- Vijayatheeban Jeyanandan
Ebola virus outbreaks: The deadly and incurable Hemorrhagic fever
Contents (Jump to)
A reported by the World Health Organization (2014) Ebola virus disease once known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a serious, frequently deadly disease, with a case casualty rate of up to 90%. There are no authorized particular medications or vaccine accessible for utilization in individuals or creatures. Stanford education (2014) states that Ebola virus was initially recognized as a possible new “strain” of Marburg virus in 1976. Stanford education states that Ebola infection is initially wide spreading in Sudan and Zaire. Ebola virus is a member of filoviridae family.
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!Find out more
Farrar and Piot (2014) reported that as of September 14, 2014, a total of 4507 confirmed and likely instances of Ebola virus disease, and also 2296 deaths from the infection, had been accounted for from five nations in West Africa — Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sierra Leon. Contact with body fluids demonstrated a solid affiliation. Francesconi et al. (2003) comments that Persons who had immediate physical contact with a infected person were more inclined to have gained the disease.
Peters and Leduc (1999) comments that biomedical science initially experienced the virus family filoviridae when Marburg virus showed up in 1967 and in the late 1970s, the global group was again startled, this time by the revelation of Ebola infection as the causative executor of significant flare-ups of hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sudan. History of Ebola infection can be found online (Stanfort education, 2014) The first outbreaks of infected in excess of 284 peoples, with a 53% death rate. After the few months the second Ebola infection caused from Yambuku, Zaire, Ebola-Zaire (EBOZ). EBOZ, with the most astounding death rate of any of the Ebola infection (88%), contaminated 318 peoples.
In 1989, a novel infection, Reston Ebolavirus (REBOV) was secluded from commonly tainted cynomolgus macaques imported from the Philippines into United States. All shipments aside from one were followed to single supplier in the Philippines; however, the main beginning of the infection and mode of sullying for the office has never been learned. While pathogenic for regularly and tentatively tainted monkeys, constrained information demonstrate that REBOV may not be pathogenic for people as creature overseers without delivering clinical side effects.
A review by Georges et al. (1999) reported that, in 1994, at Gabon, Occured in Mékouka and other gold-mining camps profound in the downpour backwoods. At first thought to be yellow fever; recognized as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 1995. Zuckerman(2008) reported that In 2000, Happened in Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara areas of Uganda. The three most essential dangers connected with Ebola infection contamination were going to funerals of Ebola hemorrhagic fever patients, having contact with infected patients in one’s family, and giving restorative forethought to Ebola infected patients without utilizing sufficient individual defensive measures. In this situation, reported number of human cases is 425 and reported number of deaths among cases is 224.
A review by Sullivan et al. (2003) comments that Ebola was found in 1976 and is a member of the Filovirus family, which are pleomophic, negative-sense RNA viruses whose genome organization is most similar to the paramyxoviridae. Geisbert et al. (2010) states EBOV particles contain a non-infectious RNA genome of roughly 19 kilobases that encodes seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3′ leader, nucleoprotein, virion protein 35 , virion protein 40, glycoprotein, virion protein 30, polymerase L protein, and 5′ trailer.3 Four of these proteins—nucleoprotein, virion protein30, virion protein35, and the polymerase L protein—are associated with the viral genomic RNA in the ribonucleoprotein complex.Crowley and Crusberg (2014) states Ebola viruses are long and filamentious, essentially bacilliform. However the viruses mostly get on a “U” shape. The particles of these viruses can be above 14,000 nm in long and average 80 nm in diameter. Visualscience.ru (2014) states Ebola has a layer envelope its shaped from the film of the host cell during virus budding. The viral molecule additionally catches various human proteins. Ebola surface protein, encoded by the gp gene.
Transmission of the virus
PHAC-ASPC.GC.CA (2014) states, that in an outbreak, it is theorized that the first patient gets to be infected as an aftereffect of contact with an infected animals. Person to person transmission happens by means of close personal contact with an infected individual or their body fluids during the late stages of disease or after death. Centers for Disease Control (2014) reported that Ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, foods. However Ebola is spread through direct contact with blood or body fluids including but not limited to urine, salivation, dung, regurgitation, and semen of an individual who is infected by Ebola. And also Ebola virus can be transmitted by objects like needles and syringes that have been contaminated with the virus.
Smith (2014) stats that, the symptoms of Ebola may be shown out from 2 days to 21 days after the infection of Ebola virus, but the average is 8 to 10 days from the infection. The symptoms are quite similar to the flu, cholera, typhoid, and malaria. The symptoms usually include high fever, serious head pain, body weakness, retching, diarrhea, stomach torment, Lack of apptite, and sore throat. Symptoms of Ebola can be found online (Health24, 2014). Progression of Ebola fever causes bleeding inside the body, and from the eyes, ears, nose and anus. Some individuals will vomit or hack up blood, have wicked looseness of the bowels, have impaired kidney and liver function, have continues hiccups and get a rash. Diagnosing methods of Ebola can be found online (Cdc.gov, 2014). In the earlier stage is really very difficult because the early symptoms are quite similar to the symptoms of malaria and typhoid fever. In his analysis Zubay (2005,pp) says that tests with live virus must be performed in Biosafety Level 4 regulation research centers, due to the compelling harmfulness and infectiousness of disease.
