For some individuals, the forest is something insignificant and not necessary for those struggling to think what would happen to the forest in a place. This is because of what they think the forest is not important and does not directly affect their lives. But they were not aware that the forest is directly affecting his life. The simplest example is that people need and depend on oxygen to survive. If forests are not maintained properly, then the oxygen is supplied for human consumption is also becoming less. When this happens, it will start to be affected human health. Poor health will affect the productivity of the individual. This shows that forests have an influence on the lives and achievements of a community. Karjalainen et al., (1997) said, environmental changes may also have implications for the long-term development of the forest resource, and thus affect the responsibility that European forests play in the future global biospheric carbon balance (Karjalainen et al., 1997)
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Unfortunately, at present, people still take easy the issue of forests. Only those who are know about the importance of forest will expression it. Total forest area is decreasing. This occurs mainly in developing countries. According to Benjamin Cashore in his research in 2006 said, data collected on biodiversity, species decline, and deforestation tell common deterioration of forest ecosystem structure and function. Research on social and community conditions has documented increasing improbability about the ability of forest-dependent communities to rely on forests for their livelihoods. Analyses of economic globalization and technological innovations have detailed speeding up of forest exploitation beside increasing uncertainty for domestic forest sectors about where international trends are headed. Taken together, existing research exposed a complex yet fragile relationship between forest use and the natural functioning of forest ecosystems.
Forestry in Kenya faces a number of challenges, which are closely linked to speedy human population growth (KEFRI 2000, 2005). The limited area of gazette forestland, which is estimated to be 1.7% of the total land area, is decreasing.( Langat D & Cheboiwo J ,2010). The issue of forests in Kenya is having a relationship with a increasing population. Increasing in population provides challenges in maintaining the forest to stay protected. In poor countries and developing countries, people living in a less plan structured, mostly in rural areas. This include in water supply, electricity, sewerage, drainage and others. When there is no comprehensive and thorough planning, it will pollute the environment and exploitation of forest resources, such as wood for fuel. When population increases, pollution and disposal of forest will get worse. According to Pepper (1989) The relevant forethought of Malthus is that the environmental degradation stemming from over population growth would continue to reduce the availability of potential natural resources to meet human needs.
Today, humans are accelerating the rate of this process by radically changing the conditions under which forests develop. In the tropics, deforestation, land cover change, and growth of agricultural activities are examples of anthropogenic conflict that are transforming the landscape and changing familiar forest ecosystems. Anthropogenic disturbances are responsible for a legacy of millions of hectares of abandoned landscapes with unusual forest ecosystems (Grainger, 1988).
Malaysia, now almost deforested, was once the leading supplier of logs to the world.
( K. S. Jomo and others, 2004). As the general knowledge, the logging is provide fast and lucrative returns. This could be the reason why developing countries prefer to destroy the forest; they want to achieve development and are willing to let go something very valuable. This contributed to decline in the total forest area of the world. Deforesting caused by logging due to forest is cut down so rapidly. The table below shows the total forest area in Malaysia is gradually reduced and the amount of timber harvested is also decreasing.
Principal Statistics of Forestry and Logging, 1987-2006, Malaysia
Year Forest Area Production of logs
( '000 ) ( '000 )
Hectares Cubic Metres
1987 19,794 35,251
1988 19,707 36,486
1989 19,706 40,812
1990 19,618 40,100
1991 19,441 39,859
1992 19,296 43,510
1993 19,169 37,260
1994 18,974 35,671
1995 18,903 31,641
1996 18,785 30,140
1997 18,794 31,161
1998 18,702 21,672
1999 18,716 21,887
2000 18,694 23,073
2001 18,459 18,922
2002 18,411 20,649
2003 18,380 21,531
2004 18,338 22,039
2005 18,313 22,399
2006 18,302 21,740 Listen
Source: Department of statistic report
Main attack on the forest involved rubber plantations. After Malaysian independence in 1957, government land-development schemes led the switching gradually from rubber to oil palm (K. S. Jomo and others, 2004). Agriculture is done on a large size by government and society also can affect and wipe out the forest. Even though the land used for agricultural purposes, but the soil structure has been changed to fit the rubber and oil palm farming. This will cause the original land hilly or flat will changes in requirements. In addition, when forests are cut down to make a large farm, it will cause a lot of flora and fauna, loss their habitat and accelerate extinction. As an addition, the decreasing in total forest area in the world will show at appendix 1 and 2.
2.2 The problems faced by developing countries in maintaining forest
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Population growth, during the first stages of development, is recognized as a valuable fundamental biological process that generates human resource. Given the state of technological development, during this stage, human resource increase was seen as a positive factor that stimulates economic growth. But continuous increase, at an unstable scale, has resulted in exploitation of environmental resources and a waste of human resource. Misuse of environmental resources constitutes degradation activities such as depletion of resources and pollution of the environment whereas human resource wastage involves loss of human effort at the individual as well as the society level (Sergeldin, 1993). When a country is in poor condition or are being developed, the rapid increase in population, a more severe impact to the forest. This is because, the rapidly growth population will causes the poverty, lack of resources mediocre food and drinks, fuel, shelter, and so on. If this became an issue and the government did not take effective preventive measures, which the victim is a forest. Residents will make the forest as a place to hunt for food, exploiting the use of the river, and living near forests to enable them to continue daily routines. This dilemma experienced by developing countries, to preserve the forest and at the same time the population continues to grow.
