Annotated Bibliography: Drug Delivery Mechanisms
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Nyol et al., had presented thesis on among all dosage forms tablet is the most popular dosage form existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; sometimes immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy in many cases. So that to overcome these drawbacks, immediate release dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. Immediate drug release dosage forms disintegrate rapidly after administration with enhanced rate of dissolution tablets .The objective of this work was to explain about immediate release tablets.
P. Rohini et al., Developed oral disintegrating tablets of Rosuvastatin by superdisintegrants addition method by direct compression technique using sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, lycoat Rs 720 and cross povidone in different concentrations. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration, hardness, friability, dug content and dissolution study. The best release formulation was compared with the marketed product of Rosuvastatin.
Bheemeswara rao k et Al., The objective of this study was to develop immediate release film coated tablets of Rosuvastatin by wet granulation method. Different formulations were made by using various concentrations of superdisintegrants ployplasdon XL-10 and granulating fluids like water, isopropyl alcohol and butyl hydroxyl toluene. Opadry pink was used as film coating material. The prepared tablets were evaluated for the physical characteristics, invitro dissolution and stability.
Mayank Bansal., et.al.Zaltoprofen is a nont concentran-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with powerful analgesic action on inflammatory pain. The purpose of this research work was to formulate an immediate release tablet of Zaltoprofen for the treatment of pain and inflammation, by using superdisintegratnts such as Croscarmellose sodium and different grades of microcrystalline cellulose. Immediate release tablets of Zaltoprofen were prepared by direct compression method using superdisintegratnts such as Croscarmellose sodium and different grades of microcrystalline cellulose in different ratios. Sodium starch glycolate was added to aid disintegration.
Murdochet al., 2005 :( Escitalopram (Cipralex®, Lexapro™), the activeS-enantiomers of the racemic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (RS-citalopram), is a highly selective inhibitor of the serotonin transporter protein. It possesses a rapid onset of antidepressant activity, and is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder (MDD). Pooled analyses from an extensive clinical trial database suggest that escitalopram is consistently more effective than citalopram in moderate-to-severe MDD.
Mishra DN et al., 2005: Formulated rapid disintegrating oral tablets of valdecoxib using super disintegrating agents such as crosspovidone, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate. The results showed rapid disintegration with use of cross caramellose sodium at low concentrations.
Chaudhari PD et al., 2005: Formulated fast dissolving tablets of famotidine by using croscaramellose sodium and crospovidone as superdisintegrants. Famotidine was initially masked for its bitter taste by preparing solid dispersion with eudragit E100. Compressed tablets containing different concentrations of super disintegrants showed disintegration time between 11 to 26 seconds. Invitro release was about 92% to 1005 at the end of 12 minutes.
Schreimer T et al., 2005: Investigated about the mechanism of immediate drug release from solid oral dosage forms. They found that starch and cellulose substances favoured the matrix disintegration and the generation of effective dissolution surface of the drug substances. They developed a mathematical model suitable for the characterization and optimization of immediate drug release by the choice and modification of excipients.
Stanifort John N et al., 2004: Studied that microcrystalline cellulose excipients having improved compressibility whether utilized in direct compression, dry granulation or wet granulation and possess excellent disintegration and dissolution properties when exposed to gastrointestinal fluid.
Emily R et al., 2004: Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used as a neuroendocrine probe in human subjects to assess serotonin function as reflected in prolactin and plasma cortisol release. Citalopram is a racemic mixture of equal proportions of the S(+) and R(−) enantiomers. Inhibition of serotonin reuptake and, consequently, antidepressant activity is associated, almost exclusively, with the S(+) enantiomers (“escitalopram”).
Shirwaikar A et al., 2004: Carried out formulation of fast dissolving tablets of granisetron hydrochloride using super disintegrants by direct compression method, formulation containing crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium displayed shortest disintegration time compared to other disintegrants.
Shimizu T et al., 2003: Performed the formulation study of lansaprazole fast disintegrating tablet by MCC, low substituted hydroxyl propylcellulose and cross povidone as binders and disintegrants respectively. Formulation showed rapid disintegration of tablets in mouth (not more than 30 seconds).
Larry Augsburger L et al., 2002: Studied about characterization and functions of super disintegrants. In recent years, several newer disintegrants have been developed called superdisintegrants and these disintegrants may be organized into three classes based on their chemical structure (such as SSG, crospovidone and croscaramellose sodium). It was concluded that these would be used at lower levels than starch and any possible adverse effect on fluidity would be minimized.
Bi YX et al., 1999: Evaluated rapidly disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compression method using excipients MCC, lactose, croscaramellose sodium and erythritol. Within the optimal region, the minimum tensile strength was 5kg/cm2 while the maximum disintegration time was 15 seconds. The method described here was useful for the preparation of rapidly disintegrating tablets.
Chetan N. Yeole et al., Formulated and evaluated paroxetine immediate release tablets. Paroxetine is a selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used in treatment of depression. Paroxetine immediate release tablet have been prepared by direct compression method. Effect of various fillers and disintegrants were also explored. MCC and DI-Tab were used as directly compressible fillers. In order to obtain acceptable product several trials were conducted. Various pharmacopoeial evaluations of the formulations were conducted including weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution. Final selection of formulation was done on pharmaceutical equivalence of developed formulation to that of marketed one.
Rishikesh et.al. Studied Immediate Release Drug Delivery Systems. Oral administration is the most popular route for the systemic effects due to its ease of ingestion, pain, avoidance, versatility and most importantly patient compliance. Tablets or capsules are most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. By using MCC, DI-TAB, CCS, SSG like excipients we will achieve the immediate release.
Syed azeem.et.al Studied immediate Release Drug Delivery Systems. Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. To overcome these drawbacks, immediate release pharmaceutical dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. There are novel types of dosage forms that act very quickly after administration. The basic approach used in development tablets is the use of superdisintegrants like Cross linked carboxy methyl cellulose, Sodium starch glycolate, Poly vinyl pyrrolidone etc. which provide instantaneous disintegration of tablet after administration. Immediate release liquid dosage forms and parenteral dosage form have also been introduced for treating patients.
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