The history of Twycross zoo and its organisation

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The History of Twycross Zoo and the size of the organisation; Twycross Zoo was established by Mollie Badham and Natalie Evans in 1963 and they finally decided to do this after there original idea to have a series of pet shops. In 1972 the Zoo became a part of the charity trust. The land that Twycross Zoo covers is a total of 80 acres. The zoo itself employs around 200 employees and this makes it a medium sized organisation.

The Location of the Zoo; Twycross Zoo is located in on the A444. This road can be accessed by the A5. Throughout the area it is signposted on brown signs. Approximately 9,000,000 people live within 1 hour of the zoo and this is shown because the Zoo attracts around 500,000 people per year. It is open all year other than Christmas Day.

The Nature of the work that is done at the Zoo; Twycross Zoo provides both permanent and part time work for trained workers, as well as this it provides an opportunity for people to do work experience and voluntary work, for people to do this they do not have to be trained, just a well mannered and caring person.

At the zoo they also make enrichment a big part of the work because it is very important to the world of animals as it makes sure that animals are preserved and aren't in danger of becoming extinct.

The main objectives for the zoo is to provide a safe sanctuary for the rare breeds of animals that may be in danger of becoming extinct; also they want to help the world's community of Zoos to help conserve rare breeds and share knowledge to make sure that this happens.

Another things that the zoo does is researches and at Twycross zoo they have a very good research department, one of the main things that they research is the nutrition that certain animals need and the results that they get back help them to keep all the animals fit and healthy, also it is important that they carry out this research because every animal has needs and a very specific diet to keep healthy and it is crucial that the zoo provides this diet for the animals. Not only does the Zoo do this research but it provides a great place for scientist from all over the world to come and look at the animals, Twycross is the only zoo in the UK to hold all four species of great ape and they also have the largest collection of primates in the world outside of Japan. At the zoo almost all the animals have indoor and outdoor enclosures where the public can observe them in both habitats, but on the rare occasion some animals may have to be off-show because of welfare reasons.

Another thing that the Zoo does is tries to preserve the species of animal, so far there are around 2 million different species of animals in the world and Twycross make it there main aim to try and help preserve the endangered ones. Throughout the world there is an extremely large community of zoos that all work together to help save animals. The main reason why many animals are endangered is because the way people live, and the main factor is global warming because this is destroying animals habitats and this is another reason why zoos are becoming so important. Currently at the zoo they have over 200 different species and many of these are enrolled in captive breeding programmes to try and help the species become more stable.

Recently Twycross has been involved in a big species preservation task that involves the critically endangered Amur Leopard, currently there are less than 36 of them in the wild and Twycross houses 2 of the breed, they are the most endangered 'Big Cat' in the world and can only be found in the mountainous and temperate forests of far-east Russia. Up to now Twycross zoo has supported the Amur Leopard for 3 years successfully breading cubs and also they have raised a lot of money for the cause, what they do helps towards solving the problem as quickly as possible. The staff at the reserve have not been paid since June 2009 and they are often forced to take holiday due to the delay in paying them, this just shows the dedication and passion that the workers feel about the situation.

Another conservation project that is currently in place is that of the Banobo chimp and they are more endangered than the more commonly known Chimpanzee. Bonobos chimps are only found in the Democratic Republic of Congo and there is only thought to be little over 30,000 of the species left which makes them under a lot of threat, another thing that doesn't help the species is the fact that they are under constant threat from all angles, one of the main problems that they face is that there homes are constantly being destroyed leaving them with nowhere to live safely. Also on the illegal pet market they are very popular and are being sold at an average of just £8 per animal, the reason why this is putting them under pressure is because they are forced to live in terrible conditions and more often than not they are becoming malnourished. To make this situation better science must play a big part because there is no point in having good conservation methods if there isn't any good scientific reason behind it. At the moment Twycross zoo is the only place in the United Kingdom where the public can go to see Banobo chimps and they live in a very safe and happy environment that can provide them with all the things that they need.

Another thing that the zoo makes one of there aims to do is to educate the public visitors that come to the zoo on all the animals that are there and some of the ways that they do this is by putting signs around the zoo telling people information and what things mean. Another way that they educate the public is by having zoo guides that walk around the zoo and talk to the visitors about the animals and then take questions that people want to ask.

