Use of Films for ESOL Learners

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4th Oct 2017 Teaching Reference this

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This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the research, and definition of key terms.

  1. Background of The Study

Writing is a complicated skill, writing is a skill that the language teacher must teach to their students. And also it is very important because writing van give the student chance to show or express their personalities, and to mastery and to develop the English ability (Scot and Ytreberg,1992). In addition, because of writing, the learners learn to communicate with other people in order they will understand each other, or to read the message and they need to write it. (Raimes, 1983). That its why writing will give benefit for students if they mastered this writing.

Writing is not skill where the students get easily and naturaly. It means, English as Foreign Language learners are not taught how to write a good narrative story in English language. However, to teach writing not only about grammar, the mechanics of the alphabet or the spelling, but also the learners need to see the ideas or concepts in English language.

Lack of vocabulary is also the problem when the teacher ask students to write. The students look confused and asking their friend about what is the English language for some words.

High school students are asked to write simple and short sentences, messages, short announcements, and also to write narrative, and other type of paragraphs (Depdiknas, 2006). In the statement above, the teaching of writing at high school is a simple one. However, writing is productive skills besides speaking, but still look complicated skill for SMA students to master. It is a complex activity that need a variety of skills.

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Due to that condition, the researcher tries to find out a kind of technique that can help students write sentences or a simple paragraph and encourage them in the writing activity. The researcher assumes that one of the good ways of teaching writing is by using media. Instructional media is important in teaching and learning processes in order the students can enhance and promote learning and support the teacher’s instruction. The use of media needs to be planned carefully.

There are so many kinds of media that can be used in the teaching writing process. One of them is short movie. Short movie can be the basis of the most difficult side: motivate students to write. Short movie as the media are very useful for teaching English writing, especially to attract and giving the anxiety to the students’ attention and to deliver the information. So, in teaching writing, the teacher can use short movie to motivate the students to write, to help, to stimulate and to guide students to write a narrative paragraph.

In this research, the researcher tries to implement the using of movie strategy into the teaching of narrative paragraph. A narrative paragraph is a paragraph that retells events happening in the past. It focuses on individual participants, uses correct grammar: past tense, focuses on a sequence of events, and it uses action clauses.

To make a good narrative paragraph, it would be better if the teachers use short movie to make the learning process clear and make students understand, and the students will arrange the sentences in a good chronological order.

The researcher believes that picture series is applicable for the students in SMAN I MANYAR GRESIK because it may guide, help, motivate and encourage the students to express and show their ideas, opinions, and thoughts onto paper.

1.2 Statement of The Problem

The research problem in this research is in a question form: “How can 11th grade of SMAN I MANYAR students’ ability in writing narrative paragraphs be improved by using short movie?”

1.3 Purpose of The Study

According to the problem above this research is to describe how the 11th grade students ability in writing narrative paragraph at SMAN 1 MANYAR can be improved by using short movie.

1.4 Significance of The Study

The findings of this research can be useful for the teacher and other researchers. For the teachers, the finding of this study can give the alternative way or technique in teaching writing narrative texts.

1.5 Scope and Limitation of The Study

The research is focused on the teaching and learning process by involving the 11th grade students of SMAN I MANYAR GRESIK in short movie to improve their writing ability in narrative texts. The improvement is focused on four components: organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanic. Those components are analyzed using analytic scoring rubric for writing.

1.6 Definition of Key Terms

In order to avoid misunderstanding, the researcher defines several important terms in this proposal:

  1. Short movie is a movie that has a short duration about 15-20 minutes length.
  2. Narrative is a piece of text which tells a story and has generic structure begins from orientation, complications, and resolution.
  3. Writing ability is a way that needs skill of communicating a message to a reader to express idea, thoughts and feelings.
  4. Improve is make something to be better. From low to high.



This chapter aims to provide a review of the literature related to the teaching of English in Indonesia, the problem of writing, the previous research and the media.

2.1 The Teaching of English in Indonesia

English is the international language which is used in communication, or an activity every time. Mastering English is getting important. In Indonesia, English is a compulsory subject. But it seems that the teaching of English as a Foreign Language is not to lead the students to be able to communicate, but only to prepare the students to pass the national examination (Kam & Wong, 2004:181).

But nowadays, many teachers and learners realize if learning English is not only the skill that we need to pass the exams, but also for communication. Saukah (2000) states that the purpose of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia is that the learners will master to use English for communication; in written or oral language. The ability to communicate is the way how we are able to understand and show to express something.

Writing is one of four language skills which has important role in teaching English as a Foreign Language. Brown (2001), writing is simple as putting the ideas or concepts into paper. Compared to speaking, writing is more difficult because writing has the typical characteristics of language that are more complex than those of spoken language such as the degree of formality.

Naturally, the process of writing needs the different set of competencies and skills which not every writer has. As beginners, Senior High School students, of course, cannot be expected to master and apply all those writing skills.

The students still have a lot of problems in expressing their ideas in writing form. The curriculum expects students to be able to write simple message and simple paragraph at Junior High School. This expectation has not been achieved yet because the students still find it difficult to express and show their ideas in the written language especially in English. This statement based on fact that most of the students’ paper cannot be understood well because there are so many errors.

