0115 966 7955 Today's Opening Times 10:30 - 17:00 (GMT)
Place an Order
Instant price

Struggling with your work?

Get it right the first time & learn smarter today

Place an Order
Banner ad for Viper plagiarism checker

Personalised Cancer Treatment: Known Markers in Treatment

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Thu, 19 Apr 2018

Personalised cancer treatment – known markers and what they mean for treatment

Contents (Jump to)

Known markers and what they mean for treatment

Overview

Drug target markers

Diagnostic and prognostic markers

Meta description

Keywords

Copyscape

Known markers and what they mean for treatment

Overview

Personalised, targeted and hormonal treatments all depend on genetic mutations that can be identified in cancer cells to be effective. These mutations are sometimes referred to as “markers”. The markers can manifest through over-expression, lack of expression or mutated expression of specific proteins.

Some markers can be targeted using specific treatments whereas some can act as measurements for disease diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response.

Drug target markers

The genes listed below have all been associated in cancer, the majority of which can also be treated.

Known marker

Cancers they’re associated with / may benefit from targeted therapy

Related treatment/response to treatment

ALK[EB1] – anaplastic lymphoma kinase (*)

  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
  • Familial neuroblastoma (nerve cell)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
  • Crizotinib (Xalkori®)
  • Pemetrexed (Alimta®)

AR – androgen receptor

  • Bladder
  • Breast
  • NSCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Prostate
  • Abarelix (Plenaxis®)
  • Bicalutamide (Casodex®)
  • Flutamide (Eulexin®)
  • Gonadorelin (Factrel®)
  • Goserelin (Zoladex®)
  • Leuprolide (Lupron®)

BRAF – v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1

  • Colon
  • Lung
  • Melanoma (skin)
  • Nervous system
  • Thyroid
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux®)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix®)
  • Vemurafenib (Zelboraf®)

BRCA1 – breast cancer susceptibility gene 1

  • Breast
  • Lung
  • Ovarian
  • Cisplatin (Platinol®)
  • Prophylactic surgery (prevention)

BRCA2 – breast cancer susceptibility gene 2

  • Breast
  • Ovarian
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex®)
  • Prophylactic surgery (prevention)

c-Kit/CD117/SCFR – mast stem cell factor receptor (*)

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)
  • Melanoma
  • Imatinib (Gleevec®)
  • Sorafenib (Nexavar®)
  • Sunitinib (Sutent®)

c-MET/HGFR – mesenchymal epithelial transition factor/hepatocyte growth factor receptor

  • NSCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva®)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa®)

COX-2/PTGS2 – cyclooxygenase-2/ prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2

  • NSCLC
  • Celecoxib (Celebrex®)

EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1 – epidermal growth factor receptor (*)

  • NSCLC
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux®)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva®)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa®)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix®)

ER – oestrogen receptor (*)

  • Breast
  • Female reproductive tract (cervical, fallopian, ovarian, uterine)
  • Anastrazole (Arimidex®)
  • Exemestane (Aromasin®)
  • Fulvestrant (Faslodex®)
  • Goserelin (Zoladex®)
  • Letrozole (Femara®)
  • Leuprolide (Eligard®, Lupron®, Viadur®)
  • Medroxyprogesterone, (Provera®, Amen®, Curretab®, Cycrin®)
  • Megestrol acetate (Megace®, Megace® ES)
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex®)
  • Toremifene (Fareston®)

ERCC1 – excision repair cross-complementation group 1

  • Bladder
  • Colorectal
  • Gastric
  • Lung (NSCLC and SCLC)
  • Ovarian
  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin®)
  • Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin®)

HER2/HER2neu/ErbB-2 – human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (*)

  • Breast
  • Colorectal
  • Gastric
  • Gastroesophageal
  • Ovarian
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®, Rubex®)
  • Epirubicin (Ellence®)
  • Lapatinib (Tykerb®)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx®, Myocet®),
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin®)

KRAS – Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (*)

  • Colon
  • NSCLC
  • Pancreatic
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux®)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva®)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa®)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix®)

MGMT – O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

  • Breast
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (brain)
  • Melanoma
  • NSCLC
  • Oesophageal
  • Oligodendrogliomas
  • Pituitary gland carcinoma
  • Resistant to temozolomide (Temodar®)

MRP1 – multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

  • Breast
  • Head and neck
  • Lymphoma
  • Resistant to doxorubicin (Adrimycin®), vinca alkaloids, methotrexate (Trexall®)

PGP – p-glycoprotein

  • Breast
  • Head and neck
  • Lymphoma
  • Ovarian
  • Resistant to doxorubicin (Adriamycin®), epirubicin (Ellence®), liposomal-doxorubicin (Doxil®), paclitaxel (Taxol®), docetaxel (Taxotere®), vinblastine (Velban®), vincristine (Oncovin®), vinorelbine (Navelbine®)

