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There are two types of exercise which is aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise. Anaerobic exercise is necessary because it increases the body’s ability to respond to short bursts of energy by increasing the strength and an intergrity of muscle through weight training. The combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can promote a better health and physical performance among people (Nevill et al, 2008; Dao et al, 2004; Counil et al, 2003).
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There are a lots of aerobic exercise can be done during leisure time for example jogging, walking, cycling, cross country run, aerobic dance or roller blade activities. The most common form of aerobic exercise is running and aerobic dance. Nowadays, peoples tend to have running on the treadmill in their homes or in the gymnasium with listening music and also do some aerobic dance every evening at home or fitness club. Running on the treadmill or jogging in long distance or time can make people easily to become boring and also can affect their mood during exercises. So that, listen to music can be use as an alternatives to motivate people to sustain more long during they do aerobic exercise such as running, jogging or aerobic dance. Because of this situation, nowadays, many facilities are equipped with speakers that are wired to a device that plays music and also many people nowadays, used MP3 player with earphone during jogging, cycling and many more.
Music can be used as one of the most effective memory aids to people. This is because in basic way, music is linked to the emotional part of our brain and also can stimulate a left logical side and right creative side of our brain (Maggie, 2004). Based on Maggie (2004) once again, listening of music during exercise and training should be completely done with care and full of knowledge about the effect of music to the exercise. Basically, the three main purposes of music are to create a conducive environment, to theme an event and the last one is to accelerate the learning among people.
To make the exercise more enjoyable, the exercise should be done with music. So that, the differences of music’s genre make a difference effects to the people. The choosing of music’s genre for exercise is important because different individual are influences by different types of music’s genre. For example, some exercisers like listening country music during exercise while other exercisers prefer rock music, modern, jazz or even the classical music. Generally, populations of the same generation tend to prefer similar types of music which is the fast beat of music or modern music. So that, the types of music is important for fitness facilities or each individual to recognize the suitable music’s genre for them to comfortable when they do exercise with music. Since music has an influence on exercise, the exercisers must like the sound of the music (Karageorghis and Terry, 1997). According to Karageorghis and Terry (1997) again, the challenge of making music selections has been through technology. Now can be seen, people are more prefer to wear headphones and carry their own personal listening devices that are filled with motivating music from their own prefer music’s genre during the exercise.
There are many researchers can prove the benefits of listening music during exercise. One of the benefits of listening music during exercise is the increasing of endurance among athletes in two types of music condition which is motivational music and outdeterous music (Karageorghis, 2009). In addition, the motivational music can be able give the big effect to the athlete’s endurances than outdeterous music. Then another one benefit is according to Lorna et al (1995), the use of music during exercise are more and without music are relative to the perception of both effort and feeling during exercise or training. The others benefits can be seen on the chapter 2.
1.2 Problem statement
1.2. 1 Introduction
There are many previous research shows that listening music during exercise can give various types of responses in terms of physiological and also in psychological responses. But there are many types of music’s genre that can motivates people during exercise which means music will make people easier to start moving, walking, dancing or any other type of exercise that you enjoy. When people exercise with music, the exerciser will feel the exercise more like recreation and less like work. So that, the exerciser will not easily to become fatigue and stress. Furthermore, music also can enhance athletic performance which means the athletes can increase their performance during training or competition when they listen to music. It can be seen to anyone who has ever gone on a long run with their listening device or taken a particularly energetic spinning class knows that music can make the time pass more quickly. So that, by all the fact, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of music to the mood, experience value and behavioral intentions during exercise.
As we know, this study was to determine the relationship of music to the mood, experience value and behavioral intention during exercise. So, the problem of this study was to discover the perception of people about relationship of music to the mood and experience value during exercise. And then what are the relationship of mood and experience value to the behavioral intentions during exercise. From personal observation shows that people’s impression about exercise before was very bad. People always say that exercise is boring because there is no entertainment during exercise.
Besides that, we found that, athletes or normal peoples will easily to become bored and fatigue during exercise. This is because, during aerobic exercise, it is usually take a long duration in low intensity and no fun during the exercise, so that, there is no extrinsic motivation to the athletes or normal people. Besides that, people or athletes now, actually don’t have enough knowledge about the important of listening music to their psychology or physiology aspects during exercise.