Another one of the zoos main aims is to provide valid research to the worldwide community of zoos.

The areas of science that are used at the Zoo; All three areas of science are used at the Zoo, Biology, Chemistry and Physics.

Many forms of Biology are used in the zoo, the main form is botany which is the biology of plants and this is needed so the zoo keepers know how to help the plants in the exhibits grow and so they know what plants are safe to grow inside with certain animals. Not only is botany used but another form of science is used, this is called zoology and it is involving all the animals at the zoo, it focuses mainly on the structure, behaviour, evolution and function of the animals, and the reason this is used is so the zoo keepers can understand how the animals grow and develop. If the zoo didn't use zoology then they wouldn't understand anything about the animals and wouldn't know how to monitor there progress. Some Zoologists channel there work into different species of animals, this can help them to focus on the evolution of a certain animal. Not only are these forms of biology used in the zoo but Ecology is used too and this is the study that involves all living organisms and the relations that they share. The way that this helps is because it helps them to understand what animals can be put in the same enclosures of in close by enclosures without any trouble being caused. Not only does this involve the study of how animals interact with other animals but it too studies how different animals react with the environment around them and of course this helps the zoo understand what is good and what is not in the enclosures.

Also in the Zoo there are many forms of chemistry used, for example they must need a sufficient knowledge of it to know what medication the animals need to keep them in a safe state. As well as this they also use it when cooking food in the restaurant for the public. Chemistry is also used when cleaning out the exhibits because they use a lot of different cleaning chemicals and they must be sure that the chemicals aren't going to harm the animals.

Physics is a big part in the zoo because it helps the builders to understand how to build the exhibits to ensure that they are both safe and good enough to provide a good style of life. Some things that they take into account when building the enclosures is the materials that are used to build it, for example a bird house might be build using wire fencing because it is unlikely that the birds are going to be powerful enough to break through the walls, but when it comes to containing big apes the exhibit must be built with a more resistant material such as enforced glass and the reason for this is so that the animals cannot escape the exhibits.

Skills used by the employees which are science related; The workers at the zoo use science related skills to help them work out things such as administration and this involves keeping a track on personal decisions, business decisions and the finance of the zoo, The qualifications that are need to do this job are IT and Finance, at Twycross zoo there director is also qualified as a vet and this helps her to understand the zoo overall.

An example of a job at the zoo is a Gardener and Maintenance operative, the main purpose of these employees is to keep the zoo in good order and make it look appealing for the visitors. Although this is there main purpose they too have other things that there job involves such as mowing lawns around the zoo and just keeping the flower beds in good order, also they are required to drive a tractor/van around the zoo that contains tools and materials that the workers at the zoo may require.

Another job that is at the zoo and involves science is the Catering Manager and these report to the Zoo director for what jobs they have to do, there job at the zoo is permanent and not temporary

Job Title;

Role and responsibility;

Skills needed;

How they use science;

Animal keeper grade 1.

These workers need to assist with the keeping of animals on there section, they must do this to the required standard of zoo.

They must report any problems to the section head as soon as they are present. They must also prepare food for the animals on there section to a good standard. To do this they must know all the animals required diets. Another thing that they might have to do is repair minor faults with the animals' enclosures. They too must be physically fit enough to carry out work on a day to day basis.


The main responsibility for these workers is to carry out regular plumbing jobs throughout the day and make sure that the work that they do is to the required level that the zoo sets. They are also required to carry out regular maintenance work such as painting and decorating, as well as this they are meant to be able to drive a tractor or van across the zoo to transport tools for the other workers.

They must be qualified as a plumber and must also be okay with working at heights as they are sometimes required to work on roofs. They must be a CORGI registered plumber and have sufficient DIY skills. They must too be able to work at heights.

Retail supervisor.

They must be comfortable when it comes to working with customers. They too should be quick and efficient when it comes to working on tills and with money. As well as this they must keep all the shelves fully stacked and neat. They are required to unpack new loads of good and price up all of the items that they sell.

The skills that they require are good people management and communication skills, they must also have the ability to manage and effectively stack the stock. They too must also have good communication with both internal and external people. They too must have an interest in the purpose and function of the zoo itself.

