The Cognition Concept And The Abstract Concepts Psychology Essay

1206 words (5 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Psychology Reference this

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In the field of psychology, the cognition concept is strongly linked to the abstract concepts; for instance, mind as well as intelligence. Cognitive measures are utilized in the determination of an individual’s cognitive function level. Basically, cognitive function is the term applied to refer to the ability of a certain individual to process internal thoughts. Cognition is mostly utilized to make to reference mental processes (judgment), intelligent entities’ states (which include humans as well as extremely autonomous machines) and mental functions. In accordance to the research done by Thomas Aquinas, behavior study can be broadly categorized into two branches, that is; cognitive (how people recognize the world) and affect (emotions alongside feelings). In this respect, this description is inclined to application of processes like concept formation, attention perception, mental imagery, association, action, memory, attention and problem solving. However, factors like aging as well as disease are believed to cause negative effects on cognitive function as time goes by. These effects bring about issues such as difficulties in thinking alongside memory loss. Initially, psychologists did not consider emotion as one of the cognitive processes. (Canny, Russell & Norvig, 2003).

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Currently, this division has turned out as highly artificial and extensive research is being carried out to study emotion as a form of cognitive psychology. Pragmatic research of cognition is specifically scientific as well as quantitative or in other words it entails creation of models so as to explain particular behaviors. Even though many people consider cognitive processes as a brain’s function, cognitive theory does not necessarily refer to the process of brain or further biological process but it simply describes behavior in information flow terms (Sacks, 2001).

The widely known intelligent theories are: – the pass theory, the Psychometric approach theory, the emotional intelligence theory, the developmental theory, the triarchic theory and the multiple intelligence theory. The psychometric approach theory is the most famous of all the other theories and it involves psychometric testing. The intelligent quotient (IQ) tests include the progressive matrices of Raven, the Wechsler’s scale of Adult Intelligence, the Stanford-Binet and the Kaufman Assessment for children assessment. However, psychometrics critics argue that the form of intelligence is more broad and complex than what is obtained from the IQ tests. The multiple intelligence theory has its basis on both normal and abnormal persons. It breaks down intelligent into musical, logical, intrapersonal, spatial, kinesthetic, existential and naturalist components. This theory is highly criticized because it has neither undergone testing nor peer review. Pass theory which has got its basis on neuropsychological processes has been brought as a general intelligence alternative. The model used in the pass theory contains four types of competencies which are linked to the brain. The competencies include planning processes such as problem solving alongside decision making. They also involve the attention component which attends to specific stimulus, ignores distractions and sustains vigilance and it also covers the simultaneous processing that entails stimuli integration and calls for relationships observation. Successive processing which includes stimuli integration so as to obtain a serial order.

Triarchic theory in accordance to Robert Sternberg; intelligence is the mental activity aimed at purposive adjustment to, shaping as well as selection of, world environments which are pertinent in an individuals life. Sternberg proposed that ‘successful intelligence’ should be made up of factors such as analytical intelligence which entails the capacity to solve problems; the creative intelligence which refers to the ability to come up with resolutions by utilizing previous experiences and contemporary skills alongside practical intelligence which is the element of being able to adjust to the environment changes.

The theory of Emotional intelligence (EI) various models are used to identify and assess an individual’s control of emotions. EI models have actually been successfully applied in different domains. Lastly, the developmental approach which was developed by psychologist Piaget argues that intelligent should be viewed on the basis of ensuring equilibrium mechanism in the relationship between an individual and the surrounding environment.

Basically, intelligence is both a vaguely-defined as well as a concept which is tricky to quantify. Therefore, the debate on the interrelationship between the constructs of intelligence and achievement has remained controversial. While some psychologists suggest that the two constructs are identical in relationship, others believe that the relationship is actually reciprocal. In general, currently there is no conceptualized definition of the relationship between the constructs of intelligent and achievement (Devlin & Bernie, 1997).