There are many previous research discover the influences of listening music during exercise. For example, according to Karageorghis et al (2009), endurance was increased in two types of music condition which is by motivational music and outdeterous music and the study shows that the motivational music had a greater positive effect than outdeterous music. Now also, there is lack of studies about the benefits of listening music during exercise in psychology area and also the benefits of listening music to the recreational sport. Maybe this study will make people interested to join the physical activities because with this research, there are other alternatives to make the exercise more fun and enjoy.
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.3.1 The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of listening music to the mood during exercise.
1.3.2 The fourth purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of listening music to the experience value during exercise.
1.3.4 The third purpose of this study was to determine relationship of respondent’s mood and experiental value when listening music to the behavioral intentions during exercise.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The following null hypothesis were examined in this research :
1.4.1 HO1 : There is no significant difference of relationship between listening music to the mood during exercise.
1.4.2 HO2 : There is no significant difference of relationship between listening music to the experience value during exercise.
1.4.3 HO3 : There is no significant difference of relationship between respondent’s mood and experience value when listening music to the behavioral intentions during exercise.
1.5 Research Question
1.5.1 What are the relationships between listening music to the mood during exercise?
1.5.2 What are the relationships between listening music to the experience value during exercise?
1.5.3 What are the relationships between mood, experience value to the behavioral intentions during exercise?
As can be said for all research, this study does not proceed without limitations. The limitation in the present research is base on relationship of listening music to the mood, experience value and behavioral intentions during exercise among people of in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor that had experienced involvement in aerobic dance exercise. Lot of researchers doing research about the effects of listening music during exercise but didn’t specifically focus on the relationships of listening music to the mood and experience value and relationship of the mood and experience value to the behavioral intentions during exercise. First, this research’s study is limited in scope in regard to the people that had experienced involvement in aerobic dance exercise and recreational exercise. Furthermore, this research is limited in scope as to the number of quality targets of respondents. For example, the questionnaire will be distributed to people in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor area that had experienced involvement in aerobic dance exercise and recreational exercise. Other than that, the respondents might not answer the questionnaire honestly. Then the result might not be accurate because some of the respondents were not serious when answering the question. The limitations are the factor that might be occurring while doing this research and others limitations might be time, money, and knowledge constrain that faces by researcher.
The researcher had distributed the questionnaire to the people that had experienced involvement in aerobic dance exercise and recreational exercise only. The researcher also searched for 200 quality respondents to be the sample in this study. This study is used the questionnaire to measure and determine the relationship of music to the mood, experience value and behavioral during exercise. Then, the respondents were been guided during their answering the questionnaire.
1.8 Definition of terms
1.8.5 Aerobic Exercise :
Aerobic exercise is a physical exercise that intends to improve the oxygen system. Aerobic means “with oxygen” and refers to the use of oxygen in the body’s metabolic or energy-generating process during exercise.
1.8.6 Anaerobic Exercise :
Anaerobic exercise is an exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by athletes in non endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass.
1.8.7 Rock music :
The fast sound of rock often revolves around the electric guitar, a back beat laid down by a rhythm section of electric bass guitar and drums, and keyboard instruments such as organ or piano.
1.8.8 Genre :
Genre is the term for any category of literature, as well as various other forms of art or culture for example music, based on some loose set of stylistic criteria.
1.8.9 Oudeterous music :
Outdetereous music is a music that is “neither motivating nor demotivating” according to a study titled the effects of synchronous music on 400 meter sprint performance. Synchronous music refers to consciously timing the rhythm to movement, and conversely, asynchronous music lacks this conscious effort.
1.8.10 Ergogenic effect :
Ergogenic effects are any external influences that can be determined to enhance performance during exercise. These include mechanical aids such as ergogenic fabrics, pharmacological aids, physiological aids, nutritional aids, and psychological aids.
1.8.11 Mood :
Mood is a relatively long lasting emotional state. Moods differ from simple emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event.
1.8.12 Emotional feeling :
Emotional feeling is the complex psycho physiological experiences of an individual’s state of mind as interacting with biochemical and environmental influences.
1.8.13 Extrinsic motivation :
Extrinsic motivation refers to the motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide.
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