Scientific Breakthroughs that have Impacted Energy, Transportation and Entertainment

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For each of the following areas, list and explain how at least three major advances/breakthroughs that have occurred in the last 10 years (since 2009) that have radically changed them. In each case, elaborate with examples how the advances have impacted (a) Energy, (b) Transportation, (c) Entertainment.

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(a) Energy

1. Hydrogen production breakthrough

Hydrogen is easily produced from water through electrolysis, a process that uses electricity to break the bonds between water’s constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, and release them as gas. Unlike power generated by burning fossil fuels, hydrogen gas can be burned to produce power without negative environmental impact.

Chemists at the University of Glasgow have developed a new way to produce hydrogen almost 30 times faster than the most advanced methods. The process also addresses common issues associated with renewable energy generation, such as solar, wind and wave energy.

The new method allows larger-than-ever quantities of hydrogen to be produced at atmospheric pressure using lower power loads, typical of a renewable energy load. It also addresses the inherent safety issues that have so far limited the use of intermittent renewable energy sources for hydrogen production. The liquid used in this process allows the hydrogen to be locked up in a liquid-based inorganic fuel. By using a liquid sponge called redox mediator that absorbs electrons and acids without any additional energy input after the electrolysis of water occurs. The link between the rate of water oxidation and hydrogen production has been overcome, allowing hydrogen to be released from the water 30 times faster than the leading PEME process on a per-milligram-of-catalyst basis.

2. Breakthrough in mining combustible ice

Combustible ice is regarded as the strategic alternative energy of oil and gas in the future by various countries and is a strategic resource attracting worldwide attention

The exploitation of combustible ice in the sea is very difficult. Because the formation of flammable ice is much later than that of oil and natural gas, it is covered by the sand that is common in the seabed, and it is easy to enter the pipeline and cause failure. In recent years, many countries have been rushing to try to exploit combustible ice, and most have failed.

China uses its own technology, the “stratigraphic fluid extraction test method”, which effectively solves the problem of reservoir fluid control and stable decomposition of combustible ice. China has successfully developed key technologies for exploration testing, such as reservoir reconstruction, prevention of secondary formation of combustible ice, and sand control and discharge. Many of these technologies have exceeded the limits of sand control in the petroleum industry.

The deep development of the earth is less disturbing to the ecological environment than the surface, and more in line with the requirements of ecological civilization construction.

3. Breakthroughs in nuclear fusion research

The nuclear fusion energy generation process does not produce radioactive nuclear waste that pollutes the environment, and the production process is very safe. It is regarded as the most ideal new energy source for human sustainable development. In order to truly utilize the energy of nuclear fusion, it is necessary to control the speed and scale of nuclear fusion to achieve sustained and smooth output of energy.

In March 2016, W7-X, the world’s largest pseudo-star fusion device built by the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Max Planck Institute, successfully produced the first hydrogen plasma. In July 2017, the full superconducting Tokamak EAST of the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences achieved a new world record with a steady-state long pulse high-constrained plasma operation of 101.2 seconds. In November 2017, Sandia National Laboratories opened deuterium and tritium controlled nuclear fusion experiments, marking the beginning of a new phase in US nuclear fusion research.

At present, the international community is generally facing an energy crisis, so many countries have vigorously developed nuclear fusion research, and we are waiting for more technological breakthroughs.

(b)  Transportation

1.Autonomous Cars

The transport industry will alter dramatically as new and advanced technology becomes more widely accessible and affordable. In the future, the need for a driver will be eliminated. Self-driving cars will gradually become a reality.

Self-driving cars look set to join the roads sooner rather than later, with some companies such as Google have already tested them out. Tesla has already announced that its semi-autonomous trucks should be on the market come 2019,

With continued research and development, autonomous car technology will likely become a safer alternative to human drivers, with additional economic and environmental benefits. Removing human control from the vehicle will potentially help cars reach their designed fuel economy, leading to less gas consumption and reduced cost of vehicle ownership.

2. Vertical-takeoff airplanes for intracity travel

Small quadcopters can carry packages, while larger versions can be used to carry passengers. Several companies are already working on prototypes that can takeoff and landing vertically. These planes use a stack of propellers to lift off, eliminating the need for a runway. Sophisticated software in these vehicles controls each propeller independently. That makes the aircraft safer and more stable than a helicopter: If one or two propellers were to fail, these aircraft can compensate with the other propellers and land safely.

