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The government has been able to understand the social policy responsibilities that it has towards Maori with respect to Article 3. By giving citizenship privileges to Maori, Article 3 forbids prejudice and needs the Government to be pro-active in decreasing social and financial differences between Maori and the non-Maori. This does not mean that Maori have continued the social policies what are proposed by the government, but arguments have not been essentially focused on matters with regard to Treaty interpretation.
The primary Treaty arguments in the area of social policy gradually relate to the explanation and implementation of Article 2. Petitions by Maori in this area are for superior sovereignty or tinorangatiratanga. Such petitions are founded on Article 2. The Government has not acknowledged the usefulness of Article 2 in the field of social strategy and Maori claims for sovereignty have been refuted. However, it is necessary to analyse the implementation of Article 2 to social policy by laying emphasis on two fields of social policy, namely the health segment along with the Department of Social Welfare’s Iwi Social Services procedure.
It is evident that the Government’s attitude to Treaty matters in the social policy field is presently vague and erratic. This might appear to be perplexing, not merely to Maori, but even to workforces of Government organisations that work in the region. Such a situation involves a great deal of danger for the Government, owing to the fact that where the Government does not take a distinct initiative, it might find the steps being initiated by the courts or even by the Waitangi Tribunal. The Government would have to decide between ignoring the concerns or choosing a pre-emptive position, after discussing freely with Maori concerning their hopes for social services policy progress.
-Partnership: Social service organisations must ensure that the needs of Maori are taken into account when interacting with Maori or when creating policy that could affect Maori.
-Protection: Social service organisations must keep resident’s information confidentially.
-Participation: Maori can access and participate in all social services.
-Permission: Maori can be permitted to participate in their cultural and traditional activities.
1) Aotearoa New Zealand Society
Aotearoa New Zealand is composed of various ethnicities.
All social services must be constructed accessible to all ethnicities.
Social workers have to understand and respect multicultural needs when working.
2) Te Tiriti o Waitangi
Social service providers and social workers must be well-acquainted with the four principles in Te Tiriti.
3) Te Reo, Tikanga, and development of Iwi and MÄori
Social work practice must be provided MÄori following their customs, values, and the rights under Te Tiriti.
4) Gender and sexuality
Gender or Sexual discrimination is not permitted by The Human Rights Act.
Social work practice must be provided without prejudice or bias.
5) Human development process through the life span
Human development may cause changes.
Social workers have to consider the culture to understand the changes.
6) Social Policy in New Zealand
Social policy can be impacted and changed by the government.
Social work practice has to follow the changed policy.
7) Aotearoa New Zealand social services
New Zealand social services accept and respect multi culture.
8) Organisation and management in the social services
Organisation and management in the social services have a wide level.
9) Research methodology in the social services
Research methodology in the social services should reflect variable needs of people when performed.
10) Users of the social services
Social service providers have responsibility to inform clients of their rights.
11) Law and social work
There are lawful duties that enact the social work practice.
Legal procedures provide guidelines for the client to be safe.
12) Personal development
Social work practice plays important roles in improving social worker’s development.
13) Social work ethics
Social work ethics impact on the social work practice to be professional.
14) Models of practice, including Iwi and Maori models of practice
Maori health model are based on Te Whare Tapa Wha (four cornerstones of Maori health).
15) Working with particular client groups
Social work practice must be appropriate to any particular client according to their own needs without prejudice or bias.
16) Cross cultural practice
Cross cultural practice identify which factors are prohibited to the clients by their culture when providing services.
17) Current issues in social work practice
Social workers need to be well informed of recent information and issues regarding social work practice.
The first situation involved working with the socially exploited women of the Maori community, many of whom were victims of domestic violence. Dealing with this particular situation required the employment of the Social Learning Theory of social work. This theory is based on Albert Bandura’s viewpoint, according to which learning takes place through reflection and imitation. Different behaviour will linger if it is reinforced. In accordance with this theory, instead of merely listening to a new instructions or guidance and using it, the guiding process would be made increasingly beneficial if the new actions are demonstrated as well. In the case of dealing with socially exploited women from the Maori community, the integration of this theory involved working alongside women who have been able to recover from the trauma and violence that were subject to. This can be supplemented with the provision of real-life accounts of the lives of women who have been able to get back to life after experiencing such exploitation. The victims would then be able to relate to their situation in a better manner, thus bringing about more effective results, within a comparatively shorter time period. (Orange, 2011)
The next situation was the case of working for the benefit of those residents who suffer from psychosocial developmental issues. This involved the integration of the Psychosocial Development Theory, which is an eight-level theory of individuality and psychosocial development expressed by Erik Erikson. Erikson was of the belief that everyone needs to pass through eight phases of growth all through their life cycle, namely hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom. Every stage is then split up into age groups from early stages to older grown-ups. People who have been subject to any kind of social oppression and exploitation would need to be treated in a specific manner by the social services workers, so as to help them overcome those hurdles and emerge free from such drawbacks.
