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In the field of science, Galileo Galilei is well known by the world for discovering the laws of failing bodies and motions of projectiles; pioneering telescopic observation and discovering sunspots, the irregular surface of the Moon, the satellites of Jupiter, and the phases of Venus. Most of all, he also contributed to championing Copernicus' Sun-centered universe and prompting the split that freed scientific knowledge from the restrictions of spiritual belief. There are uncountable accomplishments made by him. Now we give his life story and how it began.
Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564, and he was the oldest of seven children. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, who instigated his own revolution in the arts by disputing the current theories on the structure of music, believed that medicine would be the best profession for his son. However, Galileo had told his father that he wanted to be a monk. This was not what his father had in mind, so Galileo was taken away from the monastery. In 1581, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, as his father wished. At that time, Galileo discovered something that no one else had ever realized: The law of the pendulum, and that made Galileo instantly famous. Galileo Galilei then moved on to the University of Padua, and started to learn his real interests, mathematics and mechanics.
In 1590, Galileo made a "two ball while landing," at the tower of Pisa, this famous experiment, corrected Aristotle's theory of the "falling object is proportional to the speed and weight, "which continued for 1900 Years of wrong conclusionsListenRead phonetically. In the year 1592, Galileo entered the University of Padua to study mathematics, where he stayed for eighteen years. Since then, Galileo ushered in the golden age of life. Galileo stayed at the Palace in Florence to continue scientific research, but his astronomical discoveries and his writings clearly reflected astronomy out of the Copernican heliocentric view. Thus, Galileo began to receive the church's attention.
In 1610, Galileo published a book, The Starry Messenger, describing his findings that supported the Copernican theory. Galileo's support for the heliocentric theory got him into trouble with the Roman Catholic Church. He was forced to abandon his astronomical pursuits. From 1616, Galileo accused by the Roman Inquisition and began over twenty years of brutal persecution. But, Galileo retaliated by publishing a book later on, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. This book cause more arguments with the church due to it were in Italian which was a direct conflict with the church.
Galileo's later life is very miserable, taking care of his daughter Sailisite even before he died. The sadness of losing his daughter made Galileo blind. Even in such conditions, he still did not give up his scientific research. January 8, 1642, 4:00, for science, for truth and life of the soldiers fight, Galileo passed away at the age of 78 years. Died on the eve of his departure, he repeated the phrase: "the pursuit of science requires a special courage."
During 18 years of working in Padua University, Galileo initially focus on the mechanics he had been interested in research, he discovered an important phenomenon in physics - inertia of the movement of objects; did the famous slant practice summed up the objects from falling through with the relationship between the number of time; He also studied the shells of the campaign, laid the theoretical basis of the parabola; on the concept of acceleration, but also made his first clear: even to measure a patient with fever when the temperature increases, the famous physicist, invented in 1593 is also the first air thermometer. However, an accidental event made Galileo changed the research direction. He turned to mechanics and physics of the expansive space of the vast expanse. Galileo telescope was invented.
It was June 1609, Galileo heard of news that the Dutch businessman has glasses found in the occasional in the distance with a lens to see invisible things. "Is this not exactly what I need clairvoyance it?" Galileo was very happy. Soon, a student of Galileo's wrote him a letter from Paris, to further confirm the accuracy of this information, the letter said the glasses made a by the businessman definitely a mirror tube, using it can make magnified the object many times.
Galileo began to draw a diagram and an imaging lens. This prompted the mirror control Galileo was inspired, it seems that the secret to magnify objects through mirror tube is to choose the right kind of lens, in particular, convex and concave to match. He got the information about the lens and continued to calculate. After a whole night, Galileo finally understand that the convex and concave lenses in a proper distance, as the Dutch saw it, the distant object the naked eye cannot see can be seen when magnified. Galileo attended to rest and quickly started grinding lenses, this is a very time-consuming and requires carefulness job. He did well for several days, a pair of convex and concave lens grinding, and then produced an elaborate two-tier metal tube which can slide. Galileo carefully put a bigger one end of the tube lens safety, the other end of the placement of a smaller concave lens, and then put the tube in front of the window. When he looked from one end concave, miracle appears, the church seemed distant sight, he could clearly see the cross on the tower, even a dove settled on the cross are also seen very realistic.