Once the technology is perfect, it may greatly change the way people travel in big cities. Uber envisioned a network of dozens of aircraft that could take off vertically. Passengers can take the car to the nearest direct terminal and take the city plane to the destination terminal. It is very convenient and fast without traffic jams.

3. The acceleration of high-speed trains

High-speed railway referred to as “high-speed railway”, refers to the railway with high standards of infrastructure design speed and safe and high-speed running for trains on the track. High-speed railway has different regulations in different countries, times and academic fields. Since 2004, China’s high-speed rail officially opened its first high-speed rail line, and now it has the world’s largest mileage. In the development of more than ten years, In more than a decade of development, China’s high-speed railway has been accelerating from 200km/h to 350km/h, gradually becoming a world leader.

As people’s life paces up, efficiency becomes more and more important. For the people of today, time is money. The development and speeding of high-speed rail is of great significance to China and developing countries. The benefits of a high-speed rail line are very large. If there is such a high-speed rail line with a speed of 350 kilometers per hour in an area, then this area has a very important competitive advantage. The speed and quality of high-speed rail lines are not only an external manifestation of the core competitiveness of a city but also a new demand in the big era.

(c)  Entertainment

1. VR technology

Virtual reality (VR) is the production of a virtual world by computer simulation. In the virtual reality environment, experiencers wearing VR devices can get the simulation of vision, hearing, touch and other senses, just like being in the middle of it. With the development of science and technology, VR has risen rapidly in recent years and become an excellent entertainment tool.

Thanks to VR, people can enjoy an unprecedented virtual experience instead of facing a computer screen. Put on the VR head display, we can be on the game battlefield, can go to any concert or stadium or even interact with movie actors. VR movies and VR games are the fastest growing in the entertainment industry。

VR movies are different from traditional movies in that they allow users to immerse themselves not only as a viewer but as a participant. Justin Lin, director of the Fast and Furious series, directed a VR short film, HELP. Steven Spielberg, the oscar-winning director, has announced plans for a VR film aimed at families. Starting in 2017, the Venice international film festival has added a new VR competition. This means that in the pursuit of extreme immersive movie-watching experience, VR movies are attracting more and more attention.

2. The rise of social video

There’s been an explosion of growth in video on social media in recent years. Views of branded video content have increased by 99% on YouTube and 258% on Facebook. Facebook executives predict video will dominate social media.

The new media era has shattered our time into pieces. The length of the video is shrinking because of it. People are more likely to record and share video in less than 30 seconds. Social short video is exactly what we need. The short video, which can be started and stopped at any time. It effectively fills the need of information receiving in fragmentation time. Video socialization, as the latest social way in the micro-social era, integrates the dynamic perspective of text, voice, and picture. In the form of short video, it can more intuitively and stereoscopically meet the user’s needs of expression and communication, and meet the demands of display and sharing among people.

With the popularization of artificial intelligence devices and the rapid development of network information technology, short video, as the “new generation text” meets the information needs of more and more users with its fragmentation and entertainment.

3. The rise of live streaming

Live streaming has exploded over the past few years as a dangerous competitor to traditional broadcasting and content streaming. Live streaming is an emerging social networking method that draws on and continues the advantages of the Internet and uses video to conduct live broadcast online.

The live streaming platforms are derived from social platforms, so it is generally used to share life. In the live broadcast launched by facebook live, its content also tends to be based on the entertainment style of social communication. There are a lot of very popular live streaming. For instance, live broadcast of American housekeeping queen Martha Stewart and talk show host Seth Meyers, live broadcast of the hot music drama Aron Burr, live broadcast of gossip media Buzzfeed and so on.

It is not only social media where live streaming has become popular though. Streaming of video games especially multiplayer online games has risen in popularity leading to the rise of eSports as platforms such as Twitch have enabled the gaming community to watch, broadcast and discuss video games.

 Live streaming has risen to become a widely accepted and common aspect of today’s digital age and is already branching out into other forms of media, for example, professional sports events are not only being televised but streamed live online as well.

