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Comparison of Lip Prints, Palatal Rugae With Blood Groups

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Title of the article: Comparison of lip prints, Palatal rugae with blood groups in Karnataka and Kerala Population

Abstract

Background: In the literature there is no data for the study done to compare lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups. Correlating lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups may be valuable in forensic science in precise identification of an individual than by means of lip prints or palatal rugae only. The present study was done to establish the allocation of different lip print patterns and palatal rugae among the subjects having diverse ABO and Rh blood groups in Karnataka and Kerala Population.

Materials and Methods: The sample comprised a total of 100 subjects, which included 50 Kerala and 50 Manipuri subjects in the age group of 17-21 years. All the individuals’ lip prints, palatal rugae and blood groups were studied. Statistical comparison between the groups was done by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for small samples.

Results: Type 2 was found to be the predominant lip print pattern (45%) in both the populations. The major rugae shape in both the populations was wavy pattern and less commonly curved and straight. Left side of the palate showed relatively more number of rugae. Blood group A showed highest Type 3 lip print, B showed Type 2 pattern, AB showed Type 1 and Type 3 patterns and O showed Type 2 patterns. In Blood group A, curved palatal rugae were predominant whereas in blood group B, AB and O wavy patterns were predominant.

Conclusion: In the present study it is noted that there is no association between lip prints and blood groups. However comparison of palatal rugae with blood groups showed a statistically significant difference. Thus our present showed a correlation between palatal rugae and blood groups.

Key words: Blood groups, Kerala Population, Lip prints, palatal rugae, , manipuri Population.

Introduction

It is based on scientific principles, largely involving dental records, fingerprints and DNA comparisons. At times, it becomes essential to apply slighter known and remarkable techniques like cheiloscopy and palatoscopy. Lip prints and palatal rugae patterns are found to be unique to an individual and therefore embrace the possibility for identification.1-3

Lip prints are common lines, fissures in the appearance of wrinkles and grooves seen in the zone of transition of lip in the middle of the inner labial mucosa and outer skin. Cheiloscopy (from the Greek: cheilos -‘lips’ and skopein - ‘to see’) is the given name to the lip pattern studies.3

It is probable to identify that lip print patterns form as before sixth week of uterine life. Since that instant on, the lip patterns hardly ever modify, resisting many afflictions and therefore lip prints assist as a means in human identification. Yasuo Tsuchihashi considered the lip prints of 757 males and 607 females of Japanese subjects and classified them into six types based on shape and way of the grooves.1, 4

Palatal rugae, in adding together are unique to an individual, protected from trauma by their internal location in the head. Once shaped, rugae do not go through any changes with the exception of length, due to regular growth, enduring in the same arrangement right through the complete person’s life. Diseases, chemical violence or trauma do not appear to change the palatal rugae form.5

The purpose of palatal rugae patterns intended for personal recognition was foremost suggested by Harrison Allen in 1889. Thomas and Kotze in 1983 detailed the various patterns of palatal rugae and classified based on the shape, unification, direction, and length.6

In the literature there is no data for the study finished to compare lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups. Correlating lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups may be valuable in forensic science in precise identification of an individual than by means of lip prints or palatal rugae only. The present study was done to establish the allocation of different lip print patterns and palatal rugae among the subjects having diverse ABO and Rh blood groups in Karnataka and Kerala Population.

In our study we have also searched for the predominant lip print type and palatal rugae patterns among the persons from Karnataka and Kerala states in India.

Material and Methods

Subjects

The total sample consisted of 100 BDS students studying in Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, involving of 50 subjects (25 male and 25 female) from Karnataka and 50 Kerala subjects (25 male and 25 female), in the age group ranging between 17-21 years. Approval of all the individuals and ethical clearance was also obtained to conduct the study. Each individual subject lip prints, palatal rugae and blood groups were studied.

Recording the lip prints

Lips free from some pathology, having extremely normal transition zone linking the mucosa and the skin were incorporated in the study. Lips of the subjects were cleaned and lipstick was applied all over the lips. Lip ‘impressions’ were traced in the usual rest place of the lips by applying a ribbon of cellophane tape which is 10cm long. The cellophane strip was consequently fixed on to the white chart paper for everlasting documentation and then the recorded lip prints be visualized with a magnifying lens (Figure 1).