Diagnosing methods of Ebola can be found online (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2014). In the earlier stage is really very difficult because the early symptoms are quite similar to the symptoms of malaria and typhoid fever. In his analysis Zubay (2005,p.71,72) says that tests with live virus must be performed in Biosafety Level 4 regulation research centers, due to the compelling harmfulness and infectiousness of disease. A review by Saijo et al, (2006) says after the isolation, the virus can be detected via various laboratory diagnostic methods like virus isolation, reverse transcription, real time quantitative method , antigen-capture enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay method (ELISA), antigen detection by immunostaining, or IgG-and IgM-ELISA using authentic virus antigens (9, 18, 28-30, 32, 48, 50, 53, 64).
Diagnosing methods can differ with the time line of infection which can be found online (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2014). Within a few days after the symptoms shown out we could use Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing or IgM ELISA or Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Virus isolation and for retrospectively in deceased patients we need to use Immunohistochemistry testing or PCR or virus isolation and later in the disease course or after recovery we could use IgM and IgG antibodies. In his analysis Bray (2014) says that as indicated by the WHO, people who no more have signs and indications of Ebola infection sickness can be released on the off chance that they have two contrary PCR tests on entire blood, differentiated by no less than 48 hours.
Schoenstadt (2014) says that there are no proven treatment methods to kill the Ebola virus therefore, treatment concentrates on giving easing of side effects as the body battles the virus. This is called supportive care. Ziady and Small (2004) stats that patients receive supportive treatments like balancing fluid and electrolytes, maintaining tissue and pulmonary oxygenation, maintaining blood circulation by replacing blood loss, and treating complications symptomatically. Gupta, (2014) comments that chronicled examples in medication improvement recommend that there is a slim likelihood of accomplishment with the current arrangement of potential Ebola treatments.
Torrence (2005) stats that scientists have also examined the potential of heterologous live viral vectors in effectively preventing Ebola virus infection. And we also can say good nursing care and using antibiotics to prevent secondary infections from bacteria also supportive care for Ebola. Lamontagne et al. (2014) says General wellbeing mediations including describing the episode the study of disease transmission, contact following, social assembly, and state funded instruction are fundamental steps in ceasing Ebola and will at last spare a lot of people a larger number of lives than can be spared by individual patient forethought. (Geisbert, 2014) says that antibody therapies and several other methodologies mentioned here should ultimately be included in an arsenal of interventions for controlling future Ebola outbreaks.
Ebola is infection and highly lethal and with no verifiably effective vaccine available. However the ebola hemorraghic fever can be control by spreading virus. First of all, the health ministry of government and who knows about the Ebola virus disease they should be Awareness to essential peoples. Because everyone must be attention about the Ebola infection. The ebola infection only can diagnosis under the advanced laboratory, but there are no lab facilities backwardness areas and also some essential countries. However who the person shows the ebola virus symptoms, we should be try to transfer to where can diagnose. In the future government should be provide advanced lab facilities for diagnose the infection when the infection highly spreading. The medical workers of ebola virus diagnosing or researching they should be wear protective clothing transport a man suffering from Ebola.
Bray, M. (2014). Uptodate. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ebola-and-marburg-virus-disease# (Accessed 30 October 2014).
Centers for disease control and prevention (2014) Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/diagnosis/ (Accessed 29 October 2014).
Centers for disease and prevention (2014). Transmission of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever [online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/transmission/ (Accessed 27 September 2014).
Crowley, J. and Crusberg, T. (2014). Genomic Structure, Comparative and Molecular Biology. Available at: http://www.mcb.uct.ac.za/ebola/ebolagen.html (Accessed: 28 September 2014).
Farrar, J. and Piot, P. (2014). ‘Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa -The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections’, New England Journal Medicine, 371(16), pp.1481-1495 [Online]. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1411100 (Accessed: 6 November 2014)
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.View our services
Francesconi, P., Yoti, Z., Declich, S., Onek, P., Fabiani, M., Olango, J., Andraghetti, R., Rollin, P., Opira, C., Greco, D. and Salmaso, S. (2003). ‘Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Transmission and Risk Factors of Contacts, Uganda’. Emerging Infectous Disease, 9(11), pp.1430-1437, National Center for Biotechnology Information [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3035551/ (Accessed: 6 November 2014)
Geisbert, T., Lee, A., Robbins, M., Geisbert, J., Honko, A., Sood, V., Johnson, J., de Jong, S., Tavakoli, I., Judge, A., Hensley, L. and MacLachlan, I. (2010). Postexposure protection of non-human primates against a lethal Ebola virus challenge with RNA interference: a proof-of-concept study. 375(9729), pp.1896-1905, The Lancet. (online). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60357-1 (Accessed 28 September 2014)
Geisbert, T. (2014). ‘Medical research: Ebola therapy protects severely ill monkeys’, Nature, 514(7520), pp.41-43, Nature Publishing Group [Online]. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vnfv/ncurrent/full/nature13746.html (Accessed:6 November 2014).