 

References

[1] Foteini M S, “Electrocatalysts for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen and synthesis gas”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Volume 58,

[2] International Battery Metals announces the successful live demonstration of its lithium extraction technology https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/international-battery-metals-announces-the-successful-live-demonstration-of-its-lithium-extraction-technology-2018-12-05

[3] 5 Advancements in Transportation Technology

https://onlinemasters.ohio.edu/blog/5-advancements-in-transportation-technology/

[4] Timothy B. Lee, “9 radical changes that are coming to transportation”

https://www.vox.com/new-money/2017/4/26/15363592/tesla-uber-google-waymo-spacex-innovation

Annual world-wide edible food production is enough to feed over ~7 Billion people. However, despite this alarming truth, nearly 1 billion people are suffering from chronic hunger today. There are a wide range of factors that contribute to this problem, but perhaps one of the most significant is poor food distribution. Where do you think Industrial and Systems Engineers could play an active role? Discuss the role of Industrial and Systems Engineers in managing the logistics of food distribution. How does the application of technology help in managing the

logistics? What are some of the Industrial and Systems Engineering tools and techniques which can be employed to ensure effective distribution?

1.Introduction

Annual worldwide edible food production is enough to feed people all over the world. However, nearly 1 billion people are suffering from chronic hunger today. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates one-third of all food produced worldwide is lost or wasted. According to the World Food Programme “in Developed Countries, food is often wasted on the plate, while in developing countries it is lost in production, as crops go unused or unprocessed because of poor storage or because the farmers cannot get their goods to market”. If we have better food distribution logistics or logistics supply chains, there would be less food waste and more hungry people can get food. It has been said that hunger is not caused by a lack of food but by a problem of food distribution logistics. Insufficient attention appears to be paid to current global food distribution logistics losses, which are probably substantial.

Food logistics is the physical flow process of food from the supplying place to the receiving place, have been identified as key to solving world hunger. According to the actual needs, the basic functions of food transportation, storage, loading and unloading, handling, packaging, circulation processing, distribution, information processing, and other organic integration process.

2. Role to logistics of food distribution

It is well known that industrial and systems engineering can utilize specialized knowledge and skills, as well as principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to help project, evaluate, and optimize certain systems.

There are lots of processes in the logistics of food distribution that Industrial and Systems Engineers can manage and improve to make food logistics more efficient and rational.

Firstly, establish modern food logistics and construct the food supply chain. The transformation of traditional basic logistics into integrated logistics mode, supply chain logistics management mode, can fully play the role of logistics link. Secondly, the introduction of advanced logistics hardware equipment, with modern logistics technology to promote food logistics rationalization.

Thirdly, promoting intensive joint distribution, reducing enterprise logistics costs and implementing the integration of distribution, circulation. This can not only accelerate the establishment of food logistics standardization system but also establish food logistics quality and safety assurance system

3. Techniques for logistics of food distribution

The tools and techniques of Industrial and Systems Engineering to help the logistics of food distribution and effective distribution are discussed in detail below.

  1. Supply chain logistics

Logistics and supply chain industry technology has developed rapidly in recent years. Now food distribution logistics is basically inseparable from the supply chain, and that supply chain management is also very important to food distribution.  Supply chain management (SCM) is the process of optimizing the operation of the supply chain from purchasing to satisfying the end customer with the least cost. We can think of hungry people as consumers, so we need to meet the need to get food to them quickly and in large quantities.

The core idea of supply chain management is the “system” thinking concept and “flow” thinking concept. The optimization of all activities in the supply chain should aim at the overall optimization, and the operation and management of each link should be as smooth as a river. By applying the management concept of integrated supply chain logistics, food manufacturing enterprises and distribution enterprises can achieve synergy in the supply chain. For example, supply chain partner resource sharing which means building a distribution network and implement information sharing. When one or several manufacturing plants are used to serve one or more groups of geographically dispersed distributors, the distribution network needs to be adjusted when the original demand pattern changes or the external conditions change. In this way, through strong Internet technology, people in different regions need food to be known at any time. Food manufacturers can regulate multi-regional distribution companies to immediately adjust their distribution plans and deliver food to “customers“ in a timely manner.

Information sharing ensures timeliness and accuracy in the food distribution process, improves the efficiency of the food supply chain, reduces logistics costs, and improves food distribution efficiency.