2.2 Previous Research

Research on using short movie strategy has been conducted by some researchers. Sumarsih (2006) did a study using short movie to teach English at the XI IPA-1 students of SMA Negeri 8 Medan. The study showed that the first score of the students’ test was 42,5 for the total improvement from the first competency test to the third competency test was 68,75%. The conclusion is that the student achievement was improved by using the media such as short movie.

So the points that we can conclude from using short movie strategy in teaching writing are (1) stimulates the students to be active in English classes during the activity, (2) activates the four language skills (speaking, listening, readning and writing at the same time), (3) produces a fun English class as the best way to learn English, (4) increase students’ achievement.

Media for Teaching Writing

Listiyaningsih (2002), to facilitate the teaching and learning process, several kinds of media can be used as useful means of teaching in interesting ways. In fact, teaching and learning activities are communication processes. So, using media in teaching writing are good to encourage and stimulate the students to be actively involved during the teaching and learning processes.

The media are:

  1. Short Movie
  2. Sound speaker
  3. Proyektor



This chapter contains the description of the research methodology. It includes research design, population and sample, subject and setting, data collection, and data analysis.

3.1 Research Design

In this study, the researcher uses Classroom Action Research because the researcher wants to improve the students writing skill. The researcher uses short movie as instructional media to improve the students writing skill. It will be brought by the researcher as a new teaching technique in the class. Particularly, the aim of this study is to find a new strategy or technique in learning English writing which can help the teacher to solve classroom problems.

The researcher implemented the CAR by Kemmis and Mac Taggart (1998). There are four phase or steps in this action research: (1) planning an action, (2) implementing an action, (3) observing and (4) reflecting.

3.2 Population and Sample

The population of the study consisted of 360 students ; 124 male students and 236 female students in SMAN 1 MANYAR Gresik 11th grade .

The sample of this study consisted of 36 students of class XI IPS 2: 16 male students and 20 female students, which chosen by cluster sampling at SMAN 1 MANYAR Gresik 11th grade .

3.2.1 Subject and Setting

This research was conducted at SMAN 1 MANYAR Gresik 11th grade.. This school had thirty (30) classes and each level had ten (10) classes. The subjects of this study were class XI IPS 2, at the academic year 2013/2014. The class consists of thirty six (36) students.

The reason why the researcher chose this class because this class had the most problems in writing.

3.3 Data Collection

3.3.1 Intrument

The instrument of this research;

First, document collection was conducted by collecting students’ papers at the end of the steps to be evaluated. The data that researcher test are two data in cycle 1 and cycle 2. Both of the cycle are test which will have different movie that will be showed to the students. And the papers the students submitted not just the result of narrative paragraph, but also all their drafting in order to evaluate their progress when they write before.

Second, field notes were used as instruments to know what was happened such as the condition and the setting of the class, the atmosphere of the classroom and the other unexpected things that happened.

Third, interviews were conducted in two types; at the beginning of the study in order to gather data about the students’ problems in writing and at the end of to find out the students’ understanding the implementation of the narrative paragraph using short movie strategy.

Finally, questionnaires was applied at the end of the cycle to know about the students’ responses and attitude in the implementation of the approach.

3.3.2 The Procedure of Collecting Data

The researcher did the steps proposed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1998) as illustrated below;

The researcher explains the research procedures start from preliminary study and research implementation; including planning, implementation, observation, and reflection which is appropriate with the illustration above.

  1. Planning: The teacher plans about the lesson plan, materials, media, the instruments.
  2. Implementation: In this part, the teaching and learning processes are carried out by the researcher, helped by a collaborator or teacher to observe the students’ progress during the process of learning.
  3. Observation : the process of recording and gathering all of the data during the teaching and learning processes.
  4. Reflection: the researcher and the collaborative teacher are discussed the result of the implementation if it is success or not.

3.4 Data Analysis

In evaluating the students’ writing scores and results, the researcher uses analytic scoring rubric whose components of writing are scored partly and separately based on the composition such as; content, language use, and mechanic. The researcher wants the students will has minimum target score at least 60.

Table 1. Scoring Rubric of Evaluating the Students’Writing Products

Components of Writing


Scale and Descriptor


  • Vocabulary
  • Chronological order


The content is relevant to the topic and easy to understand.


The content is almost complete, relevant to the topic.


The content is relevant to the topic but is not quite easy to understand.


The content is not quite relevant to the topic.

Language use:

  • Use Past Tense


No grammatical inaccuracies


Some grammatical inaccuracies


Several grammatical inaccuracy


Frequent grammatical inaccuracies


  • Spelling
  • Punctuation
  • Capitalization


It uses correct spelling, good punctuation, and capitalization


It has occasional errors of spelling, mistaken punctuation, and capitalization


It has frequent errors of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization


It has no mastery of convention – dominated by errors of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization

Adapted from J.B. Heaton (1990:111) with some modification.

From the scoring rubric of writing narrative in table 1, the maximum score is 12 (3 x 4) and the minimum is 3 (3 x 1). So, to identify the final score of the students’ achievement in writing narrative is based on the following scores category in the table. And the scoring is:

Data Display

There are four kinds of data that collected in this research and most of them were in the form of qualitative data. They were collected from document collection, field notes, interviews, and questionnaires.


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