The articles discusses that child labor is considered a form of child abuse in the developing countries of the world. Children are performing a range of activities in different parts of the world especially in less developed parts of the world. Most children work at home, others work at farm or help with family businesses and some perform domestic work.
Children work because they belong to poor families and that they try to support their families financially. The data that is used in the article is taken from research conducted by ILO's Statistical Information and monitoring Program on Child Labor (SIMPOC) according to which 21 million or 18% of the children are supporting their families financially and are economically active. 4% children are working in transition economies and 2% are working in the developed parts of the world.
The data collected by SIMPOC is based on household survey data and census data was used.
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These children are employed by their parents. Children mostly work in the rural areas rather than urban areas as most of the factories are situated in the rural areas. But most of the times children work in family businesses, these children also perform domestic duties to help their parents.
Children who work their school attendance is lo compared to those children who do not work. And total hours worked by children doing domestic work are lower than those working in the market. But there are also such children who do not go to school because they work for their family. There are almost 42% of such children who neither work nor do they go to schools they are called "idle" children and are usually younger.
A negative correlation between working and grade advancement is seen. This negative relationship shows that low performing children tend to work rather then that work creates low performing children.
If improvement is made in family incomes child labor would decrease and that with diminishing marginal utility of income the value of the marginal contribution of the child's income decreases. The article also concludes that child's productivity in other activities such as schooling might improve because the family might be able to afford better input to schooling.
According to the article women of the family produce goods and services to benefit their family members this is called family status production. Status according to the article is a collectively shared assessment or evaluation of a societal unit on the basis of certain objective characteristics. This work helps women as a pool of family incomes is created and that women who have a lack of access to independent jobs can contribute to the society.
Women can decide which product to produce depending on social mobility and also social, cultural, political and economic factors. Status production work by women remains unrewarded and unacknowledged. Women status production work also concerns children training including concern for their language, health and physical and intellectual skills. This is essential when comes to children's participation in the society.
Another type of status production work is activities that require a woman's time, energy and organizational skills. Their ritual and religious practices also affects the family. Women can appoint house maids who can share with them their domestic tasks.
A woman's education and employment outside the home are replacing status production work as social mobility and environment is changing for them. Social status work and paid labor are directly related.
The article aims to find out how economic restructuring and globalization have generated the growth of informal activities. It also discusses the growth of women's participation in the informal activities. At the micro level institutional changes have taken place in the work place, out sourcing and transformation in the work force. At the same time women have started participating in the labor force at the domestic level and the international level.
There has been a change in the employment trends and decline in employment has taken place and risks have increased. There has been a shift of employment from core to periphery activities in small firms and independent contractors and there has been a change in the hierarchical structure within core firm and there is a trend towards unstable employment.
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Increased polarization of growing incomes has been witnessed in the current world, on one hand there has been an increase in opportunities in most countries for skilled labor and on the other hand there is a decrease in job opportunities for low skilled workers.
According to a model increase in economic growth, increased labor productivity and improvement in income levels will eliminate the poverty associated with the informal activities. According to the article informal sector kept earnings low, working conditioned were unstable and illegal work was taking place thus formal sector came in to get rid of all these issues. Since last two decades there has been an increase in the formal sector expansion.
Women have been involved in the informal sector to a large extent and there has been a change in the nature of there participation. Firstly a lot of women have started becoming a part of the labor force. Thus the kind of informal activities that women have been involved in vary from export based activities to home based work.
Home based work is paid that these women carry out work while staying at home and working independently and those dependant home workers.
According to statistics that almost 1 million women in Asia migrate and 30% of which were women and that three quarters of these women migrated to work. Women mostly migrate to either work as house maids or to work as entertainers.
Because of the new industrializing world women are being forced to enter the labor world in the developed countries. But in several countries keeping house maids is a matter of status and prestige, the more number of house maids one has the more status they have thus demand for female labor force has increased over time and one major reason for this increase is demand for domestic workers.
Because of increasing industrialization more women have to leave homes so there is a greater need for domestic help including child care. Paid domestic work is considered less prestigious and inferior regardless of ethnicity or religious group one belongs to. Women who leave their country to work as house maids are very much dependant on their employer as all her life is dictated by the employer and that she does not have access to even basic needs of life.
Domestic work is categorized as live in residential domestic work, non residential domestic work and casual domestic work. These domestic workers are also some times harassed by the employer and when they are abused by the employer they are not allowed to talk to any one and their communication with any one is restricted. Mal treatment includes abusive language and imprisonment for several days and default in payments.
The uneducated people move to urban areas to look for jobs and get employed in industries or businesses. The soaring prices and increasing family size force the female workers to look for employment and cover the rising cost of feeding the family and the safest job for women is to work as house maids.
Women in the cities usually work in offices and have to actively take part in jobs so they heavily on house maids. Also that house maids are considered a symbol of status leads to an increase in the demand for house maids therefore women who migrate to cities in search of job get these jobs easily. Housewives also hire these house maids to help them with house chores thus their relation may be described as employee employer domestic relationship.