  1. Modeling and Simulation

The establishment of a food distribution logistics model is very important to the actual food logistics. Modeling and Simulation of logistics system is the assistance of modern logistics, which can greatly reduce the cost and possible problems in logistics. The modern food distribution environment is very complex, with many non-deterministic and fuzzy factors and complex causal relationships. It is difficult to describe or solve the problem by using mathematical methods alone, which makes it necessary to apply the computer to model and simulate.

The modeling and simulation software was used to simulate the food distribution center. In the beginning, the real and valid data collected are input into the computer simulation model. Then all kinds of automatic sorting conveyor belts are simulated. By combining logistics points, distribution centers, GIS maps, distribution personnel, distribution vehicles and other variables, the dynamic process of the logistics center’s operation on the surrounding logistics points can be obtained. In the end, the relevant data can be obtained by accelerating the time. Modify through data feedback to a reasonable logistics distribution plan, in order to save time and cost.

Figure 1 3D logistics simulation

The current logistics system modeling and simulation is to determine the relevant factors in reality as far as possible, and use simulation software to simulate and calculate logistics activities. In order to reduce unnecessary loss and time in logistics activities.

  1. Big data analysis

The strategies of competitive advantage are changing dramatically because of high technology development. The data size in the world is multiplying rapidly. Therefore, data on food distribution, both nationally and internationally, have become huge. Big data analytics has the potential for positive impact and global implications. Food logistics is looking at big data to provide answers to many related issues, particularly the efficiency and effectiveness of food distribution. The logistics market is dynamic and random, so it is necessary to analyze the market changes in real-time and extract the current logistics demand information from the massive data. At the same time, the allocated and to be allocated resources are optimized, so as to realize the reasonable utilization of logistics resources.

Komal Ahmand started creating an app called Copia in the San Francisco Bay Area, connecting unwanted food to communities that need help. Copia offers a service for donating food on demand, and companies can donate their remaining, ready-to-eat food to nearby shelters through Copia, as well as other non-profit organizations. Through such a simple matching process, help more people in need. Copia provides technical support for its services through a database. After a comprehensive analysis of food types, geographic location, delivery frequency, and other factors, the food to be donated is distributed to the appropriate organizations and institutions. After determining the source of the donated food, the App will automatically match it to the nearby institution, and then arrange a driver to complete the pickup and delivery work.

Big data analysis can improve transportation and distribution efficiency, reduce logistics costs, and more effectively distribute food. The data of all goods circulation, logistics express company, supply and demand sides are effectively combined to form a huge instant information platform, thus achieving fast, efficient and economical logistics.

 

References

[1] World Food Programme, “Zero Hunger”, https://www.wfp.org/zero-hunger?_ga=2.250816206.958932324.1568385073-1543142713.1568385073

[2] Donald Bowersox, Supply Chain Logistics Management (4th ed.), McGraw-Hill Education, 2012

[3] Jack G.A.J, “Simulation modeling for food supply chain redesign; Integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics”, International Journal of Production Research, 30-Jun-2008

[4] Simcad, https://www.createasoft.com/distribution-center-simulation

[5] Valentas G, “Big Data Concept in the Food Supply Chain: Small Markets Case”, Scientific Annals of Economics and Business, 2016, 15-28

[6] Laura Ling, “Solving World Hunger Is Just A Matter of Logistics”, https://www.seeker.com/solving-world-hunger-is-just-a-matter-of-logistics-2318305381.html

 

 

 

 

 

Q3:Since 2001, the airline industry has been going through numerous challenges. In addition to the growing need for safer skies, airlines are also challenged by increasing fuel prices and airline maintenance costs. This industry is constantly attempting to devise strategies to decrease costs and wait times. Discuss some of these strategies adopted by leading airlines that were introduced in the last two decades. As an Industrial and Systems engineer, what do you think are some

techniques and methodologies that can help the airline industry to become more profitable and improve their customer satisfaction?

As the problem said the airline got challenges about safety, fuel prices, and airline maintenance costs. In fact, airlines want to fix these problems, they may not have to solve these problems directly. Imagine that, if airlines can save money from the reservation process, consignment process and service process than they will have extra money to face the expensive fuel problem and maintenance costs problem.

