Edward U. Condon, 1968, defined UFO (short for unidentified flying object), as an object seen in the sky and thought to be capable of flight , which observers could not identify. Most scientists studying UFOs adopt such a definition. According to Ruppelt,1956, the first reported photograph of a UFO was made on July 4th, 1947 in Seattle, Washington. Edward U. Condon, 1968 presented a scientific study on UFOs, which influenced the research of UFOs.
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Since that time, Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), Center for UFO (CUFOS) Centre Nationale d’~tudes Spatiale Studies (CNES) Group d’~tude des Phhnom5mes Ahrospatiaux Non-Identifiis (GEPAN) has emerged to carried out UFO research. (P. A. Sturroc, 1987). The UFO phenomenon has puzzled the public and the scientist for almost half centuries. According to Patricia B. Corbett, 2015, about 70% American believed that UFOs were real at the beginning of the 21st century.
Don Berliner, 1995, UFO was reported in Government Statements, some was discovered by Radar , some was witnessed by narrator , some was observed by telescope. The Air Force Environmental Technical Applications Center released 3,200 UFO reports received during 1947 -1952. According to Menkello, F.V.,1969, Most UFOs could be observed in daylight with simple geometric shapes: spheres, discs, cylinders and triangles. Gillmor, Daniel S.1969 reported two witnesses observed UFO, silvery, metallic disc-shaped ,10m diameter as well the geometric, psychological and physical factors investigated .
The purpose of this study is to establish whether the opinions of the public in regards to UFOs prove the existence of UFOs. Nearly all of the world’s populaces that have held in reserve written accounts of epochs gone by havedocumented the hearings and sightings of weird objects and illumination in the firmament. These objects have often been depicted as gleaming wheels, colored orbs light beams, and diskshaped bits and pieces. In the present day, inexplicable airborne phenomena are in general known as or rather christened- unidentified flying objects (UFOs) or flying saucers. Innumerable accounts of UFO sightings are present and are properly acknowledged in the literature of the study of the class of UFOs. This area of study is extensively known as ufology (Jacobs, 1975).
I will discuss various literary works on whether the opinions people have about UFOs prove that UFOs are there. This paper will critique the literary works as well as answer questions like whether there are really UFOs in existence? Whether the reports on the existence of UFOs are conclusive? Different literary works will be examined and critiqued to make a final conclusion on the farfetched ideology of UFOs.
The author’s individual records consist of the prime case papers of various past literary works. There are also almost certainly a few aural discussions with key onlookers to the apparent existence. This is a minor primary data base matched up to with the bona fide long-standing case investigators in the field. Some of them are in possession of or have ready contact to the USAF Project Bluebook microfilms consist of all accessible project exploratory papers from the year 1947 to the year 1969 recording almost thirteen thousand sightings. Informal readers would be implausible to encounter an opportunity to interpret such documented documentation even if they aspire to. The closest that such a booklover can get to such data is to interpret either a comprehensive exploration of an exact case assembled by a key case investigator or compilation of facts (Menzel & Tavez, 1977).
An immense pool of scientific information on UFOs can mostly be found only in the published accounts of witnesses. In addition to it, it can be tapped by the vigilant investigation of particulars in distinct well-documented proceedings or in the amalgamation from many analogous instances. Legitimacy of the facts is guaranteed when the records comprise of scientific information that possibly will not probably have been acknowledged to the witnesses. Oddly enough, evidence from uncomplicated, normal people can as a result be the most priceless. It is necessary to put one’s interest upon the observable fact documented rather than the personality of the witness or supplementary diversionary matters. At the time a UFO generates some noticeable outcome in our surroundings, it should be acquiescent to methodical investigation; that is, it is supposed to have a rational elucidation. As a consequence, proficient examination of UFO sightings and stories will more often than not unveil the precise mechanism that generates the pragmatic effect, or at least recognize one that may be dependable. All experimental consequences of UFOs, apart from entirely mechanical procedures and objects, carry propositions of gravitational and electromagnetic fields in their locality.
The impacts that the sightings of extra terrestrial beings or rather objects can bear an unfavorable influence onthe populace if predisposed in the wrong way. There is no concrete attestation that shows that UFOs arein existence, nevertheless scores of the reported sightings cannot be verified otherwise. The facts from the mainstream media, stories, ora person’s own understanding may time and again manipulate what someone perceives to be true. Various administrations had onceavowed that they had gotten a hold of some extra terrestrial beings and objects. On theconverse, a good number of scientists currently seem to be in agreement that approximately all sightings and accounts ofextra terrestrial beings and objects are not bona fide. Since the year 1948, the United States of America administration has proceedingsof many UFO sightings, including photos of alleged UFOs andinterviews with people who claim to have seen them. In view of the fact that UFOs were cut out as an impending security threat the details on these sightings were in the beginningtaken as state secret. As soon as the report was soon after declassified itgave evidence that 90 percent of each and every UFO sightings could be explained without any difficulty (Craig, 1995).
The past accounts of UFO sightings and their societal and opinionated perspective and consequences comprises of the extensive subject matter of this study and offers a position for scrutiny of how experts deal with both in public and in confidence, incongruities that come out in relevance to science. The systematic appraisal of unidentified flying objects, specially undertaken by the Air Force in the year 1968 and christened as the Condon Report; accords a multifaceted case for the investigation of how the results and conclusions of the exploration were predisposed by all that had transpired on before in the area of ufology (Hauck, 1976).
As per the deductions of this case study on how experts conduct themselves when faced with uncharacteristic phenomena, one could investigate substitute models that may be productive to the study of contentious research topics. One may carry out a textual investigation of Air Force intelligence of UFOs and evaluate them with sighting accounts of the public. The proof concerning UFOs incidental and sprouts from individual authentication and eyewitness stories, which are not approved as conclusive evidence; the witnesses act as the tool of breakthrough. In ufology, the most important researchers are proletarian; as a consequence the proof is indefinite and colored by the standpoint and structure of allusion of the individual researcher. Currently, there are many accounts on diverse aspects of the UFO phenomena based on people’s opinions but this does not validate their existence. Don Berliner et al, 1995 presented case history of UFOs during the period 1944-1994.These cases were from thousands of unexplained UFO reports. Some were witnessed by expert, some were described in detail. Some were authenticated . they formed the basis of the UFO mystery. These case histories offered clear patterns for research and should not be consider as collection of disparate observational errors. Each of the cases represented one or more characteristics of UFO reports: physical traces, radar/visual detection, air-to-air sightings and multiple witness observations etc. Most of these cases involved government activity to some extent.
The question in studies of UFO photographs is “does the report have any probative value in establishing the existence of UFO?” and the secondary question is “what is the final explanation of each photograph?”(Edward U. Condon, 1968)
Don Berliner et al, 1995 said the primary question “if UFOs are so different from all known phenomena, what are they?” still remained.
Patricia B. Corbett ,2015 give his answer to the two question “What is needed to change the prevailing view of mainstream science concerning UFOs?” and “what do scientists need to conduct a serious investigation of the UFO phenomenon?”
Paul Hill,1995 discusses the question “Why UFOs Tilt to Maneuver?” in his book “Unconventional Flying Objects: A Scientific Analysis”
CUFOS, 2015, gave the public the answer of the following question:” What are UFOs?”,” Who sees UFOs?” , “ What do UFOs look like?” and “How fast do they move?”
Sturrock, Peter A., 1999 answered the question “If UFOs are real, shouldn’t they produce some real physical effects?”
Edward U. Condon, 1968, carried out a UFO research base on convincing case of photographic evidence and scientific investigation, but Hynek, J. S. (1972) and P. A. STURROC (1987) make specific criticisms on the methodology. A panel of the national academy of sciences, 1968 pointed out that the methodology and approach in were in accordance with accepted standards of scientific investigation. Hynek, J. S. (1972) developed the Close Encounter classification system which was considered as scientific analysis methods for UFOs. Jacques F. Vallee, 1990 carried out A survey of ten cases of UFOs. According to P. A. STURROC, 1987, investigation with one or more considered Extra-terrestrial Hypothesis was carried out in most scientific research.
Scientists need conduct a serious investigation of the UFO phenomenon as the following steps :firstly to observe a physical phenomenon by their own eyes; secondly to formulate a hypothesis about the phenomenon; thirdly to carry out experiments to test the hypothesisv fourthly to draw a conclusions based on the results of the tests. Although today’s scientists are interested in UFOs, they refuse to look into the telescope and unwilling to become involved publicly. (Patricia B. Corbett ,2015). The scientific method should be open minded in the data collecting and analysis without prejudice.
Sturrock, Peter A., 1999 represented a reasonable overview of the physical realities of UFOs.Sturrock, Peter A. began his study with a review of the historically important Condon Report and considered it scientifically flawed. Sturrock, Peter A’s The UFO Enigma addressed the presentations based on substantial evidence. Sturrock also addressed trace evidence which reported landings of UFOs.
A panel of the national academy of sciences,1968 ,review of the university of colorado report on unidentified flying objects, retrieved on Feb,15th ,2015 from http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/homeland_defense/UFOs/nas_re1.pdf
Craig, Roy. UFOs: An Insiders View of the Official Quest for Evidence. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1995.
CUFOS , What are UFOs? – Center for UFO Studies , retrieved on Feb,15th,2015 from http://www.cufos.org/faq_english_p1.html
Don Berliner, Marie Galbraith and Antonio Huneeus UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS BRIEFING DOCUMENT ;THE BEST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE , CUFONS, FUFOR, MUFON ,December 1995, retrieved on Feb,15th,2015 from http://www.openminds.tv/wp-content/uploads/Rockefeller-Briefing-Document.pdf
Edward U. Condon, 1968, Scientific study of unidentified flying objects, released in 1999, retrieved on Feb, 15, 2015, from
http://www.avia-it.com/act/biblioteca/libri/PDF_Libri_By_Archive.org/AVIATION/Final report of the Scientific study of Unidentified Flying Objects Condon E..pdf
Gillmor, Daniel S., ed., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, New York Times Books, 1969.
Hauck, Dennis W., Editor, “Pilot Experiences Electromagnetic Effects,” The MUFON UFO Journal, No. 107, p.11, October 1976.
Hill, Paul R.1995, Unconventional Flying Objects: A Scientific Analysis , Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc., Charlottesville VA. ISBN 1-57174-027-9
Hynek, J. S. (1972). The UFO experience. Chicago: Henry Regnery
Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1975.
Jacques F. Vallee, Physical Analyses in Ten Cases of Unexplained Aerial Objects with Material Samples Journal of Scientific Exploration, 1990
Menzel, Donald and Ernest Taves The UFO Enigma: The Definitive Explanation of the UFO Phenomenon. New York, 1977.
Menkello, F.V., “Quantitative Aspects of Mirages,” USAF Environmental Technical Applications Center, 1969.
P. A. Sturroc, An Analysis of the Condon Report on the Colorado UFO Project, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. I, No. I, pp. 75-100. 1987
Patricia B. Corbett , UFOs – A Challenge to Mainstream Science, retrieved on Feb,15th, 2015, http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc569.htm
Ruppelt,1956, F.J., the report on unidentified flying objects, Garden City, N.Y. doubleday, 1956.
Sturrock, Peter A. The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Scientific Evidence New York: Time Warner, 1999
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