Section head.

The main role of this person is to make sure that animal keeping on there section is carried out to the zoo's required standards and to make sure that the section maintains a good working relationship with the other sub-sections. They must also make sure that all the animals are looked after to the right standard and are always safe in there enclosures, they too must assist in the capture and restraint of all the animals on there section, they also have a role which is to make sure that all the sections keepers are trained to the required level and can carry out all there jobs responsibilities properly and efficiently.

The worker must be physically fit enough to carry out there jobs efficiently enough and to a high enough standard. They too must have the practical and relevant experience of animal keeping, another important thing is that they must be self-confident and self-reliant but must also know when it is right for them to seek advise and help.

Animal records registrar.

This person must report to the deputy director and there key purpose is to keep all the animal records up to date and arrange all the imports and exports of animals. They must also

Examples of how changing scientific ideas affect the processes used within the company; Since zoos were first established many thing have changed, one thing that has changed is the ethics of the zoo itself, in the past the main reason that zoos where around was for the public pleasure that they provide but nowadays not only are they for public pleasure but they are now mainly for educating the public and to help conserve many wild types of animals. Another thing that has changed now is the designs of the inhabits because in the past they were just plain and simple, but now they are more complex and comfortable for the animals to live in. Also the materials that the exhibits have been built with has changed, for example many exhibits now are built with thick layered glass and not only does this give the public a better view, but more importantly it make the enclosures easier to keep heated for the animals.

Because of the research that is done by the zoo, it enables the zoo to understand what all the different animals that they keep needs. Another thing that zoos are aiming to become is more environmentally friendly and the way that they are trying to do this is to minimise carbon emissions and to make sure they are being as efficient as they can possibly be.

How is ICT used in the company; At Twycross zoo a big part of running there zoo is to do with ICT, and the way that they use this in there zoo primarily is to keep a track on the animal records, a few things that they keep records on is the individual animals date of births so that if ever any of the animals move zoos then the new zoo they will be at is going to have sufficient knowledge of the animals. Not only do they use the ICT network to keep a track of all animals date of birth but they also use it to keep records on all staff including, what they are required to do, personal information such as Date of Birth and nationality. Also the use of ICT helps the organisation to keep a track on all of the employees pay and this helps to ensure that it is all accurate and also helps to make sure that everyone is payed on time. As well as helping to monitor the pay roll ICT also helps the zoo to communicate with the wide network of zoos in the world, this means that the zoo can gain extra expert knowledge from a large amount of zoos around the world. And finally the main way that the zoo uses ICT is to keep a good website up and running and this not only helps the public to see what the zoo is about but it also gains them a lot of business because people can go onto the website and they can look at all the information that they need to make a visit, such as opening times and prices etc.

Rules and regulations that the company has to adhere to; When running the company there are many things that they have to think about. And one of the main things they must think about is the regulations that they need to follow.

The first thing that the company must think about is the Health and safety regulations and this is very important because it makes sure that both the employees the public and the animals are safe at all times. Some of the things that they must think about are just the general safety of the public and also the health and welfare of the animals themselves.

Not only does the zoo have to think about the general health and safety, but they must also make sure that they obtain a License before they will be aloud to begin trading different animals. When it comes to rules that the zoo has to follow the government makes them and they are all written down in the secretary states standards act. Although the government makes the rules up it is down to the local authorities to check that the zoo is following them precisely. One the rules that are contained in the secretary states standards is as follows;

Provision of food and water: This means that the zoo must do everything they can to provide food and water that is to a good standard, that looks appealing and

Also the zoo must think about what environmental issues that they may face when it comes to running there business. One of the environmental issues that they face is to make sure that the waste they have is properly disposed of, such as animal waste and excess food the way that they can deal with this is by composting it all, not only is this the case but they must also make sure that they do not waste much energy because it can be costly. As well they must make sure that they recycle throughout the zoo. One thing that the zoo must be sure to follow is the Council regulations because if they don't then they could get into a lot of trouble.

The zoo must also make sure that they follow the heath and safety at work act 1974. The health and safety at work act, also known as the HASW has many general rules, it also states the responsibility of employers, employees and contractors.

Employers; The employers are the people that employ the workers/employees, the employees must report and work under the employers so this means that they have power over them.