PIK3CAα – phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha

  • Breast
  • Colorectal
  • Gastric
  • Glioblastoma
  • Lung
  • Ovarian
  • Lapatinib (Tykerb®)
  • Resistant to cetuximab (Erbitux®), panitumumab (Vectibix)
  • Decreased response to trastuzumab (Herceptin®)

PR – progesterone receptor (*)

  • Breast
  • Female genital tract cancer
  • Ovarian
  • Anastrozole (Arimidex®)
  • Exemestane (Aromasin®)
  • Foremifene (Fareston®)
  • Fulvestrant (Faslodex®)
  • Gonadorelin (Factrel®)
  • Goserelin (Zoladex®)
  • Letrozole (Femara®)
  • Leuprolide (Eligard®, Lupron®, Viadur®)
  • Medroxyprogesterone (Provera®, Amen®, Curretab®, Cycrin®)
  • Megestrol acetate (Megace®, Megace® ES)
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex®)

PTEN – phosphatase and tensin homolog

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • Glioblastoma
  • Head and neck
  • NSCLC
  • Resistant to cetuximab (Erbitux®), erlotinib (Tarceva®), gefitinib (Iressa®), panitumumab (Vectibix®), trastuzumab (Herceptin®)

RRM1– ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1

  • NSCLC
  • Pancreatic
  • Decreased response to gemcitabine (Gemzar®), hydroxyurea (Hydrea®, Droxia®)

SPARC – secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine

  • Breast
  • Gastric
  • Head and neck
  • Melanoma
  • Pancreatic
  • Albumin-bound paclitaxel/nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®)

TLE3 – transducin-like enhancer of split

  • Breast
  • Ovarian
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere ®)
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol®),

TOPO2α – topoisomerase IIα

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • SCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®)
  • Epirubicin (Ellence®, Pharmorubucin®)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx®, Myocet®)

TS – thymidylate synthetase

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • Gastric
  • Head and neck
  • Liver
  • NSCLC
  • Pancreatic
  • Resistant to 5-fluorouracil (Adrucil®), cytarabine (Cytosar-U®), pemetrexed (Alimta®)

TUBB3 – Class III -tubulin

  • NSCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere ®)
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol®)
  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine®)

(*) – Targetable genes and proteins that can also be measured to determine treatment response, cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

Diagnostic and prognostic markers

The following markers are all related to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment progress.

Known marker

Associated cancer

Role

α (alpha)-fetoprotein

  • Germ cell
  • Liver

Germ cell tumour staging, prognosis, response to treatment

Liver cancer diagnosis, response to treatment

β (beta)-2-microglobulin

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
  • Lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma

Prognosis, response to treatment

β (beta)-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG)

  • Choriocarcinoma (uterine)
  • Testicular

Staging, prognosis, response to treatment

BCR-ABL fusion gene

  • Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

Diagnosis, disease status monitoring

BRAF (mutation V600E)

  • Colorectal
  • Melanoma

Response to targeted treatment

CA15-3/CA27.29

  • Breast

Treatment success, disease recurrence

CA19-9

  • Bile duct
  • Gallbladder
  • Gastric
  • Pancreatic

Treatment success

CA-125

  • Ovarian

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Calcitonin

  • Medullary thyroid

Diagnosis, treatment success, disease recurrence

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

  • Breast
  • Colorectal

Breast cancer recurrence, treatment response

Colorectal disease advance

CD20

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

Response to targeted treatment

Chromogranin A (CgA)

  • Neuroendocrine tumours

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Chromosomes 3, 7, 17, 9p21

  • Bladder

Disease recurrence

Cytokeratin fragments 21-1

  • Lung

Disease recurrence

Fibrin/fibrinogen

  • Bladder

Treatment response

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4)

  • Ovarian

Disease progression, disease recurrence

Immunoglobulins (antibodies)

  • Multiple myeloma (MM)
  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia (blood)

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Lactate dehydrogenase

  • Germ cell tumours

Staging, prognosis, treatment response

Nuclear matrix protein 22

  • Bladder

Treatment response

Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1)

  • Breast

Grading, treatment planning

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

  • Prostate

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Thyroglobulin

  • Thyroid

Treatment response, disease recurrence

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)

  • Breast

Grading, treatment planning

Meta description

Cancer markers can help with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and can give access to targeted therapies.

Keywords

Cancer markers, genetic markers, diagnostic markers, drug target markers

Copyscape

Checked Sep 2014

CIGNPOST: KNOWN MARKERS AND WHAT THEY MEAN FOR TREATMENT© Cignpost Ltd 2014PAGE | 1


[EB1]If these are genes not proteins then they should be in italics


To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:


More from UK Essays