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Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastrointestinal System

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Published: Mon, 09 Apr 2018

  • Emily Joll

 

Part 1- Explain the anatomy of the cardiovascular system and the role played by each of the major parts.

(Word Count 400)

The cardiovascular system is made up of specialized structures allowing it to effectively carry out its role of transporting blood and nutrients around the body and removing toxins. The cardiovascular system is a closed double circulation system consisting of the major structures of the heart and a network of blood vessels.

The heart is structured into two sides which is then divided into two chambers, resulting in a total of four chambers. The system is known as a double circulatory system as the right half of the heart pumps blood to the lungs, becoming oxygen enriched, and back to the heart, known as pulmonary circulation (DLC Topic 1, 2014). The left half pumps the oxygen enriched blood around the body and then back to the heart, known as systemic circulation (DLC Topic 1, 2014). The top chambers of the heart are called atria, and the lower chambers ventricles. The atria are designed to receive blood from the body and pump it into the ventricles. This is a short distance for the blood to travel so the atria only lightly pump aiding the efficiency of the ventricles. This low level of action required results in the muscle walls of the atria are thinner than that of the ventricles. The atria and ventricle on each side are connected by atrioventricular valves. These valves prevent back-flow of blood into the atria from the ventricles aiding the efficiency of the pumping action. When the ventricles contract the blood within them is pumped out of the heart to the body through the aorta on the left side, and pulmonary artery on the right. The arteries have very thick elasticated walls able to withstand the pressure exerted on them from the pumping action of the ventricles. Arteries pulse to aid the pumping action of the heart and movement of blood around the body. From the arteries the blood continues to move through a network of blood vessels, delivering oxygenated blood to the cells and removing toxins. Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The pressure is less in the veins as the blood has travelled a long way since it was originally pumped. This results in the walls of veins being thinner. To aid the movement of blood back to the heart due to the lowered pressed, veins have values in them to prevent back-flow of blood. Capillaries are the small blood vessels that link the veins and arteries, and carry the oxygen and nutrients to the cells. The walls of capillaries are very thin to allow for the actual exchange of these gases and nutrients to take place completing the actual role of the cardiac cycle.

Actual Word Count 434

References

DLC Topic 1, 2014- Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Waugh, A. and Grant, A. (2006) Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness- The Musculoskeletal System, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

Part 2- Explain the structure of the respiratory system by completing the table below.

(Word Count 300)

Respiratory system component

Structure

Function(s)

Upper Respiratory Tract

Mouth, nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx

Outside the thoracic cavity bringing air from the environment into the body.

Mouth

Consists of the tongue, teeth, hard and soft palate.

Allows warmed air entry, connecting to the pharynx.

Nose/ Nasal Cavity

Divided into two sides by the septum made of bone and cartilage, lined with cilia and goblet cells (DLC Topic 3, 2014).

Warms and filters air particles to remove foreign bodies.

Pharynx

Cavity connecting the mouth and nose to the larynx, lined with cilia and produces mucus.

Pathway to larynx continuing to filter impurities.

Larynx

Tubular cartilage pathway to the trachea, with an epiglottis.

Continues air pathway, whilst the epiglottis, a thin flap of skin, the prevents food from entering the lungs during swallowing by closing and re-routing it to the oesophagus.

Lower Respiratory Tract

Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

Within the thoracic cavity, where gaseous exchange to the bloodstream takes place.

Trachea

Tube with ‘C’ shaped cartilage, lined with cilia and a mucus layer.

Cartilage allows flexibility for food within the oesophagus behind it to pass but strong enough to keep its structure and not collapse. Cilia and the mucus layer continue to filter the air.

Bronchi

Continuation of the trachea that splits into two.

Forms the system by which the air enters each lungs.

Bronchioles

Smooth muscle and a small amount of cartilage, with cilia and a mucus layer.

Small tubes that form off the two bronchi. Smooth muscle allows the bronchioles to enlarge or decrease in size depending on the demand of oxygen. Cilia and the mucus layer continue to filter the air.

Alveoli

Bundles of ‘sacs’ with a very thin membrane.

Branching off the bronchioles are millions of alveoli surrounded by a network of capillaries. The very thin membrane allows for gaseous exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and toxins to occur between the respiratory system and the bloodstream.

Lungs

Protective spongy organs.

Contain and protect the lower respiratory system.

