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The child abuse is mistreatment of children in physical, sexual and emotional ways. This article includes details of how these abuse are tend to happen. This article also states about why are children abused and what environments do these tend to result in. All the above factors are explained on basis of some journals. These have been conducted by some psychologists and results obtained by them. This article is made on the results and by the conditions, samples and situations depicted and decided. This article also suggests the ways in which these abuses can be identified and some action can be taken place. The article contains some indicators to some particular situations that generally take place in the daily life all around the world. Even this article suggests how LGB (Lesbians, Gays and bisexual) can influence the effects and manners of LGB on the abuse of children. This article suggests even some preventive measures for child abuse.
Keywords: Child abuse, LGB (Lesbians, Gays and bisexual), indicators, samples, preventive measures, environments
The article about Child Abuse
The child abuse is mistreatment of children in physical, sexual and emotional ways. In the United States, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. It is mentioned that most child abuse occurs in the child homes compared to that of organizations, schools and communities where children have more interaction. This article has factors that influence the child abuse. The situations of child abuse by ethnically diverse, maltreatment and gambling associations to abuse and the preventive measures suggested by various organizations.
A Child abuse is defined in four types as physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect. The physical aggression imposed by an adult on a child can be depicted as physical abuse. The physical abuse may be kicking, burning, shoving, bruising, choking and many other which include some stress to child's physical ability or involving actions that are not accepted by the child's conscious. The sexual stimulation by an adult or older adolescent on a child can be characterized as child sexual abuse. The situations like forcing a child to participate in a sexual intercourse, exposure of genitals or displaying pornography to child and other disturbing activities that may pose some depression or posttraumatic on to the child's mindset. The psychological or emotional abuse may not be defined by a statement but can be any of the following like ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or destruction of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labelling or humiliation.
Now, let us discuss various factors and issues about the child abuse. Let the first issue be about the association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of men and women. The term childhood maltreatment is grouping of physical, sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect. As in the journal it depicts a situation where mixed gender inpatient sample revealed a one-third prevalence of physical or sexual abuse. In the largest study to date it was mentioned that for a multi dimensional measure of child maltreatment are used by both male and female pathological gamblers. The greater childhood maltreatment was associated with higher frequency of gambling and greater likelihood of gambling problems. The childhood maltreatment linked with the gambling can be the result of the interaction of a variety of individuals and environment. Even some social factors can play a role in the controlling the frequency of gambling for the maltreatment. It is pointed out that there exists some evidence that the childhood abuse is the result of the poorer outcome in substance abuse. The other independent predictors including some anti social features can act as a symptom to abuse a child. But we can say that gambling has been the major issue about the maltreatment but still some more research is needed to confirm the situation more strongly.
Let us deal with the impact of childhood abuse on the lesbians, gay and bisexual (LGB). It is found that the LGB have more abuse experience than the heterosexuals. It is mentioned that very few people in large national survey had high childhood abuse in comparison with lesbian and bisexual of coloured than white people. By this we can say that coloured faced more childhood abuse than that of the white people. But it is sustained by the reason that coloured people have economic disadvantage, cultural or religious beliefs and strong prohibitions in families of small minorities around the world.
If we consider the mental health of the abused lesbians, gays and bisexual have more risks than heterosexual population. An instance as depicted that for a vast body of literature documents , the outcomes like traumatic stress, depression , anxiety and other disorders are associated to be having some history of child abuse in the LGB. A research conducted by Descamps, Rothblum, Bradford, & Ryan, 2000; Hughes, Johnson, Wilsnack, & Szalacha, 2007; Ratner et al., 2003, mentioned that few studies conducted on LGB where their adult health was examined showed they had some issues in relation to childhood sexual abuse. Even some further research gave results that race and ethnicity does have effects over childhood abuse in a differential manner. When some research was conducted on this issue, it gave results that ethnic LGB minorities had more abuse when compared to other ethnic sects in the world. Even though the childhood abuse created negative mental health, indicators are almost in all people in different race and ethnicity.
