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Human beings are best described based on their lineage. Everyone has a family or an ancestral home where he or she can trace his or her origin. However, having knowledge of ancestral home is not enough. Human beings exist in the world where there are fascinating surroundings. Plants, animals, rivers, land mass, heavenly bodies, and human beings have an origin. For a long time, man has been in search for the origin of the universe. Several theories have been suggested as a clue to the origin of the universe. The theories have delved into critical evaluation that attempts to explain the origin of the universe, the genesis of matter, and the age of the universe. Giving accurate information to the mentioned areas dealing with the origin of the earth is a difficult undertaking that requires accurate facts backed by scientific explanations. Unfortunately, most of the theories of origin of the universe are based on speculation. The 21st century, described as a scientific age, has sort to provide firm scientific facts on the speculations. But still these facts have been in form of complex and intriguing equations hard to comprehend, meaning that the search for knowledge on the origin of the universe has not reached an end. Although the search for the origin of the universe is on, the Big Bang theory provides answers to some questions concerning the origin of the universe as illustrated in this paper.
The Big Bang Theory
In the former time, the earth was thought to be infinite. It was believed the earth had no beginning or end. As the notion kept flooding the minds of wise men of that time, the Big Bang theory was devised. As a result, the earth was no longer thought to be infinite because the theory explained the origin of the earth. Earliest scientists started seeing the earth as finite phenomena with a history of origin and therefore had a beginning. The origin and age of the earth could therefore be explained through the Big Bang theory. Several writers have written on the origin of the earth using the Big Bang theory. According to Singh (2004), the earth was created about 15 billions years ago. During that time, there was a huge explosion that signaled the expansion of the earth. The explosion was very big and therefore was called the big bang. Before the explosion, matter and energy were held together as a unit and at one point (Gefter, 2012). Singh (2004) further claims that what existed prior to the Big Bang is unknown. The explosion during the Big Bang was not convectional. It was an episode filling all of space with constituent parts of embryonic universe hastening away from each other (Silk, 2001). Unlike the explosion of a bomb where particles are thrown away from each other, the Big Bang explosion was an explosion of the space within itself. As a result, the theory lays the foundation on the formation of the universe.
The theory of the Big Bang was put forward by Edwin Hubble. Hubble noted that the earth was expanding continuously. At the same time, he noted that the velocity of the galaxy is proportional to the distance from the earth. This means that galaxies that are twice as far as from the earth moves two times faster. The movement of galaxies away from each other means that it has taken galaxies the same amount of time to move from a common starting point. This observation provides the foundation for the Big Bang theory because the theory highlights that there was a creation of space within the space. Since the time the Big Bang occurred, galaxies have been moving away from each other meaning that the universe has been in continuous expansions. This phenomenon is termed as the red shift. Red shift results when the light from the galaxies approaching the earth stretches as a result of the increasing distance between the two bodies.
Evidence Supporting the Big Bang Theory
In 1964, Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias provided some evidence for the phenomenon of the galaxies and their origin from a single point. The two astronomers attempted to detect a microwave from the outer space and thereon discovered some noise of extraterrestrial origin. They discovered that the noise came from circumferential distance from their place. The two concluded that the noise came from the radiations of the furthest reaches of the universe resulting from the Big Bang theory (Greene, 2012). The latest technology shades further evidence to the Big Bang theory. According to Dorminey (2011), the COBE satellite from NASA detected cosmic microwave from the outer reaches of the universe. These microwaves are uniform in pattern meaning that the earth was uniform before the Big Bang. The sate light further discovered that as the universe begun to cool under existing expansion, there developed some fluctuations resulting from the difference in temperatures. These fluctuations are a verification of the calculation that indicates the possible cooling and development of the universe in a fraction of a second after its creation.
What Triggered the Big Bang?
From the information above, the Big Bang theory has been explained without giving a clue to the cause of the bang. Hubble did not provide an explanation to the origin of the Big Bang theory and hence his theory had some voids. However, the recent breakthrough in scientific discoveries has led to the explanation of the origin of the Big Bang. The European Organization of Nuclear Research (CERN) discovered a Higgs Boson particle after a series of experiments involving smashing of particles and grouping them together. When a proton is smashed by collision with another proton, thousands of particles are formed. However, there is one particle from the rest that is unique and is called the Higgs boson particle (Harland, 2003). The Higgs boson appears at the site of the collision before decaying into an ordinary particle. For many years, scientists have been trying to trace the path of the Higgs bosom particle that owes the answer to the force that triggered the bang. The discovery of the Higgs bosom particle by CERN brought answers to the particle that triggered the Big Bang and also shade some light into the creation story in a scientific way. Therefore Higgs bosom particles are responsible for the Big Bang as they sparked the explosion of the initial uniform mass that constituted the universe. The Higgs bosom particle further shades some light into the reasons for the shape of the earth. Before the Big Bang, the universe was a uniform mass. However the presence of Higgs bosom led to a disruption in the symmetry making the particles to assume various shapes (Carroll, 2012). This explains why particles assume different shapes.
Origin of the first Atom
For the Big Bang theory, one is led to ask on the aftermath and the subsequent formation of the current surface. After the Big Bang phenomena, the universe was very hot. The heat resulted from particles of matter and antimatter splattering in all directions. As the matter begun to cool in a fraction of a second, there emerged equal yet asymmetrical quantities of matter and antimatter. The matter and antimatter collided during formation resulting in pure energy. Luckily enough the asymmetry favored the matter with a ration of about one part per billion. The part of the matter that was in excess deposited itself leading to the formation of the universe. The particles of the matter were created and later decayed without equal measures from the antimatter particles. As the universe continued to form through deposition, common particles grouped together. These particles, which later became the building blocks of matter and life, include electrons, neutrinos, photons, and quacks. As the matter continued to cool, a transition period that saw the formation of composite particles, such as protons and neutrons, ensued. Thereafter, protons and neutrons reacted with each other forming isotope of hydrogen that later combined to form hydrogen atom, the first atom that marked the beginning of life (Holmes, 2010).
Alternative to the Big Bang Theory
The phenomena similar to the Big Bang theory can be explained based on the evolution of the hydrogen atom. According to Halasa (2011), particles are formed in pairs with equal and opposite momentum at a speed of light. The reference frame for the speed of light is a point in pace, which is also the bang location in the Big Bang theory. Halasa (2011) further claims that the bang in the Big Bang theory is an unrelenting flow of matter and antimatter. Therefore when the matter and the antimatter are ejected from a point in a speed of light, the particles flow with a speed of light and forms subsonic and supersonic masses. Halasa (2011) based his views on the experiment outlining the stages of forming hydrogen atom. As a result, it was discovered that the Big Bang theory is an equivalent to the process of forming hydrogen atom.
Criticism of the Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang theory has been criticized for failing to address some critical issues. In the first place, the theory states that only one short duration of explosion happened approximately 13.7 billion years ago. This means that the theory has failed to predict the possibility of another bang in future. At the same time, the theory fails to address the law of conservation of momentum. Before the bang, everything was still and intact but after the bang there is formation of extra masses and momentum of planetary bodies. Also, the theory fails to account for the source of intense heat and formation of matter (Harland, 2003).
The Big Bang theory is generally accepted as a theory of origin and evolution of the universe. Holmes (2010) outlines the Big Bang theory as a basis for explaining the evolution of matter-energy, life, and mind in his three Big Bangs. The portion of the universe as seen today was few millimeters across billions of year ago. It has further expanded from its initial hot state into a cool contemporary cosmos. At the same time, matter, life, and energy have evolved from small state to the current complex state.