Actual Word Count 325

References

DLC Topic 2, 2014- Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiratory System [Course Materials]

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiratory System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiratory System [Course Materials]

Jones, G. and Jones, M. (2004) Human Biology for AS, 1st edition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Waugh, A. and Grant, A. (2006) Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness- The Musculoskeletal System, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

Part 3- Explain the structure of the gastrointestinal system using the table below.

(Word Count 300)

Digestive system organ

Structure

Function(s)

Mouth

Comprises of the tongue, teeth, gums, saliva glands

Known as the oral cavity. The teeth and tongue begin masticating food, beginning the mechanical breakdown. Saliva glands secrete saliva and the enzyme amylase that mixes with the food to being chemical digestion. Mastication and mixing with saliva forms a bolus of food which can be swallowed.

Oesophagus

Muscular tube containing sphincters.

When swallowing food the epiglottis in the larynx closes re-routing food into the oesophagus. The sphincters ensure that food can only enter the oesophagus in one direction, and restrict the flow of stomach acid into the oesophagus. The muscles structure contracts and relaxes, called peristalsis (DLC Topic 3, 2014), moving the food through the tract into the stomach

Stomach

Ridged enlargement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Contain secreting cells.

Ridges and folds in the stomach wall allow the stomach to expand as necessary to digest food, storing up to four litres of food (DLC Topic 3, 2014). Secreting cells secrete several enzymes which chemically digest food into a liquid, called chyme. A sphincter releases this into the small intestine.

Small Intestine

Long flexible tubular muscle structure containing villi and micro villi to increase surface area.

Designed to have a large surface area being folded up within the abdominal cavity and containing small hairs, villi, which have further hairs off them called microvilli. These ease digestion and absorption of nutrients as they are only one cell thick. Several enzymes are secreted to neutralize the chyme continue digestion and absorption of nutrients.

Large Intestine (Colon)

Flexible tubular muscle structure, shorter but wider than the small intestine.

Absorbs water and inorganic ions back into the body. Fermentation of carbohydrates into gases also occurs in the large intestine.

Rectum and Anus

The rectum is a dilated section of the colon.

The rectum stores the waste from the colon, faeces, until they are eliminated. The anus terminates the GI tract, sphincters hold faeces in the body and then aid elimination when stool is passed, ending GI process.

Actual Word Count 330

References

DLC Topic 3, 2014- Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

Waugh, A. and Grant, A. (2006) Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness- The Musculoskeletal System, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

Waugh, A. and Grant, A. (2006) Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness- The Musculoskeletal System, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

TAQ 2 (AC 1.2 & 2.2)

Write a short account explaining how oxygen gets from the environment to the cells and vice versa.

(Word Count 400)

Oxygen reaching cells is vital to the life of an organism and is a complicated process involving the respiratory system and cardiovascular system working together.

Working on a negative feedback loop, sensors in the carotid artery monitor the pH level of blood. Toxins that are produced by the body through energy use and respiration cause a build up of these in the bloodstream, which can be removed through exhalation. The medulla oblongata in the brain stem controls involuntary inhalation and exhalation of air and will increase or decrease the respiratory rate as necessary to regulate the pH level of the blood (DLC Topic 2, 2014). When signalled for inhalation to occur the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles between the ribs contract, increasing the volume of the chest and thoracic cavity, so the lungs and alveoli can expand. This decreases the pressure inside the chest and causes inhalation. Air enters the upper respiratory tract through either the nose or mouth, being filtered and warmed in the process, and is drawn down into the lower respiratory tract. Once the air reaches the alveoli gaseous exchange takes place. The alveoli walls are a single cell thick and surrounded by a network of capillaries to allow the process to take place rapidly. The concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is greater than that in the blood in the capillaries so the oxygen moves with the concentration gradient by diffusion to increase the oxygen in the blood plasma in the capillaries. Haemoglobin in the red blood cells in the capillaries absorb the oxygen forming oxyhaemoglobin. The oxyhaemoglobin then moves through the bloodstream due to the action of the cardiovascular system. Blood is pumped through the pulmonary vein into the left side of the heart, moving through the atria and ventricle to the aorta. The aorta is the main artery from the heart taking oxygenated blood out to the blood vessels of the body. This blood is pumped through the other arteries, veins and capillaries of the cardiovascular system. Once in the capillaries oxygen and nutrients are transferred to the cells through diffusion. Through this process waste products from cells are also transferred back into the blood stream, e.g. carbon dioxide. The deoxygenated haemoglobin and the waste products then travel back through the blood stream to the heart on the right side. Once at the heart it is pumped back to the lungs where the concentration gradient of the products are uneven and are equalised through diffusion once more. The haemoglobin becomes oxyhaemoglobin, and the waste products e.g. carbon dioxide are diffused into the lower respiratory tract and expelled from the body through exhalation and the process repeats itself.