Examination of the lip prints

Each individual’s lips were divided into 4 compartments and seen for the type of lip print in each compartment (Figure 2).

Recording the palatal rugae

Alginate impressions of only maxillary arch was prepared and poured by means of dental stone. A dental plaster base was prepared and casts were conserved for analysis. The rugae patterns were traced on these casts using a sharp graphite pencil below sufficient light. The palatal rugae patterns were subsequently explored on these casts with the facility of magnifying lens (Figure 3, 4).

Recording the blood groups

Each subjects blood groups were evaluated by inserting a drop of blood on the slide furthermore treated by means of anti-A and anti-B sera. Positive agglutination of the blood taking place on treating with anti-A is well thought to be blood group A, positive reaction with anti-B is deliberated as blood group B, if no agglutination is created subsequently the blood group is O and if agglutination is observed with both anti-sera at that time blood group AB is considered. In the same way, positive agglutination response with Rh antigen is well thought to be Rh positive or else as Rh negative.

Statistical analysis

The data was analyzed for percentage proportions and compared. Statistical comparison between the groups was done by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for small samples. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 16.0

Results

Lip prints

Taken as a whole, not even one individual had a single kind of lip prints in all the compartments and no individual had an alike lip print patterns.

When sex was assessed in both the populations combined, males demonstrated principally Type 3 lip print pattern (43%) whereas, females showed principally Type 2 (49%). Comparison of all lip print patterns among males and females using the chi-square test showed no statistically significant difference (Table 1).

In the Karnataka population, Type 2 lip print pattern was set up to be largest (48%), followed by Type 3 (40%), Type 1 (8%) and Type 5 (4%). Type 1’ and Type 4 patterns were zero in Karnataka population. In Kerala population, Type 2 lip print pattern was established to be predominant (42%), followed by Type 3 (28%), Type 1 (26%) and Type 4 & Type 5 (2%) (Table 2).

When the overall patterns were evaluated in the entire study subjects (in both Karnataka and Kerala), Type 2 was found to be the majority of all lip print patterns having 45% in contrast to additional types of lip print patterns. The Chi-square test association of all lip print patterns between Karnataka and Kerala population revealed no significant differences except for Type 1 pattern (Tables 2).

Palatal rugae

The largest rugae shape in all populations was wavy pattern and smallest being curved and straight. However, wavy and curved patterns were predominant in Karnataka compared to Kerala population and whereas straight was slightly more in Kerala population.

When unification of rugae was analyzed, diverging type of rugae pattern was predominant in both the populations. However no statistical significant difference was observed.

On observing the direction of rugae, forwardly directed rugae were predominant than backwardly directed rugae in both the populations. Inaddition, forwardly directed rugae were more in Karnataka population than Kerala, whereas backwardly directed rugae were more in Kerala population than Karnataka.

In Karnataka population left side of the palate demonstrated relatively extra number of rugae apart from right side, whereas in Kerala, right side of the palate showed more number of rugae (Table 3).

Blood groups and Rh system

Majority of the subjects (44%) in Karnataka population belonged to blood group A; followed by blood group O (34%), B (16%) and AB (6%). Whereas frequency of blood group O (50%) was higher in Kerala population followed by blood group B (34%), A (10%) and AB (6%).

In Karnataka population 98% of subjects had Rh-positive factor and only 2% of cases belonged to Rh-negative factor. In Kerala population, 90% of subjects had Rh-positive factor.

Comparison of all blood groups between both the populations showed a statistical significant difference only for A and B groups. Inaddition, there was no significant difference observed for Rh-positive and negative factor between both the populations (Table 4).

Comparison of Lip prints and palatal rugae in relation to all blood groups

Among Blood group A highest was Type 3 lip print pattern (44%), blood group B showed highest Type 2 pattern (48%), blood group AB showed highest Type 1 (50%) and Type 3 (50%) patterns and blood Group O showed highest Type 2 (55%) patterns. On statistical comparison between different lip prints in all the blood groups, no significant difference was observed.

In Blood group A, curved palatal rugae (49%) were predominant whereas in blood group B, AB and O wavy patterns were predominant and was also statistically significant (P=0.02) (Table 5).

