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As generally understood, the culture of a society comprises the shared values, understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of society, and passed on to succeeding generations.
Science and technology are widely regarded as providing substantial benefits to individuals and to local, regional, national, and international communities. The impact of technology on culture is of paramount importance and it is a contemporary phenomenon which has an impact on numerous social cultural variables. For this paper, we will begin the discussion on the impact of science and technology for five social variables, these include: education, economy, religion, health and recreation.
2.0 The impact of technology on the five (5) above listed social variables
Technology offers the opportunity to change the roles that teachers and students have traditionally played. With technology dispensing information, teachers are free to coach and facilitate students learning. With technology monitoring learning, students can become active learners, working to effectively acquire new skills as they solve problems. If the goal of creating high-performance learning organizations is to be realized, the reinvention of American education has to incorporate these new tools.
Through the use of advanced computing and telecommunications technology, learning can also be qualitatively different. The process of learning in the classroom can become significantly richer as students have access to new and different types of information, can manipulate it on the computer through graphic displays or controlled experiments in ways never before possible, and can communicate their results and conclusions in a variety of media to their teacher, students in the next classroom, or students around the world. For example, using technology, students can collect and graph real-time weather, environmental, and populations data from their community, use that data to create color maps and graphs, and then compare these maps to others created by students in other communities.
In a previous survey, investigator found that 71 percent of online teens said they relied mostly on Internet sources for the last big project they did for school and 34 percent of online young people ages 12-17 download study aides from the Internet. (Lenhart, Rainie, & Lewis, 2001). The U.S. Bureau of the Census (2003) found that 57 percent of all children in school ages 7-17 use a home computer to complete school assignments. Young people are also taking advantage of new, powerful communications tools. About three-quarters of online teens use instant messaging, representing close to 16 million youth. Of those 16 million, nearly 78 percent say they use instant messaging from time to time to talk about homework, tests, or schoolwork.
Technology has such immense benefits in every phase of our lives, that it has not only made our life easier but also has raised the standard of living of every individual.
One such department of everyday life related to the business sector is economy. Technology has made the economy of the world climb its highest peaks, which would have been completely disoriented with increasing population and work load over the time. The increasing technology on the e-commerce and internet business has made the business and shopping very easy over the internet, and this has given a real boost to the world's economy.
There have been some extraordinary productivity gains in various nations due to the increase in the use of technology an example is USA. There have been several reports out of Washington, D.C underscoring the importance of economy and how not only the businesses as a whole but also the individuals have been successful.
It is worth mentioning that due to the use of latest technologies, everything in a working environment is handled very efficiently. Management of the employees to the inventories everything is very systematically handled. The most important advantage of technology which helps in boosting the economy of the world is that technology makes everything go in ease. Technology eliminates the unnecessary tedious, production processes done manually, which speeds up the delivery of the goods to the market. This has many advantages in itself to the company. It keeps the prices of the goods low which also enables the companies to meet their individual customer's demands very well.
Religion, through its unique social function of religion so that religious believers to accept the value of the evaluation criteria, knowledge content, code of conduct, which is contrary of science and technology, thus affecting the public's acceptance of the technology. Religion, through its unique social function of religion so that religious believers to accept the value of the evaluation criteria, knowledge content, code of conduct, which is deviated from science and technology , thus affecting the public's acceptance of the technology.
The development of science and technology will change people's values and outlook on life, knowledge, will explain more human now can not explain the phenomenon. Therefore, scientific and technological development will be hindered the development of religion. The relation of technology to religion, depends on prior reasoning about the nature of all human, mortal products (George, 2007).
Technology is defined as an instrument which allows improved understanding medical care and maintaining humans' health through better management of their health information. (www.encarta.msn.com) Many people have a high regard for technology because it is there for humans' and health technology has a greater benefit. Technology is linked to medicine over the past 100 years. At the beginning of that decade medicine was a little scientific technology because at that time for the first time X-ray machine was built and by the time other scientists tried to produce and develop technological stuffs. Throughout the years the technology becomes a major part of health industry because it helps and manages in medical field, at the moment most of the medical work done by help of technology such as CAT scanner, Sonar, Gamma knife and microscope.
For public health, personnel must be able to access telephone lines from remote locations to log into the system. Telemedicine can allow people to consult with health care specialists often not available. Service clinics to get better care. Teleconferencing can permit all tribes to monitor and participate in legislative processes that affect public health. We can no longer afford to be "information starved."
Technology plays a pivotal role in how we deliver leisure services that meet the needs of the public. It provides us with powerful new ways to visualize, understand, create, manage, and evaluate our programs. Technology transforms the way we recreate. Specifically, we are seeing changes in the kinds of services and products that our recreation provide to the public, such as SONY PS,mp3,DVD and KTV.In addition,the emergence of online games that fascinated many young people nowadays, they can stay at home to enjoy their entertainment online without hassles.
The wide use of computer is a good example of technology impact on recreation.In many park and recreation agencies,the use of computers has become standard for word processing, database management, desktop publishing, and other business applications. Recreation such as program scheduling, facility scheduling, and recreation registration are becoming just as popular.
3.0 Social variables affect China business processes
Science and technology encourage the development of health, economic, religion, education and recreation.how do these social variables affect China business processes?