Actual Word Count 439

References

DLC Topic 2, 2014- Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiratory System [Course Materials]

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiratory System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiratory System [Course Materials]

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Introduction to Cell Biology Topic 1 Introduction to Cell Biology [Course Materials]

Livestrong online 2013- Livestrong How Do the Digestive and Respiratory Systems Work Together?, Hendrickson. K, online accessed 18.05.2015 available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/302607-how-do-the-digestive-respiratory-systems-work-together/

Waugh, A. and Grant, A. (2006) Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness- The Musculoskeletal System, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

TAQ 3 (AC 3.2)

Using examples give a short account of the role of enzymes within the process of digestion.

(Word Count 300)

As soon as food enters the mouth the role of enzymes in the chemical digestion of food begins. As well as saliva, the saliva glands in the mouth release the enzyme amylase beginning the process. Here immediately the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates starts. Once the food bolus formed in the mouth is swallowed and reaches the stomach further chemical digestion occurs. The lining of the stomach walls contain several cells with secrete chemicals that enable digestion. Many of the enzymes released are highly corrosive so work together to protect the stomach itself whilst continuing chemical digestion and destruction of microbes found in food. Microbes, which carry disease are killed by the action of the enzyme hydrochloric acid, released by parietal cells. This hydrochloric acid, activates an inactive enzyme in the stomach, pepsinogen, resulting in pepsin. This is the resulting enzyme which enables the breakdown of proteins to amino acids. Once digestion has taken place in the stomach the result is a liquid known as chyme which is secreted into the small intestine. Within the small intestine the ‘brush boarder enzymes’ are housed amongst the villi and microvilli (DLC Topic 3, 2014). Brush boarder enzymes are a collection of different enzymes which line the small intestine working individually, and together to activate inactive enzymes, to continue the breakdown the different components within the chyme. The enzymes here aid the digestion of fats and of starches into simple sugars. Enzymes play a vital role in the gastrointestinal system as they enable the foods to be broken down into their chemical components which are useful to the body and can be reabsorbed for use or eliminated through waste.

Actual Word Count 271

References

DLC Topic 3, 2014- Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

TAQ 4 (AC 3.3)

This unit discusses the systems that supply the cell with everything that it needs. How do the three systems discussed function in supporting the cell?

Part 1- Cardiovascular system

(Word Count 100)

The pumping action of the heart and the blood vessels in the cardiovascular system, creates and facilitates a continuous flow of blood products, oxygen and nutrients around the body. This creates a replenishment system, delivering products required by the cells through diffusion in order for them to function efficiently. This system also creates a removal system for toxins and waste products from the cells. These products are removed from the cells back into the bloodstream through the process of diffusion where they can be transported away from the cells for elimination from the body.

Actual Word Count 94

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 1 The Cardiovascular System [Course Materials]

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Introduction to Cell Biology Topic 1 Introduction to Cell Biology [Course Materials]

Part 2- Respiratory system

(Word Count 100)

The respiration system facilitates inhalation of air into the body, supplying the oxygen that every cell in the body requires to function. There is a percentage of oxygen in the air which is diffused into the bloodstream from the alveoli in the lower respiratory tract. The respiratory system not only brings oxygen into the body, the bloodstream and therefore the cells but also provides a pathway for waste gases to be expelled from the body through exhalation, removing toxins from the system that would otherwise overload it and cause cell death.

Actual Word Count 91

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiration System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 2 The Respiration System [Course Materials]

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Introduction to Cell Biology Topic 1 Introduction to Cell Biology [Course Materials]

Part 3- Gastrointestinal system

(Word Count 100)

The gastrointestinal system provides a pathway from the mouth to the anus for food entering the body to exit as bulk waste once the goodness from it has been absorbed by the body. It facilitates the mechanical and chemical digestion of food to its component parts that can then be reabsorbed by the body for use in the cells as energy or to create new proteins as required or expelled. Through its use of enzymes this system supplies the cells with the minerals, vitamins, water, essential amino acids and ions they require to function effectively., whilst removing unnecessary food bulk through the elimination of faeces.

Actual Word Count 105

Reference List

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre 2014 Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Gastro-Intestinal Systems Topic 3 The Gastro-Intestinal System [Course Materials]

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