Population concentration has contributed to undesirable environmental impacts within and in the surrounding area of the cities and towns. One of the undesirable environmental impacts of urbanization is the continuous interruption of ecological balance through lateral expansion. An unprecedented increase in the demand for fuel, building materials, space for house etc., results in the conversion of prime farming lands that are located at the periphery of cities and towns. (Hua,1992). As well known, developing countries can not escape from doing the construction of buildings, schools, roads, hospitals, roads and railways. This could also be said as the process of urbanization, and at the time process is implemented, it requires a variety of materials to do the construction. Most of the material comes from forests and natural resources such as sand, nails made of steel, wood from trees in the forest, cement and stone for use in concrete, and so on. This shows the necessity of sacrificing natural resources and forests alone to do urbanization. Rich countries also will import construction materials from the developing country. This situation will only worsen the condition of forests in developing countries. It also could be called problems faced by developing countries in maintaining forest. According to Hoogstra et al., 2004) urbanization is one of the most evident global changes in the world. During the last century, rapid urban growth has exerted heavy pressures on land and resources, in urban as well as rural areas .
In the developing world, labor and inputs to produce goods and services are cheap if compared with developed countries. This is a factor why developed countries are interested in investing in developing countries. When the labor and input is in cheap, firms will get more profit, in addition to producing more goods and have economies of scale. Developed countries which invest in developing countries will have positive and negative effects. Among the positive is to provide employment opportunities to people in developing countries, to bring the latest technology, and create competition and make existing firms more competitive and effective. Beside that in negative effects, many industrial areas must be opened. Industrial area is a large area and requires a longer planning to build. Large areas that need this, sometimes have to use the area was previously forested areas. This situation also shows that developing countries had chosen the industry sector to continue develop, despite having to sacrifice the forest.
Australia is currently a net importer of traditional forest products. Supplementary, population growth can potentially raise future domestic demand for forest products. Even though its share in global trade is small, there are also new opportunities such as trade in forest wastes in the growing bioenergy market in Europe. (Kah Low and Sinniah Mahendrarajah,2010). Revenue from forest products is very valuable, and this includes the roots, plants, animals to promote healing of various diseases. Beside to treating diseases, forest products and natural ingredients are also used in many beauty products. Developed countries, more depend on imports of forest products from developing countries and value added it to make their product. Revenue from the sale of this forest product, more interested developing countries to continue exploit their forest. They are thinking short-term gains for increase the income of his country and doing development.
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The lack of supervision resulted in the devastation of forest and Park facilities, the hunting of bears and fishing with dynamite. Several villages in and around the northern boundary were also ruined (B. von Droste in litt, 1991). This shows that regulation and supervision by a particular party is very necessary to protect the forest. But the regulation and supervision will require substantial funding for a forest. This is a problem for developing countries because they do not have sufficient funds to maintain the forest as a whole. They rely on developed countries to contribute funds and receive compensation for not doing the deforestation. If do not get any compensation or get not enough, developing countries tend to not protect their forest.
2.3 Measures taken to preserve the forest Developing Countries
There are various ways by developing countries to conserve forests. According to Audrey L. Mayer and Paivi M. Tikka (2006), policies which successfully protect both forest biodiversity and the economic productivity of forests are of significance to both ecological and socioeconomic sustainability goals. This indicates that an appropriate and widespread policy is necessary to maintaining the forest even though the country is experiencing a process of development. If developing countries are still looking to the suit policy for their country, that country should look to countries that already have policies and has proved successful. If not, the country had to do research that takes a long time to get results. In the waiting for a decision, many forest areas will be exploited. This is disadvantageous to the country; the country is also able to save without do the research.
Protect forests in the private area is quite complicated. So, the government can encourage owners to preserve the area of the forest. Way is by providing economic incentives to owners who follow the rules and regulations set by the government. In addition , according to Audrey L. Mayer and Paivi M. Tikka (2006), programs usually use economic incentives to purchase rights such as clear cutting or other extractive activities, which are understood to modify the quality or character of the forest. Some programs may offer additional incentives for activities, which improve or restore forest quality or particular characteristics, such as critical habitat for certain species. But the incentive must be able to attract the owners. If not, the incentives will only be a matter of vanity and will not be successful when implemented.
Forest management is an important carbon mitigation strategy for developing countries. As demonstrated by the case of Mexico, community forest management is especially effective because it offers tangible local benefits while conserving forests and sequestering carbon. ( Daniel Klooster, Omar Masera. 2000)
The conservation strategies that are developing to address these challenges reflect a more comprehensive and bioregional approach to tropical forest conservation. Current conservation efforts in the Osa Peninsula highlight the relationship of center conservation areas to surrounding conservation and defense areas through the Osa Biological Corridor, a component in the greater effort to maintain and restore the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, a global initiative to maintain a biogeographic corridor between North and South America. Such connectivity promotes migration and the genetic exchange necessary to maintain viable wildlife populations within the region and between two continents. (Thomas T. Ankersen, Kevin E. Regan, Steven A. Mack. 2006)
Forest fire control is important to the protection of forest resources and promotion by forestry development. China plans to increase its overall ability for fire prevention and control; emphasis will be placed on prevention. Publicity will be strengthened in forested areas to increase public knowledge about fire prevention. A fire prevention target responsibility system will be strongly implemented by government officials at various levels. (Li Wenhua.2004) Measures taken by China, other than to preserve the forests, it also can protect air quality. Air pollution caused by forest fires not only involves a country, but neighboring countries are also affected.
In China, the problem of forest pests and diseases remains particularly serious with an increasing number of pests and diastases, extension of affected areas and a reduction of intervals between outbreaks. At present, there are many problems facing prevention and control. It is needed to establish a control system, with its major goal to lower the regularity of incidences and to increase the coverage of prevention, quarantine and monitoring activities. (Li Wenhua.2004) If an area of forest is protected, but there are exist pests and diseases that may endanger the flora, fauna or human, it is very disadvantageous. To overcome this problem, the specific person must be responsible to control from the beginning before it spreads. Forest should be monitoring always by this person.Listen