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a) Based on information given define food additives and explain why food additives are used in manufacturing
Food additives are natural or artificial substances that added in a food by manufactures to enhance its flavor or appearance or to preserve it during some phase of processing, storage or packaging. (Nlm.nih.gov, 2014)
Foods are produce in large amount in manufacturing places so it needed to transport food shops and supper markets all over the places and stored before it’s consumed. Its take more time period of time so that’s why they used food additives in manufacturing. Due to microbial growth foods get poisoning and also dangers of contaminated food and without the use of preservatives, therefor they using different types of additives. (Understandingfoodadditives.org, 2008)
To maintain product quality and freshness –
Fresh foods don’t keep for long time but Food additives delay and prevent spoilage caused by growth of microorganisms, bacteria and oxidation.
- Ascorbic acid -the principal active ingredient in citrus juice, when packaging fruit slices
- Propionates- which naturally occur in cheese, are used similarly in bakery goods to prevent the growth of molds.
To support in the preparation of foods – added substances grant and/or keep up certain qualities connected with different food
- Lecithin used in ice cream
- Pectin using in the jellies and preserves when thickening is desired
- Leaveners used to make breads, biscuits and rolls rise, include yeast, baking powder and baking soda
To make nourishments engaging – the larger part of nourishment added substances are regularly utilized for this Purpose.
- Flavoring agents and coloring agents utilized by processors of food because foods that look and taste good. (foodadditives.org, 2014)
Describe the difference between additives that are ‘Generally Recognized as safe (GRAS) and other food additives
GRAS means generally recognized as safe.it is authorized American food and drug administration. Its test by food safety experts, they made different tests for food additives to give healthy and harmless for humans.
All GRAS food additives introduced after the safety tests. This consider about to improve or maintain safety and freshness, to improve or maintain nutritional value and Improve taste, texture and appearance (Curtis Stevens and Nabor, 2014)
Sometimes some food additives are banned because many countries have many systems. Some developing countries like srilanka some local manufactures adding additives for selling purposes but they even don’t have much knowledge about the food additives and they use it without proper testing (Foodstandards.gov.au, 2014)
Table1.1 : safety standards for food additives (The Diane Rehm Show, 2014)
There are some additives banned by the srilankan health ministry that are,
Aloin, Berbine, Beta-Azarone, Cade oil, Calamus oil, Cocaine,Coumarin, Diethylene glycol, , Estragole, Eugenyl methyl ether, Hypericine, Nitrobenzene, Pyroligenous acid, , Sasafras oil, Thujone,Isothujone and Tonka bean (Sundaytimes.lk, 2014)
GRAS is used only in Europe and us countries because some other countries like mainly Australia have different their own food regulatory systems and legislation
Ammonium malate- INS 349
This food additive don’t have authorized in US or Europe. But its authorizes in the Australia and New Zealand food standard codes
- Cyclamate, INS 952
- Butylated hydroxyanisole (Foodstandards.gov.au, 2012)
Discuss the potential health risks associated with synthetic food additives
There are some food additives it may cost harmful health effects that are
Artificial sweetener: in soft drinks, baked foods, desserts, frozen desserts, cand
Its artificial sweetener it’s 200 times sweeter than normal sugar
Acesulfame-K is used in chewing gum, gelatin desserts and sugar. Earlier it was allowed by FDA to use in soft drinks and it’s used together with aspartame and sucralose.
Acesulfame-K tested in rats; results shows that might cause cancer further more tests in rats, dogs and rabbits shown the effect of thyroid. As a result FDA withdraw its approval of it
Used in yogurt, desserts, flavoring
It’s taken from succulent plant it’s added in supplements, energy drinks and various skin care products. Aloe Vera helps in skin burn and abrasions but if it is taken orally it cause cancer but it’s not truly known for sure which element leads the tumors.
Cheese, other foods like butter
It’s a natural additive used for coloring. It’s get it from seeds of a tropical shrub it’s also causes some allergic to some people
It’s a artificial coloring in candies and other beverages during the test in rats its shows the cancer but FDA approved the color dye but it’s not used in these days
Acesulfame-potassium, saccharin, aspartame may posture slight risk of cancer
.is a chemical link of two amino acids and methanol. Causes cancer
Used in bleaching agent: White flour, bread and rolls
Its leads to cancer in humans but not in mice, however its band by FDA
Clouding agent in soft drinks
Its keeps flavor oils in suspension, giving a shady appearance to soda drink. Pepsi and coke agreed to. Its leaves deposits in body fat and the fat in the brain, liver, any other organs. Scientist found that bromine toxicity in 2 people who used the soft drinks (Cspinet.org, 2014)
Explain the adverse health effects caused by mouldy or rancid food?