China's enterprises through the development o f science and technology to lower production costs, greater economic benefits. Office automation is the key to the development of each enterprise. Office automation in China will have broad market.
The development of network technology improves China education.Students can study from internet wheresoever and whensoever.As more and more Chinese accepts this education styles,internet education will be a huge potential market and enrich education industry.Meanwhile,education enhances China national knowledge level which increases China productivity.People are getting more and more rich in China.
The development of science and technology improve Chinese quality of life,lead Chinese to have a healthier lifestyle.People eat green food,do their exercise at home or in gym with the latest exercise machine,use environmentally friendly construction materials,small displacement and new type of fuel the vehicle.All these are going to be a health industry.
As China's economic develops, the per capita income increase. People will have more time and financial resources to enrich their spare time. Tourism develops very fast in China.There are about more than 1.3 billion person-time internal travel and 40 million person-time external travel every year.
People also look for innovation products or ideas from the supplier to enhance their recreation.Internet product such as QQ,MSN,on-line game and digital camera,digital cartoon,digital film,MP3 are all high return recreation products.
4.0 China e-business environment
E-business (electronic business), derived from such terms as "e-mail" and "e-commerce," is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners.
Since 1990's,some China companies started to set foot in E-business and got good result.However,the problems China E-business face are much more than developed countries.Generally speaking,China faces the following problems when she develops E-business.
a, security issue.It is the biggest problem to block the wide use of E-business.Virus infection,hacker attack makes people throw doubt upon the security of computer,especially the E-business.
b, technology issue.The main obstacle form technology is the dependability of internet and the speed of data transfer.Internet has many fallibility such as software fallibility,line fallibility and system fallibility.Otherwise,in order to realize real-time internet deal,we should make network have very fast speed.
c, The imperfect system of laws and regulations.As the prevalence of Internet,stealing software from Internet becomes quite easy,intellectual property rights dissension about software,music and movie increases day by day.The establishment of correlative system of laws and regulations lag the development of Internet far off.
d, human resource.E-business is the combination of the information modernization and business.People need to master modern information technology as well as modern business theory when they do E-business.China needs a huge number of this people at the moment
For the sake of face the opportunities and challenges brought by global informationization,we should take the following measures:
a. Enhance the security technology research and E-business standard establishment,so as to insure the dependability of global business.
b. Promote standardized laws and regulations for e-business.The law must define everyone's responsibility,protect consumer's rights and privacy.
c. Constantly enhance their corporate leadership skills by providing training for senior professional at all levels.
d. Speed up the network infrastructure construction
e. Set up publicity to raise awareness of e-business to the whole nation.We should let people know the convenience ,the advantage of price and service brought by E-business.Thereby,more people will do business in Internet which creative a favorable environment for E-business.
f. Enhance training and fetching in high knowledgeable professionals in order to quicken our country's E-business construction.
5.0 Convergence of Western and Eastern Cultures
Social culture is the rule and the method people talk and handle affairs in this social. Because of different geographical, people living habits of different, long-term production and daily life created a different culture, long history, and Romance of the ancient culture. In short of Western culture have many differences, there are also many differences. We choose China culture as the example of Eastern culture, and America culture as the example of Western culture.
From 1980's,a lot of research indicate that there is a huge difference between China and America culture. The America culture is the proponent of democracy and free country, the pursuit of equality between people.Its immigrant culture encourage individual struggle, advocate people to innovate and adventure. Strong competition, extreme benthamism and vehement time concept compel people to find out the direct and effective solution when they come into contact with problems. Furthermore, the comparatively simple interpersonal relationship makes them solve problems without affected by other factors.
Compared to American, due to the effect of thousands of years traditional culture, most Chinese are conditioned to follow the old way and prepared for danger in times of safety. The strong family consciousness restrains people to struggle for personal wish. The long-term planned economy system in China made people inefficient when they do business. After the reform and open policy, China starts to be entering the modern world, coming out of the shadow of the tradition. However, Chinese special interpersonal relationship, we called "GUANXI", still disturb people when they handle affairs. People have to come to terms to "GUANXI" at every turn which makes them inefficient.
Generally speaking, China culture has the strong long-term character, emphasizes stabilization and indemnificatory life. Meanwhile, Chinese pay attention to the "GUANXI" and collectivism. Whereas, America culture has the obvious short-term character, emphasizes originality, agility and immediate effect. American pay attention to individuality,democracy, free and the equality between people. It is hard to define which culture is good or not, In all cultures, management practices must reflect a society's social, political and economic systems which all play an important role in determining management practices.
The impact of technology on culture is of paramount importance and it is a contemporary phenomenon which has an impact on numerous social (cultural) variables inclusive of education, economy ,religion, health and recreation. These social variables affect our business process and create different and new opportunities for business. As a result of convergence in Western and Eastern cultures, especially China and America culture, we can see the culture difference and the business environment as well as management practices difference.
There are endless views and perspectives that culture has been a part of our society, and way of life. With the rapid development of science and technology, it has been directed as an improvement in our society. Technology has changed our pace and perspective on education, economy, religion, health and recreation.Examples of past and potential societal impacts of science and technology that people may study include the digital divide, globalization vs. local practices, religious and cultural beliefs, entertainment, education, the health benefits and the economic benefits around the world.
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(Helen Deresky, 2008)
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(Msn Encarta, 2008)