to watch, what to play, what to listen to, what to wear and what to eat. Mass media have provided beautiful and attractive pictures of how American style of life result in success and prosperity, and the outcomes are now seen throughout the world, starting with jeans and ending with McDonalds. It may seem beneficial that people are united by common interests, but if to go deeper, here is a threat to original values of domestic cultures. If even in Asia (where the faith to ancestry's traditions and customs has always been the most visible) now shares pop-culture and other movements coming from the West, then it is time to worry whether there will be any precious heritage left for their future generations in terms of identity, culture and history they are now losing.
Furthermore, English has become an international language, the language of sports, politics, entertainment, television and Web. It is stated that English is the lingua franca of globalization, while "about 35% of the world's mail, telexes, and cables are in English" and "approximately 40% of the world's radio programs are in English" (Longworth 2007). Of course, it is useful when having learnt just one language you can travel to the East and West, to the South and to the North and be understood. But there is also evidence that English is excluding national languages from many spheres of life.
Alarmed by dangerous outcomes of tourism, non-governmental organizations, political parties and other interested parties widely discuss the problem of sustainable tourism to be achieved. "Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems," William Theobald, (1998) explains. The question is rather important, because tourism has a lot of negative influences on ecological and socio-cultural dominants in the communities of touristic destinations. Tourism is often approached as a global syndrome of ecology problem. In the meantime, the opponents of globalization warn that by spreading foreign notions among the natives, the tourists oppress the unique identity of the country where they are accepted as guests, but often behave as conquistadors. The evidence provided by special organizations demands to leave no compromises for those effects. The goal is to integrate "tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'" (Reich 1992).
Meanwhile, the medal with two sides is ecological tourism. It involves travelling to endangered, usually protected territories with rare species of flora and fauna. On the one hand, it is intended to gather costs for further protection and maintenance of such fragile and precious areas, besides they educate tourists, but on the other hand, it is rather hard to imagine people doing only good to the environment. On the contrary, they always find a way to spoil the virginity of nature with their intrusion, garbage and ignoring the rules. Here is where human rights come into conflict with the rights of nature.
One more negative effect is mostly expressed in the idea of doom tourism. Again, due to the broad opportunities provided by globalization, many tourists tend to take risks and go the environmentally or otherwise dangerous points like the Mount of Kilimanjaro or the Great Barrier Reef. They go there in search of extreme impressions, in search of adrenalin, but their activities actually increase the threats of environmental factors, including global warming, pollution, climate changes and overpopulation.
In spite of the fact that the World Financial Crisis decreased the turnover of tourists throughout the world (a strong slowdown of 3.7% from 2007 to 2008), the World Tourism Organization provided the accounts according to which the international tourism will go on growing. The annual rate of growth will make up 4Â % at the average.
All points considered, it would be natural to make a conclusion that globalization has both positive and negative effects on the development of tourism, leisure and sports throughout the world. Actually, it turns out to be just an inevitable, though absolutely sound process we cannot stop, but we can contribute to softening the negative outcomes.