Some times the house maids are not paid well thus they leave their jobs and start to work in the organized sector. Thus there are also other reasons for dissatisfaction and this relationship must be studied. The method through which data was collected for this study was through collection of data from hundreds of house maids in different categories of age, community, education and income group and stratified random sampling was done.
Separate questionnaires were collected to get feedback on this relationship from the perspective of the house wives. The objective of the study is to enquire about the present state of relationship between the house maids and the house wives in the domestic sector and how can this relationship be improved.
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House wives belong to the forward communities and the house maids belong to the backward communities thus it shows that the forward communities employ the backward communities. 8% of the house maids secured their jobs in young age to support their families financially. Family planning is accepted more by the house wives rather than by the house maids thus they have large families to feed and seek increase in wages and this also leads to wide gaps between the two members of the society in economic terms.
It is a general opinion that house maids are paid less because of the nature of work that they perform and less significance of the duties that they perform and unwillingness of the house wives to pay high to these maids. But these maids are compensated with facilities such as advances, food, clothing and medical help. Harmonious relationship between the house maid and the house wives is needed for greater satisfaction of not only the house wife and the maid but also those related to them.
It is suggested that the house maids should not choose negative behavior towards the employee and the two of them should get the support of their family members to secure the relationship and to create harmony.
Women rights should be fulfilled for women's well being. Women have basic rights such as bodily integrity and freedom from violence which is equally as important as health care and proper living standards.
Women should be given rights equal to men and gender neutral language should be used. Some feminists human rights literature say that men's rights have not been talked about commonly so human rights should be given importance in general. Examples of issues concerning women are rape, violence, domestic labor as work and unequal opportunities. These concerns are taken into account due to negative behavior of some influential family members. The rise and growth in political power of religious fundamentalism in different parts of the world enforces the idea that why women rights should be considered equal to human rights.
This is also because of the continuous inequality of the women in major parts of the world. Also in several countries domestic violence is not even considered worthy of reporting to police and is considered as part of family life. Some groups say that economic problems in underdeveloped parts of the world exist because the World Bank was enforcing social programs for women rights rather than enforcing structural adjustment programs.
But women's role in the society should be recognized and their work should be recognized as they are more vulnerable to violence and exploitation.
As globalization has increased so has concern for children's rights and child labor. UNICEF and various non governmental organizations are working to protect Convention on the Rights of the Children and its effective implementation. Thus child labor has become an important discussion topic and that ho children's rights may be protected.
Most societies believe that if children ill work they will learn more but conditions that are detrimental to their health is an area of concern. Children who are appreciated by their families are able to learn more an in a less stressful manner compared to those who are not praised and whose work is also not praised. Many conventions have been held by ILO to demotivate those who employ children and force them to work in hazardous conditions. Some international organizations have also been trying to create awareness about children's rights. ILO claimed that CRC has proved to be helpful in changing the social and political environment and has acted as the main guide line for providing protection to children.
The article discusses the role of culture, background and religion in bringing up children and issues relating to parenting in diverse backgrounds. The paper will explore the implications of the studies theorizing law and duties of the state.
Globalization means that states address increasingly diverse populations belonging to various backgrounds, ethnicities and religions. Thus these people believe in brining up the children in different ways because family values are different. When children's rights are discussed some people think that black children are over represented.
When parents bring up their children they have different ways of bringing them up and some think that if the child misbehaves or shows mischievous behavior the parents have complete right to beat up the child although other societies think the other way that it is unlawful.
Matters such as age, gender, back ground should be looked into when a case related to parental maltreatment is faced but according to some societies parents are by no means allowed to harass a child. European courts clearly state the duties of the local authorities when a child is abused and so does several other societies.
Ann Schofield in her article Rebel Girls and Union Maids: The Woman Question in the Journals of the AFL and IWW, 1905-1920 discusses the participation of women in the formal and the informal sectors and their contributions and their rights. Between 1905-1920 the American Labor Movement journals called women as the Rebel Girls or the Union Maids.
The participation of women increased as they started working in the garment, textile and cigar making factories. It was then thought that women's oppression could be solved through destruction of capitalism. Women rights were discussed commonly and it as said that women's role could only be transformed through support in the working man's struggle.
Unions for women rights in the work place were becoming stronger and demands of women were illustrated through strikes and collective action.
It is an examination of certain organized medical interests whose concern is to discover battered child syndrome. In the beginning of the 19th century a series of movements directed attention towards mistreated and maltreated children. The purpose of these movements was not to protect children from abusive parents but to save the society from offenders.
The discovery of abuse in children has been discussed chronologically that some physical disturbance would be seen as cause of the pattern of subdural hematoma. The discovery of child abuse offered pediatric radiologists an alternative to their marginal medical status.
The existence of a wide social gap between those who abuse and those who label facilitated not only the likelihood of labeling but cancel out any organized resistance to the label by the deviant group itself. The research concludes that the abusers belong to the inside of the family and to no other place.