Risk assessment; Risk assessments are used at all places of work, they are there so the organisation can limit the amount of hazards and predict many of the dangers in the workplace. The way that they do this is by coming up with all the risks that they can think of and then they rate them on how likely they think they are and on how big of a hazard they are. An example of a hazard is if a worker is working with the animals and they get bitten through the bars by the animal, this is rated as a 2 on hazard rating because there are worse things that can happen although it is still very dangerous if it does happen, also it is rated a 2 on the likelihood rating because this problem doesn't happen very much at all.

A table of risks;



Hazard rating out of 5

People at risk

Likelihood rating

Control measures

Play area

The children on the play area could fall off equipment and hurt themselves.


The children on the equipment and others around them.


A soft floor around the play area to cushion the fall.

Moving vehicles

People that are walking around the zoo could be hit by the moving vehicles, also people in the car park are in danger of being hit by cars.


Public walking around and the drivers.


Parking assistants in the car park to assist the cars

Animal viewing

Viewers that are looking at the animals could become injured by sitting on or climbing over the walls, by doing this they could injure themselves or the animals.


Yourself and the animals


There are signs all around the zoo that warn the guests that climbing over or on the walls of exhibits could result in serious injury.


Burns to yourself, animals and others if serious enough can result in death


Yourself, others and animals


Controlled measures such as sprinklers and fire alarms all around the zoo.

Hazards and risks involved in the processes carried out by the company and how they are controlled; When it comes to working at the zoo there are may hazards that the company must take into account, such as being bitten by animals when feeding, and the way they go about keeping all the hazards under control is by creating a table and listing how likely the hazards are and how dangerous they are. An example from the table is as follows, when viewing animals the human could either get bitten or injured by the animals. The hazard rating of this is a 4/5 because if a person is bitten by an animal it could cause disease and maybe ultimately in death. The likelihood of this happening is just a 2/5 because these days all the exhibits are both strong and secure. When it comes to health and safety in the workplace there are a few things to think about, one of the things is the health and safety at work act of 1974, the act itself generally lays down some basic rules of how to manage health and safety in the workplace. Also the company must think about the Provision and use of work equipment regulations act, this was introduced on December 5th 1998, this act covers most equipment that the zoo might use that could cause harm, it includes things such as knifes, ladders and dumper trucks etc. the way that it works is by listing how to use all these items in a safe and efficient way.

How particular health and safety laws apply to the company and how they are imposed and checked by managers, local authorities and external organisations;

What kite marks are and what the represent. Examples of any the company have and why they are important to customers. Process you need to go through to achieve the kite mark; The kite mark is owned by British Standards Institution and it is used to show weather the product that is being used is safe and has been thoroughly checked before it has been aloud to go on sale. To achieve a kite mark you must apply for one but before you are aloud to have it, the product must be checked by the BSI company and assured that it I safe to be used.

The demands made on transport and communication systems; When it is peak season at the zoo (summer) there are thousands of visitors per day meaning the small roads around the area will become congested and because of this is will mean that there is more pollution in the local area. To combat this they have changed the entrance method so that the visitors go straight into the zoo and then they park up and pay before entry, this means that they minimise the traffic problems because of cars waiting to enter the zoo.

Waste management; The zoo must make sure that they minimise the amount of waste, such as animal's excretion and waste food from the café, the way that they do this is having a huge compost heap that all the waste goes onto. Also they have general bins around the zoo that means litter is kept to a minimum. Another thing that the zoo does is to recycle as much as they possibly can, an example of this is that the water that isn't used is cleaned biologically and reused.

Economy; Around the local area the zoo provides many jobs, although this is the case, the jobs are sometimes just seasonal and for the summer. Another way that the zoo helps the area is by bringing visitors in that will spend money in the area which means that it is providing business for the local industry.

Community involvement; The zoo itself holds different events and talks that anyone can go to, this means that everyone can get involved. Also people can join as a member of the zoo and do things such as 'adopting' an animal.

Education; This section has already been covered at an earlier stage.

Energy consumption; The zoo makes sure that they use as many efficient appliances that they can and this means that they are spending less money and also saving a lot of energy. An example is the under floor heating that they use.