If we move a bit further, as mentioned that the present studies indicate ethnic differences in self-reported experiences with sexual and physical abuse. The highest level of physical abuse was sensed in Latino and Asian American diversities and Latino and African American sensed highest level of sexual abuse in comparison to all races and ethnicity. But still a issue occurs when the research stated that the strongest predictor for the mental health in lesbians gays and bisexual to be the childhood emotional abuse. Even though when compared to physical and sexual abuse relation not that significant with the mental health but the damaging one was always the emotional abuse. In a research it is mentioned that people that have faced the childhood emotional abuse mostly developed some depressing disorder. For lesbian gay and bisexuals, the negative messages in return to childhood emotional abuse might be particularly leading because they happen in a backdrop of negative social and cultural messages about a orientation. As per the research results of Savin-Williams (2003) on Lesbian Gays and Bisexual youth and their parents, finalizing that rejection, victimization, and verbal abuse are some cost to LGB youth may face about sexual orientation to parents. However, he also mentioned that the occurrence of these consequences is difficult to assess because very few studies have been conducted on the relations that LGB had with their parents.
We have discussed about the childhood abuse in different scenarios on people with different races and ethnicity. Let us discuss about the child hood prevention. As mentioned that abuse on the children is not only a severe public health issue and always leads to national shame. As if now, all efforts to prevent child maltreatment as mentioned in the activities of the Healthy Families America initiative are empirically based as described in Daro, 1998. The precise theoretical basis about the prevention programs has changed in to a derived role as attention has been turned towards general theories about the parent- child interaction and child's development in response to theories of child maltreatment as the basis for a program development. Even though the utilizing of prevention efforts those come together with the characteristics of the successful programs is alluring at an applied level, there are certain limitations in association with it. Most significantly, it is difficult to decide which of the many included characteristics of them accounts for the benefits acquired.
One of the preventive ways mentioned in the article was to access the advantages of the parents' cognitions on the care giving relationships, which means it particular methods about the various challenges parents face about building the relation and the problem solving abilities. The cognitive appraisal program experienced in the above mentioned study makes use of qualities that are frequently included within composite prevention programs but that are yet to be tested for their specific effectiveness as a way of preventing abuse. The cognitive appraisal component was intended to improve parents' awareness of power or capability within the child -parent relationship
According to the above mentioned cognitive appraisal program, it made use of a two-part as an involvement. At the first step, at-risk parents are supported in acquiring skills in reading children's indications to distress and in counteracting misattribution processes like for example countering the observation that young children can read about their parents' minds, are behaving with negative objective, or are testing parental power. At the second step, at-risk parents are given with problem solving training in which they describe the problem, come up with possible solutions, estimate possible consequences, build up with an action plan, and observe and assess the success of their efforts. The combined findings obtained in above mentioned program suggest that the same program features may not have the same benefits for all child outcomes. Physical aggression not in favour of children may be exceptionally prejudiced by dyadic transactions like in parental appraisal processes and child stimuli than that of the children's health. The unique advantages of the improved condition for parents with at-risk children suggest that secondary prevention may be appropriate for this group. The fabrication of more generalized outcomes may be more dependable with a contextual- ecological model that supports stress reduction and provide parent education as a primary preventive approach.
Let us conclude the article like we have discussed about the different researches and studies conducted and concluded by many psychologists. For the issue about child abuse we have mentioned how the issue arises, how come the gambling problems and maltreatment have been in relation to each other. How come the Lesbian gay and bisexual had their childhood abuse effect their later life. Even we discussed the cognitive approach for abuse prevention. But still the studies show only these were able to bring some awareness in the society but still there is a much more way to go in this world. So let us hope for the society where a child can have his childhood without any fear of being abused. Even some more research is still in need to conclude a better conclusion as only much research is conducted on some samples.