Discussion

In forensic identification, the mouth allows for countless possibilities. Compilation of data from bite marks, lip prints and teeth in crime scenes such as murder and rape be capable of playing a major role in criminal investigations. Rarely, noticeable or latent lip prints are established at a crime scene which can be recorded and contrasted with the prints of assumed persons and the donor is able to be recognized. The importance of cheiloscopy is associated to the information that lip prints are genetic, developed at 6th month of uterine life, are permanent, unchangeable after death also, and unique to an individual.2

In the literature, a number of researchers have worked expansively on lip prints, palatal rugae and blood individually for sex and population identification. In addition, there are no studies that compared lip print and palatal rugae with blood groups between two populations. Hence, in the present study an attempt is been made to contrast the lip print patterns and palatal rugae with blood groups in subjects from two different parts of India (i.e. Karnataka and Kerala).

In the present study the majority lip pattern seen in males was type 3, and in females it was type 2. This was in accordance with Gondivkar et al.11

When the overall patterns were evaluated among in the entire study subjects, Type 2 was found to be the majority lip print pattern having 45% when compared to additional types of lip print patterns. These results were in accordance with Telagi et al.12, Patel et al.13 and Rastogi et al.2

Within the Karnataka population, Type 2 lip print pattern was established to be largest, followed by Type 3, Type 1 and Type 5. This was in contrast to the study done by Vahanwalla and Parekh in Mumbai, in which they found that type I was predominant.14 Verghese et al. has conducted a study of cheiloscopy in south Karnataka districts in India and showed that type 4 pattern was predominant in Karnataka population, in contrast to our study.1

Within Kerala population, Type 2 lip print pattern was established to be largest, followed by Type 3, Type 1 and Type 4 & 5. In contrast to our study, According to Verghese et al. Type 4 to be major in both the genders in Kerala population.15 Further, in our study, statistical association of all lip print patterns among Karnataka and Kerala population revealed no significant differences except for Type 1 pattern.

The major rugae shape in both the populations was wavy pattern and less commonly curved and straight and which is in with Kapali et al.16 However, in our study wavy and curved patterns were predominant in Karnataka compared to Kerala population. Straight was slightly more in Kerala population than Karnataka population.

In addition, in the present study, when unification of rugae was analyzed, diverging type of rugae pattern was predominant in both the populations. On observing the direction of rugae, forwardly directed rugae were predominant than backwardly directed rugae in both the populations. However, forwardly directed rugae were more in Karnataka population than Kerala, whereas backwardly directed rugae were more in Kerala population than Karnataka.

When evaluated for the number of palatal rugae in Karnataka and Kerala population left side of the palate showed relatively more number of rugae. This interpretation was similar to Dhoke and Usato et al. who as well reported with the intention that right side of the palate had smaller number of rugae than the left side. This may be owed to the observable fact of regressive advancement, dominating the right side of the palate.10 Further in our study statistical analysis showed that there was no difference found in the total number of rugae seen for shape, unification, direction and side of the palate between the two populations.

In the present study the predominant blood group among all the subjects was blood group O. These findings were similar to the results obtained by Bharadwaja et al.17, Rastogi et al.18. Majority of the subjects in Karnataka population belonged to blood group A, whereas the frequency of blood group O was higher in Kerala population. 98% of subjects in the Karnataka population had Rh-positive factor and 90% of Kerala population had Rh-positive factor. Comparison of all blood groups between both the populations showed a statistical significant difference only for A and B groups. Inaddition, there was no significant difference observed for Rh-positive and negative factor between both the populations.

Frequency of type 3 lip print pattern was more in Blood group A. Distribution of Type 2 lip print pattern was highest blood group B and O. Further type 1 and type 3 were predominant in blood group AB. When comparison between different lip prints in all the blood groups was done, no statistical significant difference was observed. These results coordinated with earlier studies done by Telagi et al.12 Sandhu et al.19 and Verma et al.20

Coming to the palatal rugae distribution, curved rugae were predominant in Blood group A, whereas in blood group B, AB and O, wavy patterns were predominant. Further on comparison of different rugae patterns among different blood groups showed a statistically significant difference.

Conclusion

In the present study it is noted that there is no association between lip prints and blood groups. However comparison of palatal rugae with blood groups showed a statistically significant difference. Thus our present showed a correlation between palatal rugae and blood groups. Further there are no studies available on palatal rugae comparison with blood group in English language literature search. Thus our study remains the first study to compare both lip prints and palatal rugae with blood groups.


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