Prevalence of PPR in Goats
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Goats play an important role in sustainable agriculture, employment generation and enhance the traditional economy of Bangladesh. Goats husbandry is one of the most important sources of incomes for rural families, marginal farmers, children, landless laborers and distress women who cannot afford to rear cattle, hence, goat is called "The cow of poor people" in Bangladesh. They provide mainly milk, meat, hides and skins as important export item. There are about 20.75 million goats in Bangladesh (DLS, 2007). The goats had second position in terms of meat, milk and skin production representing about 38.0%, 23.0% and 28.0% respectively to the total contribution of livestock in Bangladesh (Devendra, 2007).
PPR is one of the major problems for the development of goats industry in Bangladesh. PPR is a serious disease threatening the livelihood of poor farmers (Diallo et al., 2007). A Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and infectious disease of goats caused by a morbilli virus and transmitted by direct contact (Awa et al., 2000). The disease had a course of per acute, acute or chronic with very high morbidity and mortality (Jones et al. 1997). Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute febrile viral disease of small ruminants, characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharges, necrotising and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia (Singh et al., 2004; Ismail et al., 1995). PPR has been recognized to a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants, particularly in goats in Bangladesh (Islam et al., 2001). The outbreaks of PPR caused 74.13% morbidity and 54.83% mortality in Black Bengal goats in Bangladesh (Islam et al., 2001; Das et al., 2007).
PPR was first discovered in Ivory Cost in1942. PPR was once thought to be only an African problem, but the recent outbreaks in Middle East and Indian sub-continent causing alarming losses of animals especially goats. Outbreaks of PPR are now known to be common in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and Afghanistan (Banik et al., 2008). The disease is now widespread in tropical and sub-tropical countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and western and southern Asia (Dhar et al., 2002). In Bangladesh, PPR is considered to be prevalent in goats since 1993 (Islam et al., 2001). The seroprevalence of PPR has been reported to be 36.0% in sheep, 49.17% in goats and 19.05% in cattle from Bangladesh ( Razzaque et al., 2004 ).
However, the pattern of PPR disease in goats, prevalence and underlying risk factors in Chittagong district of Bangladesh has not been systematically studied before. Such information could be useful towards understanding the economic importance and epidemiology of PPR in Chittagong as well as Bangladesh. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PPR in goats and to identify risk factors and quantify their degree of association with PPR in goats population kept under different management practices. Such knowledge is essential in planning control strategies against PPR disease.
Materials and Methods
The study was carried out during the period of 2 years (January 2012 to December 2013) at Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) in Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU), Chittagong district of Bangladesh. A total of 5485 goats were admitted during the period of 2 years with individual case registration number having address of owners, patient identification data, owners complain, anamnesis, clinical examination, system affected, and different diagnostic test, diagnosis treatments, follow up, advice and prognosis recorded in this clinical investigation records. Diagnosis of each clinical case was based on clinical history taking from the owner, physical examination, clinical signs and symptoms. The clinical examination of affected goats revealed high fever (106-107°F), oculo-nasal discharge, stomatitis, profuse diarrhea along with dehydration and feces adhere to hind quarter. Inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation methods were used to examine the affected goats (Lefevre and Diallo, 1990). Age was categorized as kids (<4 months), young (4-12 month) and adult (>12 month). The year was divided into three seasons as summer (March to June), rainy (July to October) and winter (November to February) according to the climatic of Bangladesh. Breeds of goats were based on their phenotypic characters as Black Bangle goats, Jamunapari goats and others crossbreed goats.
The total 5485 goat populations registered at Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) in CVASU during the period of 2 years (2012-2013), among of them 493 goats were found to be clinically affected with PPR. Thus the overall prevalence of PPR in goats was found to be (493/5485) 8.99%. The prevalence of PPR was higher in the year of 2013 (271/2707) 10.01% than the year of 2012 (222/2778) 7.99%. In case of monthly observations, highest prevalence was recorded in the month of August (77/560) 13.75% followed by October (70/608) 11.51%, February (39/355) 10.98%, September (66/624) 10.58%, November (52/492) 10.57%, July (44/482)9.12%, April (37/450) 8.22%, June (29/630)8.05%, lower prevalence recoded in the month of December (23/370) 6.21%, January (22/432)5.09%, March (18/361)4.99% and lowest prevalence recorded in the month of May (16/391) 4.09% (Table-1).
The age of goats were categorized as kids (<4 month), young (4-12 month) and adult (>13 month. Among of these age groups, the highest prevalence of PPR in goats was recorded in the young goats 11.72% in compare to kids 6.19% and adult goats 7.52%. The study revealed that the prevalence of PPR was higher in male goats 9.07% than female goats 8.93%. Breed was categorized as Black Bangle goats, Jamunapai goats and others cross breed goats bases on their phenotypic characters. Among of these breed groups highest prevalence was recorded in Black Bangle goats 10.11% in compare to Jamunapari 7.44% and others cross breed goats 7.79%. Season was divided as summer (March to June), rainy (July to October) and winter (November to February) based on climatic condition of Bangladesh. The highest PPR in goats were recorded in rainy season 11.30% followed by winter season 8.25% and summer season 6.40% (Table-2).
The reported prevalence of PPR in goats at present study was 8.99%. In contrary with the results higher prevalence reported by Islam et al. (2012), Sarker and Islam (2011), Rahman et al. (2011), Al-Dubaib (2009), Swai et al. (2009), Mehmood et al. (2009), Ozkul et al. (2002) and Singh et al. (2004) who reported 50.27% in Patuakhali (Bangladesh), 20.57% in Rajshahi (Bangladesh), 55% in Black Bangle goat(BAU), 55.1% seroprevalence in Saudi Arabia, 49.5% seroprevalence in Tanzania, 15.36 % seroprevalence in Pakistan, 20% in Turkey and 32.4% in India. This variation might be due to different geographical location, research period, and different management practices.
The prevalence of PPR in goats with age categorized as kid, young and adults were found to be 6.19% 11.72% and 7.52% respectively with the significant p value (P=0.000). Thus the reported prevalence of PPR was higher in young goats over the adults and kids agreed with the findings of Islam et al. (2012), Sarker and Islam (2011), Rahman et al. (2011), Radostits et al. (2000) and Singh et al. (2004) also reported that the disease is widely prevalent in the young goats less than one year of age. In contrast with the results of present study Singh et al. (2004), Abubakar et al. (2009) who reported that prevalence of PPR was higher at the age of old goats (>12 month). The kids are less susceptible to the disease of PPR might be due to they have maternal derived antibody persist their body before the age of weaning period.
The results of the present study showed that the higher prevalence of PPR was recorded in male goats 9.07% than in female goats 8.93% but p value was not significant (P=0.862). Thus the male goats are more susceptible to PPR than female goats similarities with the results of Sarker and Islam (2011) and Rahman et al. (2004) who also reported male more prone to PPR than female.
The breeds of the goats divided as Black Bangle, Jamunapari and others cross breed goats. In the present study, the highest prevalence of PPR was recorded in Black Bangle goats 10.11% in compare to Jamunapai goats 7.44% and other cross breed goats with significant p value (P=0.005). So that the Black Bangle goats were more susceptible to PPR than Jamunapari and other cross breed goats similar with the findings of Islam et al. (2012), Sarker and Islam (2011) and Mondal et al. (1995) who observed that Black Bangle goats were more susceptible to the PPR in compare to other breed.
Prevalence of PPR in goats due to seasonal variation revealed that highest prevalence was found in rainy season 11.30% in compared to summer season 6.40% and winter season 8.25% with significant p value (p=0.000). Thus the present study showed that the prevalence of PPR was higher in rainy season than summer and winter season disagree with the results of Sarker and Islam (2011) who observed higher prevalence in winter season. This variation might be due to different geographical region and study period.
The highest prevalence of PPR at present study was observed in the month of August 13.75% and October 11.51% in contrast with the findings of Sarker and Islam (2011); Abubakar et al. (2009) who recoded highest prevalence in the month of December (31.68%) and January (30.34%); 32.57% in March and 19.43% in April respectively. Results revealed that the lowest prevalence of PPR was observed in the month of May 4.09% in contrary with this result Abubakar et al. (2009); Sarker and Islam (2011) who reported lowest prevalence in the month of June 1.71% and 9.52% respectively.
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