In the execution of the duties that were necessary in both these fieldwork cases, there were a number of core values that guided the entire procedure. These included service, social integrity, self-respect and worth of the individual, value of human relations, honour, and capability. The needs of the individuals being treated were, and continue to be, of utmost importance all through the procedure that involves guiding and inspiring them to gather the necessary courage to soar above their situations and emerge victorious. It is also important to ensure that the dignity and respect of the victim be upheld at all times, so as to ensure them that they have a chance to regain their hold over their lives and live it to the fullest, accomplishing the aims and ambition that they have been cherishing. These core values are reflective of the essence of this social work service that ensures compliance with the latest policies and policies that pertain to this field of work.
First Instance: This instance involved a client named C, who was 25 years old. She and her husband were supposedly having frequent arguments owing to his drinking habits. Unable to cope with his alcohol abuse and often violent and abusive behavior, C began to show signs of depression. It was at this point that she sought help with us. The Crisis Intervention Model was applied here, wherein C provided me with all the relevant details pertaining to her situation and the way things used to be before she started showing signs of depression. I had to be sensitive to the delicate aspects of this situation, which required me to make apt use of the core values of self-respect and worth of an individual. I also had to ensure that her dignity was upheld all through my sessions with her. Dealing with C required me to gain her trust by engaging in informal conversations with her, after which I had to present her with practical ways of coping with the stress of her relationship, while seeking ways to counsel her husband on his drinking problems. C has been receiving help and guidance for the past four months.
Second Instance: This instance involved a 16-year-old boy named K, who was involved with drugs and alcohol since the age of 14. The boy had been abandoned by his parents, who were also drug-abusers and alcoholics, after which he maintained no contact with him and lived with his friends. K has been using a number of drugs, and has recently started using crack. He has been using inhalants since he was 13 years of age and has been consuming alcohol in considerable amounts on a regular basis. However, he recently felt the need to seek help for his condition, due to which he decided to seek help from our social services centre. The Rational Choice Theory was then used to deal with his situation, wherein every action taken by an individual is viewed as rational, which requires the decision to be made after the calculation of the risks and benefits involved with it. This kept his dignity and self-respect in mind and ensured that my actions did not demean him in any way. K then needed to be guided in his choices and counselled regarding the consequences of his lifestyle choices. K has been receiving guidance and counselling for the past six months.
Apart from these two long-term instances of relationships with clients, there have been a number of similar situations, most of which have involved women who have been subject to domestic abuse, and children who are dealing with alcohol-abuse, drug-abuse, and abusive parents. Several instances of children suffering from trauma, owing to traumatic childhood experiences have also been handled. Such instances required the team to ensure that the dignity of the client is maintained, irrespective of what their background might be.
My experiences thus far have brought about considerable changes in several aspects of my life. The first change would be that of understanding the essence of social service is the core values that it strives to uphold at all times. Irrespective of the situation that the client is going through, the primary task of the social worker is to ensure that the dignity and respect of that client is reinstated at every step. The next effect that the new learning had on me was that of helping me to gain a deeper understanding of the diversity of human issues, each of which have to be handled in a precise, systematic manner. (TeKaiÄwhinaAhumahi, 2000)
These experiences will be of immense help to me in my future social work practice as they have given me the much needed exposure to the wide range of situations that social workers have to deal with on a daily basis. Since my practice has essentially been with cases of women and children, it would be of benefit to me in dealing with such cases in my future practice.
As a social worker who is skilled to work alongside Maori, I needed to gain a sound understanding of both the governmental and individual significance of Rangatiratanga to Maori consumers in the 21st century and the community accountability linked to it. My practice has helped me understand that a MÄori viewpoint takes into consideration that any client communication is mindful of whanau, hapu, iwi. Attitude is an important aspect that I needed to develop. This is in relation to the applicant’s skills to recognise consciousness of their own limits (cultural prejudices, lack of information and comprehension) and to cultivate honesty to cultural multiplicity and a readiness to study from the rest. It required an established pledge to the continuing progress of an individual’s cultural consciousness and procedures along with those of co-workers. (Durie et al, 2012)
Skills are another necessary aspect that I had gained along the way, which involved the incorporation of understanding and approaches necessary to allow workers to relate bi-culturally, guide clients to match up their own aims and desires, and to guide social workers to get rid of all kinds of discrimination. Ability to engage in social work with Maori groups thus necessitates that the social worker: takes part in culturally appropriate manners in an inclusive way; expresses how the broader perspective of Aotearoa New Zealand both traditionally and presently can influence practice content, presents useful sustenance to Tangata Whenua for their endeavours, possesses an understanding of the Treaty of Waitangi, Te Reo and tikanga, and endorses Mana Whenua and benefits in their zone. All in all, the experience gained by me thus far in my experience will be beneficial to me in gaining competence in the future. (O’Donoghue&Tsui, 2012)
Sungkuk Hong 13020801
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