Mold can grow in warm, dark areas or where the area has a lot of moisture.
mouldy food is dangerous because such food contaminated with mycotoxins
Figure 2.1Moldy food (Bristol.gov.uk, 2014)
moulds that produce Toxigenic moulds need specifi growth conditions to provid its toxin. it can produce adverse health effects such as inflammation, allergy, and infection. Allergic reactions may be the most common. (Enhs.umn.edu, 2014)
There are some molds found on many foods Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Monilia, Manoscus, Mortierella, Mucor, Oidium, Oosproa, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Thamnidium
It can infect respiratory problems result of exposed specific type of fungal mold. This may have mold related respiratory problem include a persistent cough or wheeze.
Salmonella, can be treated and cured, Stachybotrys chartarum, can cause irritation in mouth, nose and throat and leads to shock, hemorrhage, dermal necrosis and death. (Fsis.usda.gov, 2014)
The chemicals that block the activity of other chemicals or free radicals are called antioxidants. Free radicals are highly reactive and cause damage to cells that may lead to cancer. The antioxidants that are used to neutralize free radicals by the body are called endogenous antioxidants. (Pharm and . Booker, 2014)
Antioxidants prevent a chemical process known as “oxidation,” which is a regular piece of living and maturing. Oxidation damages cells and can lead to the development of disease, including heart disease, and cancer. Antioxidants are found in nuts, beans, grain cereals, and other foods. Even dark chocolate is rich in antioxidants.
Free radicals are very sensitive chemicals that can possibly damage cells. They are made when a particle either picks up or loses an electron. Free radicals are shaped characteristically in the body and assume a vital part in numerous ordinary cell forms.
At high concentration, then again, free radicals can be dangerous to the body and harm all significant parts of cells, including DNA, proteins, and cell layers. The harm to cells created by free radicals, particularly the harm to DNA, may assume a part in the improvement of disease and other health conditions.
In laboratory and animal test results shows expanded level of exogenous antioxidants has been indicated to prevent free radical
Damage that connected with cancer development. Specialists have researched whether taking dietary antioxidant supplement can reduce the danger in cancer. (National Cancer Institute, 2014)
Define E numbers. Describe the advantages of E numbers in food industry
E numbers (the “E” stands for “Europe”) are code numbers that use to identify the food additives that are used in food industry.it is authorized by European food safety authority. This number given to an additives that has pass the approval tests.
These types of numbers are used in some other countries like Australia and New Zealand but without the E. (Food Additives and Ingredients Association, 2012)
E300 for vitamin c
Helps to burs more body fat during workout; helps to give strength and increase circulation; protects the body from free radical damage by absorbing iron from foods helps reduce histamine release in the body; boosts the immune system
Some benefits of E numbers
Helps to reduce the severity and essential for normal thyroid function and metabolism maintain healthy hair, helps protect cells from oxygen damage
Curcumin gives turmeric root its intense yellow color, is used as a natural food coloring.
Has proven anti-inflammatory activity and may therefore be able to alleviate symptoms associated with psoriasis and eczema; has strong anti-cancer properties; can significantly reduce the number of colon polyps
Food coloring. lycopene is separate from tomatoes
Protect the skin from UV radiation, reduce asthma and it have anticancer property
Colouring agent extract from petals of marigold
Keep eye from oxidative stress, helps to prevent wrinkles by increasing hydration
These are the beneficial e numbers for humans
As a result these E numbers are used in manufacturing food items. Its help to prevent from diseases (Healwithfood.org, 2014)
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Sundaytimes.lk, (2014). More than 20 additives to food items to be banned from July 1 | The Sundaytimes Sri Lanka. [online] Available at: http://www.sundaytimes.lk/140216/news/more-than-20-additives-to-food-items-to-be-banned-from-july-1-86050.html [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014].
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National Cancer Institute, (2014). Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention. [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/prevention/antioxidants [Accessed 29 Nov. 2014].
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