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 For example, Air Deccan chose do not provide food and beverage in flight to reduce flight crew cost and food cost, of course, that way can direct save cost but when airlines  try to save cost they also need to care about customer experience, this way may not useful for every airline except some cheap airline. Then what is the general way to save cost for an airline, as we know almost every airline is doing the same thing which is overbooked. Overbook is a good way to maximize benefits, because not every customer will show up to the flight, they are always a small part of customers will miss or change their flight because of some reason, if airline do not sell more tickets than the money of tickets be changed and missed just gone.  Overbook is a general strategy but may not be the best strategy, because how many tickets should sell more is an important  problem, we always see some news that people argue with airlines because they are forced to get off the plane or forced to change the flight, then people comment under   airlines Facebook or Twitter ask them why they are doing these or condemn their actions, and that  will directly affect the public praise of airlines. Even airlines careful decisions about how many tickets oversell but these kinds of things will always have small probability happen. 

 So is there any better strategy for airlines to reduce costs. As an international student, I travel a lot by airplane, I find out that there are few ways can help airlines reduce cost also do not affect customer satisfaction. When I was check in at the airport, I found out that I need to wait at least 10 minutes to 30 minutes, sometimes more if the airport is very busy. I think if airlines introduction of self baggage check in, Imagine if a customer doesn’t have to stand in queue. An automated self check in system helps in minimizing the costs such as less staff for check in, faster check in and will further result in improved customer satisfaction. Actually also as the cheap airline southwest airline got the better strategy. To make sure the customer satisfaction southwest airline make a few policies, one of them is customers can cancel the flight within 30 minutes before the plane takes off, and the fund they can use it in future flight with southwest airline. This policy improves their customer satisfaction, even because of some reason they have to cancel the flight or because overbooking they have to ask some customers change the flight.


 Airlines can also the introduction of weight range based baggage procuring system, based on this a customer can buy a package for baggage based on the requirement at optimal prices while booking the tickets itself. If a customer wants to carry 18 kg luggage, they can purchase a package of range 15-20 kg at a certain price. This will boost customer satisfaction as they don’t need to pay any extra amount.

Web check-in is also a good strategy, a customer who is traveling with hand baggage and no baggage for check in can skip the queue at the airport for obtaining boarding pass and approach directly to the security counter. This will also improve customer satisfaction and the wait time at the airport.

 

References

[1] How is Southwest different from other airlines

https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/061015/how-southwest-different-other-airlines.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q4:Discuss two instances of such inter domain application of ideas that transformed an industry with illustrative examples. Compare and contrast their characteristics.

Learn from other industries and absorb the good thing is a clever way to make innovation in your industry, area or domain. You can analogy at various levels, from services, processes, strategies, models or their culture and leadership. There are many examples of borrowing ideas from other industries, I am going to analyze two of them, Owen Maclaren’s pram and Mc Donald’s drive-thru.

1.When baby landing gear meets pram


Figure 1.1 A pram in India, about 1902.            Figure 1.2 Stroller designed by Maclaren

Owen Maclaren is a former test pilot and aviation engineer, but famous for his design on baby gram. He used the knowledge of lightweight load-bearing airplane structures to create a new type of foldable stroller when he visited his daughter and her baby wheeling. Maclaren wants to make a pram that could fold tightly, lightweight and easy-to-go, become the preferred of active families. This innovation leads to a new generation of baby prams, and Maclaren was horned by the Queen as a member of the British Empire.

So, how could landing gear inspired gram? Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft, it supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing the craft to take off, land and taxi without damage. An aircraft landing gear is usually contained by wheels equipped with simple shock absorbers. Some landing gear also needs to face a severe situation, such as snow, ice, and rain.

 Before the stroller Maclaren created, parents always use prams that are larger and heavier. The old-fashioned pram is contained by big wheels and a long pull rod without any damping device. It is only suitable for flat ground, and it is hard for parents pushing it. Maclaren uses the idea of landing gear, adding suspension in the wheel component which makes the ride smoother for both the baby and the person who is pushing it. Maclaren made pram more portable and more convenient.