Galileo then made a series of profound discoveries using his new telescope, including that the moon has craters, valleys, and mountains much like the Earth's terrain. He also was able to see four small lights orbiting around the planet Jupiter and discovered that the planet Venus had phases much like our Moon. Later at University of Padua he was exposed to a new theory, proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus, that the Earth and all the other planets revolved around the sun. Galileo's observations with his new telescope convinced him of the truth of Copernicus's sun-centered or heliocentric theory.
Through continuous improvements, the telescope has 30 times more magnification than before, enlarged 1000 times to objectives. The astronomy research is a landmark revolution. Thousands of years astronomers observed the era of moon and stars through naked eye alone can end, it is replaced by optical telescopes , with this powerful invention, the door to modern astronomy was opened.
The invention of the telescope and the series of discoveries that resulted from it made Galileo famous. However, by supporting the theory of Copernicus he aroused opposition in important Catholic Church circles, and in 1616 he was ordered to stop from teaching the Copernican hypothesis. Galileo chafed under this restriction for several years. When the Pope died, in 1623, he was succeeded by a man who had been an admirer of Galileo. The following year the new Pope, Urban VIII, ambiguously stated that the prohibition would no longer be in force.
Galileo spent the next six years composing his most famous work, the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. This book was a masterly exposition of the evidence to support Copernican theory, and the book was published with the permission of the Church censors. Nevertheless, Church authorities still responded in anger when the book appeared, and Galileo was soon brought to trial before the Inquisition of Rome on charges of having violated the 1616 prohibition.
It seems clear that many churchmen were unhappy with the decision to prosecute the famous scientist. Even under the Church law of the time, the case against Galileo was questionable, and therefore he was given a comparatively light sentence. He was not arrested in jail at all, but merely to house arrest in his own comfortable place in Arcetri. Theoretically, he was to have no visitors, but that provision of the sentence was not enforced. His only other punishment was the requirement that he publicly recant his view that the earth moved around the sun. This the sixty-nine-year-old scientist did in open court. (The Religious Affiliation of Astronomer, Scientist Galileo Galilei, 12 July 2005)
All of this what he has suffered was just for Copernicans, not for any dissenting theological views. Moreover, it may be noted that Galileo's Catholic leaders considered his views about heliocentricity to be heretical even though himself did not believed to be heretical at that time. However, today the Catholic Church does not consider heliocentricity or any of Galileo's writings to be heretical anymore.
"Famous Scientists Who Believed in God" by Rich Deem stated that Galileo is often remembered for his conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. He paid an enormous price for what he has done throughout his scientific career. However, after the "trial" and being forbidden to teach the sun-centered system, Galileo did his most useful theoretical achievement on dynamics. Galileo expressly said that the Bible cannot be wrong, but he was just concerning the issue of how the Bible should be interpreted.
Galileo, it would be noted, was a deeply religious man. Despite his trial and conviction, he did not reject either religion or the church, but only the attempt of Church authorities to stifle investigation of scientific matters. Of greater importance, however, is the role he played in founding modern scientific method. I have quite rightly admired Galileo as a symbol of revolt against dogmatism, and against authoritarian attempts to stifle freedom of thought.
Galileo is probably more responsible than any other man for the empirical attitude of scientific research. It was him who first insisted upon the importance of performing experiments. He rejected the notion that scientific questions could be decided by reliance upon authority, whether it be the pronouncements of the Church of the assertions of Aristotle. He also rejected reliance on complex deductive schemes that were not based on a firm foundation of experiment. Medieval scholastics had discussed at great length what and why should things happen, but Galileo insisted upon performing experiments to determine what actually did happen. In this case, I am quite inspired by him with his scientific outlook.
In conclusion, Galileo was a very strict Catholic but he had some imperfections that wasn't in catholic way. However, this will no affect him to become one of the greatest scientists in history. There is no doubt that Galileo Galilei has been named one of the smartest men in history. His inventions and theories have an enormous impact on modern science. It also has been a great success to our society. With his magnificent work, he will forever be remembered as the pioneer of science, and for how he brought the world into a new era of knowledge. Most of all, he will always be remembered as the man who cared more about working out the truth than himself.