Georges, A., Leroy, E., Renaut, A., Benissan, C., Nabias, R., Ngoc, M., Obiang, P., Lepage, J., Bertherat, E., B’enoni, D. (1999). Ebola hemorrhagic outbreaks in Gabon. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 179(Supplement 1), pp.65–75. [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9988167 (Accessed: 6 Oct. 2014).
Gupta, R. (2014). ‘Rethinking the development of Ebola treatments’, The Lancet Global Health, 2(10), pp.e563-e564 [Online]. Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(14)70304-3/fulltext (Accessed: 6 November 2014).
Health24 (2014). Available at: http://www.health24.com/Medical/infectious-diseases/Ebola/Signs-and-symptoms-of-Ebola-20140729 (Accessed 29 October 2014).
Lamontagne, F., Clément, C., Fletcher, T., Jacob, S., Fischer, W. and Fowler, R. (2014). ‘Doing Today’s Work Superbly Well — Treating Ebola with Current Tools’. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(17), pp.1565-1566 [Online]. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1411310 (Accessed: 6 November 2014)
Mahy, B. and Van Regenmortel, M. (2010). Desk encyclopedia of human and medical virology. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=nsh48WKIbhQC&pg=PA382&dq=ebola+virus+history+origin&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rCUyVP7wDcSjugTzs4GQDQ&ved=0CDMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=ebola%20virus%20history%20origin&f=false (Accessed 4 Oct. 2014).
Peters, C. and LeDuc, J. (1999). ‘An Introduction to Ebola: The Virus and the Disease’. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179(s1), p.Six-xvi. [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/514322 (Accessed 4 Oct. 2014).
Public Health Agency of Canada (2014). Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/ebola-eng.php (Accessed 27 September 2014).
Saijo, M., Niikura, M., Ikegami, T., Kurane, I., Kurata, T. and Morikawa, S. (2006). ‘Laboratory Diagnostic Systems for Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers Developed with Recombinant Proteins’. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 21, November [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/cvi.13.4.444-451.2006 (Accessed 30 October 2014).
Schoenstadt, A. (2014). eMedTV: Health Information Brought To Life. Available at: http://ebola.emedtv.com/ebola/ebola-treatment.html (Accessed: 6 November 2014)
Smith,W. (2014).Webmd. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ebola-fever-virus-infection (Accessed 29 Oct. 2014).
Sullivan, N., Yang, Z. and Nabel, G. (2003). Ebola Virus Pathogenesis: Implications for Vaccines and Therapies. 77(18), pp.9733-9737, Journal of Virology. [online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.18.9733-9737.2003 (Accessed 28 September 2014).
Torrence, P. (2005). Antiviral drug discovery for emerging diseases and bioterrorism threats. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=QZl7GzhTsb8C&dq=Torrence,+P+Antiviral+drug+discovery+for+emerging+diseases+and+bioterrorism+threats.&source=gbs_navlinks_s (Accessed: 6 November 2014).
Visualscience.ru (2014). Available at: http://visualscience.ru/en/projects/ebola/poster/ (Accessed 28 September 2014).
Web.stanford.edu (2005) Available at: https://web.stanford.edu/group/virus/filo/history.html (Accessed: 6 November 2014).
World Health organization (2014). Ebola Virus Diseases (EVD) Implication of Introduction in the Americas. Jamaica: Jamaica information service [online]. Available at: http://jis.gov.jm/features/ebola-virus-diseases-evd-implication-introduction-americas/ (Accessed 6 November 2014).
Ziady, L. and Small, N. (2004). Prevent and control infection. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=kSKwP3v99dYC&pg=PA256&lpg=PA256&dq=Ziady,+L.+and+Small,+N.+(2004).+Prevent+and+control+infection&source=bl&ots=DEOU4V_3gR&sig=phk4sKUjV30cWcw7qv3Xo08Id1k&hl=en&sa=X&ei=yq5bVPGeGsr98AXShIKACA&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Ziady%2C%20L.%20and%20Small%2C%20N.%20(2004).%20Prevent%20and%20control%20infection&f=false (Accessed: 6 November 2014)
Zubay, G. (2005). Agents of bioterrorism. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=AwkVgNPRnKoC&dq=diagnosis+methods+ebola+Zubay&source=gbs_navlinks_s (Accessed 29 October 2014).
Zuckerman, A. (2008). Principles and practice of clinical virology. Google books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=4il2mF7JG1sC&pg=PA774&lpg=PA774&dq=Okware+SI,+Omaswa+FG,+Zaramba+S,+et+al.+An+outbreak+of+Ebola+in+Uganda.&source=bl&ots=NBElqYFkMR&sig=o7MGwDL_xghUdwFQohFWtqj_TOo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZUEyVJC_G8aOuATxwoGoAQ&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=An%20outbreak%20of%20Ebola%20in%20Uganda&f=false (Accessed 4 October 2014).
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: