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This paper is about Arthropod-borne viruses especially focuses on Japanese Encephalitis Virus. It provides general background information about arboviruses and then more detailed facts including epidemiology, pathology, replication process, various effective control strategies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.
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Arthropod-borne viruses: arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts like humans through the bites of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sand flies, and biting midges (Mayer, Tesh, & Vasilakis, 2017). They also can cause disease by various ways including blood transmission, organ transplantation, sexual intercourse, perinatal transmission, lactation and unintended laboratory contact (Fletcher, 2017). More than 130 arboviruses have been isolated and they can be divided broadly into four virus families: Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, and Togaviridae, (Ogah, Irekeola, Seriki, & Kolawole, 2018). Infected patients may not have significant signs and symptoms in the early or late stages of viral infection however, if the person is developing new signs, the main symptoms of arboviruses can be headache, fever, rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stiff neck, muscle pain, confusion, disorientation, seizures, meningitis, and encephalitis (Fletcher, 2017). Arboviruses can be diagnosed through patient’s symptoms, blood, antibody, and viral antigen testing that determine the presence of virus (“Arboviral Diseases”, 2017). Most effective way to prevent Arthropod-borne viruses is an immunization. Vaccines are available for Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever: IXIARO, YF-Vax (Gould, Pettersson, Higgs, Charrel, & de Lamballerie, 2017) and for other arboviruses, many pharmaceutical companies and scientists are still developing potential vaccines for the people. Next appropriate methods that reduce the chance of the infected arthropods bites are using bug repellants, insecticide-treated beddings, mosquito netting for window, wearing long sleeves, tucking pants and socks (Wilder-Smith, et al., 2017). Health care officials also recommend people to get rid of the ideal environment for mosquitoes or ticks. For example, they say everyone should remove or clean any standing water that is perfect for mosquitoes living (Wilder-Smith, et al., 2017). Sustainable use of pesticides, surveillance of ticks carrying animals, and mowing the lawn are also best forms of prevention against ticks (Wilder-Smith, et al., 2017). Japanese Encephalitis Virus: JEV belongs to flaviviridae and is transmitted to vertebrate hosts like pig, bird, and humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes: Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui (Yun & Lee,2014). JEV is one of the major public health threat specifically, to young children because It causes “inflammatory disease of the brain”: Japanese encephalitis (Yun & Lee, 2014). On 1817, JEV was first identified in Japan and later isolated as an agent for worldwide mosquito-borne encephalitis in 1924 (Yun & Lee, 2014). Almost 30,000 – 50,000 new cases of JEV have confirmed every year and 15,000 people have died and in addition, 50% of survivors may experience severe neurological or psychiatric complications (Connor & Bunn, 2017). According to Simon (2019), JEV is prevalent in Southeast, Central Asia and Australia including India, Malaysia, Cambodia, Nepal and people are susceptible to JEV when it is a rainy reason between May and October because high humidity, temperature can increase drastically mosquito vector populations. Most people with JEV do not have noticeable symptoms but if the person does, symptoms are headache, fever, vomiting, confusion, movement disorder, swelling in the brain, neurologic syndromes, encephalitis, coma, even death; only 0.3% leads to lethal disease (“Japanese Encephalitis”,2015). JEV is a small enveloped virus and comprises a positive single-stranded RNA genome of 11 kb in length (Yun & Lee,2014). The genome contains a single long open reading frame by two non-coding regions (NCRs) at the 5′ and 3′ ends (Yun & Lee,2014). The virion attaches to the cell receptors on the host cell surface and then undergoes receptor-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis (Yun & Lee,2014). Acidification of endosome induces conformational change in virion: E protein consequently, this step facilitates fusion of the viral membrane and cellular endosomal membrane (Yun & Lee,2014). When the viral genomic RNA goes through uncoating, it is translated into polyproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) later is divided into three functional structural proteins: core (C), pre-membrane (PrM), Envelope (E) for capsid formation and seven nonstructural proteins (NS) : NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5 for the replication of the viral genomic RNA (Morita, Nabeshima, & Buerano, 2015). Viral RNA genome replication is mostly processed by NS3 and NS5 and undergoes negative-strand and positive-strand RNA synthesis, RNA capping, and cap methylation in cytoplasm (Yun & Lee,2014). Later, maturation takes place in the trans–Golgi network with the furin-mediated cleavage of the prM to M to produce the mature virion (Saxena, Tiwari, Saxena, Mathur, & Nair, 2013). Mature virions are released from the infected cells and transport to central nervous system via leukocytes to cause neurotropic viral infection (Simon, 2019). One of the most effective prevention strategies for JEV is a vaccination. The formaldehyde-inactivated JEV (P3 strain) vaccine: INV with the viral Beijing P3 strain and live attenuated vaccine: LAV with the SA 14‐14‐2 strain of the JE virus are widely used in many countries (Gao, et al., 2014). Immunization of pigs is also efficient way to protect people from JEV by breaking the mosquito–pig–human zoonotic transmission (Gao, et al., 2014). More than that, environment-friendly vector management such as Larvicides, insecticides have proven its effectiveness for mosquito control (Saxena, Tiwari, Saxena, Mathur, & Nair, 2013). A number of related studies, Anti-flaviviral drug:minocycline, N-methylisatin-β-thiosemicarbazone derivative, and lipid-complexed small interfering RNA treatments are currently underway to success (Ghosh & Basu, 2019).
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