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This journal is aimed to provide some useful strategies for a city to host the present major sports events at nowadays management environment by Emery (2002). It mainly focused on the organizing committee level and to gain more successful experiences through selected survey cities which have hold international sports events.
Context of the Research
This paper written by Emery aims to discovery some key factors for the cities who would like to gain the opportunity to host a mega sports event. In this paper Emery particular focus on the organizing committee level to research this topic. For the target, Emery designed administered postal questionnaire and choose some major sports events organizers to survey. To collect more experienced success applications, Emery used semi-structured interviews for further in-depth analysis in England.
In order to research this topic thoroughly, the paper explained the definition of major sports event. The major sports event management environment was complex not smooth to mange. For instance, the Olympic Games need to corporate with a large number of international, national and local level agencies.
The paper purported that more and more cities participate to the bid team for host a major sports events, meanwhile by the aid of this can accelerated the city's economic development. However, most of the bid cities unsuccessful to gain the choice, so this paper expected to show some successful experiences from other experienced host city. This paper supported that the passion of local government to host a major sports event mostly beyond the local residents and political conviction. The paper future argues that it is significant for host city to acknowledge some key regulations in the complicate sports domain. From the government point of view, this research had analyzed and previewed the risks in the future days when one city hosted a major sports event.
There are different types of research, one of which is explanatory research. This type of research is mainly to explaining why the phenomenon happening, and analysis the reasons. Generally, the explanatory research will through some survey data to depth research (Gratton and Jones, 2004). For this research topic, empiricism takes an important role in this paper. Bryman concluded that empiricism have two points stand out, one is the theory results must be checked through several empirical studies, the other one is accumulate more practical facts to achieve the target (Bryman, 2008). In this paper, the research approach is deductive research, it means through some empirical examples from the collection of data to examined the hypothesis appeared in the research.
Emery's paper used deductive research began with background part. It refers to lots of literature review included major sports event concept, major sports event management environment and bidding process context. These prior researchers formulate several hypotheses theories in this paper. The paper proposed following hypotheses, namely:
- A sporting championship either attracting a minimum 1,000 spectators by the governing body or attracting a minimum 1,000 spectators by the national or international media coverage result.
- As a matter of fact, the major sports event management environment is more complicate than organizational complexity, resource complexity and technical complexity.
- The generic bidding process participation include three stages: gaining the council's approval, a competitive bid to the national sports governing body and a competitive bid to the international sports governing body.
These hypotheses were justified through design self-administered postal questionnaires and in-depth semi-structured interviews, collecting the data and analysis the data. In this paper research contained quantitative data and qualitative data, it used both of the quantitative approach and qualitative approach. A self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to different countries sports event organizers by randomly. To collect more in-depth information, three semi-structured interviews were surveyed in England.
The paper's findings reveal that the purpose behind organizational involvement in hosting major sports event. Meanwhile, the paper use the empirical study to show what are further risks about bidding to host a major sports event and some classic advantages during the review research.
The methodology of Emery's research paper is deductive approach, through this approach Emery gained more depth discovery for bidding to host a major sports event.
This paper used following methods for this research.
The paper post the questionnaire to the local organizing committee, it covered ten different nationalities. Because of the goal is "major" sports events organizers, the data collected from England and non-England samples. There are 23 sports governing bodies sample from England and other samples from 26 pan-European governing bodies. The paper also used semi-structured interviews to survey in England.
Collection of Data
The questionnaire concludes closed response and open ended questions. Collect the quantitative data aim to sum up the bidding process of major sports event in the recent years. Through the qualitative data, it can be find more successful applications and more advantages of the city host a major sports event.
Analysis of Data
The quantitative data in this paper were using SPSS statistical analysis; the qualitative data in this paper were coded by manual analysis.
Reliability of Data
In order to receive more reliable feedback, most of the survey cities were hosted international events in recent five years. These cities' host experience can provide some key factors for bidding a major sports event successful.
The paper from the quantitative data found that the sport promotion and economic development were the most significant purposes behind the local governing hosting major sports events. The qualitative findings of this paper were support the quantitative data result and listed five arguments to prove the result. Whilst the qualitative data findings show that this approach ignores the high-risk costs of consideration opportunity.
Emery's paper (2002) summarized the necessary conditions of host a major sport event. Meanwhile, the research showed that the major sport events management environment has been changed more complex in the present day. The post questionnaire reflected that the local authorities have more desirability to host a major sports event. However, most of the bid city only focus on the profit from a major sports event, not understand the regulation in sport industry. It is lead to the city's application failed in the final decision. To enhance the successful opportunity for other city apply a major sports event in the future, this paper collect the semi-structured interview data to conclude five key factors behind successful bidding.
Bryman, A. (2008). Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Emery, P.R. (2002). Bidding to host a major sports event. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 15(4),316-335.
Gratton, C. & Jones, I. (2004). Research methods for sport studies. London, New York: Oxford University Press.