2.When the pit stop meets McDonald’s

         Figure 2.1 McDonald’s Drive-Thru                   Figure 2.2 Pit Stop in Formula 1

In the US, drive-throughs account for 70 percent of McDonald’s business and the average drive-through order is fulfilled in under three and one-half minutes. The Drive-thru concept is based on the principles of a fast Formula 1 pit stop. A pit stop is a vehicle stop for new tires, repairs, refueling, mechanical adjustment, etc. The speed and accuracy of a pit stop is a very important part during a race, it will directly influence the win or loss. Mc Donald’s use of this concept make set up a brand new food business model, Drive-Thru. If you are starving, or need to grab a cup of coffee, and you do not have enough time to walk in then Drive-thru is your best choice. To adjust the new model McDonald renew its menu to make the process more efficient and accurate. Also, the growing of choose drive-thru makes car industries added cup holders in cars.

Before the drive-thru service, people who were driving had to park their car, walk-in, order food, wait order and take their food. This process usually takes 6-10 minutes, but with drive-thru, people can take their food in just 3 minutes without park their car.

3. Further analyze of two examples

Landing gear vs. Pram

Pit stop vs. Drive-thru

Intention

Better usage

Innovation

Form

Concept

Model

Outcome

Foldable, Portable, Easy-to-go  

New trending model, also inspired other industry

Table 3.1 Differences between two examples

The invention of modern baby pram and drive-thru both are wonderful examples of crossing industries innovation. However, there are some differences between them.

3.1 Form

Baby pram absorbed the damping concept and the double wheels on each support from landing gear, and drive-thru moved the model of pit stop and well adjusted in their day-to-day business. Bring concept from other domain always improve parts of entity, like pram, it uses the knowledge of landing gear, by adding damping devices to make both parents and babies comfort. Drive-thru is using the system from Formula 1, set up a new model that similar to Formula 1 but more suitable for the fast-food industry. 

3.2 Support facility

Pram just uses the concept directly from landing gear, while drive-thru adding some new components into that model that makes the whole system more complete. McDonald’s investigates the influence between menu and weather, event, traffic or time-delay. By using ‘Decision Technology’, the McDonald’s can easily change the display of the menu to adjust the purchase pattern right now. So hypothetically, if the McDonald’s is near a stadium that always hold sports event, to shorten the process time, the electric menu may highlight the combo deals and Dollar Menu. Or if is raining and cold, then the electric menu may put hot drinks above.

3.3 Change

Pram analogy the damping device from landing gear, install small damping device on wheels, and also, it uses double wheels on each support for better holding power. All of these concepts are the same as landing gear. However, McDonald’s made some changes in some aspects to make drive-thru works more smoothly. For instance, renewing the menu to make orders be easily prepared and enhance the accuracy of each order. Making more combos and meals could decrease the workload of operators. Besides, burgers are not the only options, with the entry of dip-free tacos and boneless fried chicken. What is more, to sustaining evaluate the performance of drive-thru and improve the result of each order, drive-thru offers multiple windows to serve or more cashiers.

3.4 Influence

The invention of drive-thru trending more and more fast food industries adding drive-thru in their business. Nowadays, drive-thru is the first option for people who want to have some fast food. To adjust this kind of new dietary habits, automobile industries were adding several cup holders beside each seat. And the innovation of pram changes the life of active families. Parents no longer need to take heavy pram or holding baby during their trip, all they need is a lightweight, easy-to-go pram. Moms are relieved by these new type prams, and pram is becoming much more safety and portable these days, and people are more focus on stylish type.

4.Conclusion

Innovation is not specific to one industry or restricted by one aspect. Cross-industries innovation is not about copying and pasting, but about adapting, absorbing, perfecting, simulating and experimenting. Updating never stops, you must keep your pace with development. The most important thing is to take people’s fancy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

[1] Resource, 15 cool examples of cross-industry innovation in action

http://www.crossindustryinnovation.com/15-examples/

[2] Maclaren’s history, history & heritage

https://www.maclaren.us/history-heritage

[3]  Paola Bellia, Cross-industries innovation: How Formula 1 has impacted fast-food dining?

https://blog.ehl.edu/cross-industries-innovation-how-formula-1-has-impacted-fast-food-dining

[4] Drive-thru efficiency

Purdy, Chase (20 June 2017). “Americans won’t wait more than four minutes for a slightly less disgusting hamburger”. Quartz (publication). Retrieved 20 June 2017.

[5] Kaitlyn Tiffany,  McDonald’s new drive-thru menus will change based on the weather, traffic, and time of day

https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2019/3/27/18284045/mcdonalds-tech-startup-artificial-intelligence-menu-drive-thru

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