Hospital Staff Attitude Survey on Early Abortion

The purpose of this survey is to establish the hospitals’ staff attitude towards working in a medical facility that offers abortion medication as one of its primary medical care. Historically, the debate on early abortion has remained controversial and hence there is need to study the various perspectives of the different groups that exist in a society. Conducting the survey on the hospital staff will enable one to understand their general views on this crucial matter. The main factor which made me to conduct the survey on the hospital staff is that they do play a very vital role in the administering of medication abortion and thus their stand will greatly influence this issue.

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The preliminary design issues which one can experience in the creation of a survey of this kind are such as facing various challenges while trying to come up with the appropriate survey questions. The type of survey questions formulated greatly affects the type of final information obtained. In addition, another design issue which came up was determining the most appropriate medical facility in which the study would be conducted so as to obtain information which is comprehensive and reliable. The study should actually be conducted on several medical facilities so as to establish the variance of the data obtained.

The survey will be administered though presentation of questionnaires to the hospital staff. The data will then be interpreted after making the necessary compilations of the data obtained from all the answered questionnaires. The general factor that will enable me understand the hospital’s attitude regarding this issues is by making a comparison between the number of personnel who are in support of medication abortion and those against this ideology. Additionally, each reason given for support or opposition of this issue will be given a score of five and a score line of more than twenty will indicate the general stand of the medical care staff.

In the field of psychology, the cognition concept is strongly linked to the abstract concepts; for instance, mind as well as intelligence. Cognitive measures are utilized in the determination of an individual’s cognitive function level. Basically, cognitive function is the term applied to refer to the ability of a certain individual to process internal thoughts. Cognition is mostly utilized to make to reference mental processes (judgment), intelligent entities’ states (which include humans as well as extremely autonomous machines) and mental functions. In accordance to the research done by Thomas Aquinas, behavior study can be broadly categorized into two branches, that is; cognitive (how people recognize the world) and affect (emotions alongside feelings). In this respect, this description is inclined to application of processes like concept formation, attention perception, mental imagery, association, action, memory, attention and problem solving. However, factors like aging as well as disease are believed to cause negative effects on cognitive function as time goes by. These effects bring about issues such as difficulties in thinking alongside memory loss. Initially, psychologists did not consider emotion as one of the cognitive processes. (Canny, Russell & Norvig, 2003).

Currently, this division has turned out as highly artificial and extensive research is being carried out to study emotion as a form of cognitive psychology. Pragmatic research of cognition is specifically scientific as well as quantitative or in other words it entails creation of models so as to explain particular behaviors. Even though many people consider cognitive processes as a brain’s function, cognitive theory does not necessarily refer to the process of brain or further biological process but it simply describes behavior in information flow terms (Sacks, 2001).

The widely known intelligent theories are: – the pass theory, the Psychometric approach theory, the emotional intelligence theory, the developmental theory, the triarchic theory and the multiple intelligence theory. The psychometric approach theory is the most famous of all the other theories and it involves psychometric testing. The intelligent quotient (IQ) tests include the progressive matrices of Raven, the Wechsler’s scale of Adult Intelligence, the Stanford-Binet and the Kaufman Assessment for children assessment. However, psychometrics critics argue that the form of intelligence is more broad and complex than what is obtained from the IQ tests. The multiple intelligence theory has its basis on both normal and abnormal persons. It breaks down intelligent into musical, logical, intrapersonal, spatial, kinesthetic, existential and naturalist components. This theory is highly criticized because it has neither undergone testing nor peer review. Pass theory which has got its basis on neuropsychological processes has been brought as a general intelligence alternative. The model used in the pass theory contains four types of competencies which are linked to the brain. The competencies include planning processes such as problem solving alongside decision making. They also involve the attention component which attends to specific stimulus, ignores distractions and sustains vigilance and it also covers the simultaneous processing that entails stimuli integration and calls for relationships observation. Successive processing which includes stimuli integration so as to obtain a serial order.

Triarchic theory in accordance to Robert Sternberg; intelligence is the mental activity aimed at purposive adjustment to, shaping as well as selection of, world environments which are pertinent in an individuals life. Sternberg proposed that ‘successful intelligence’ should be made up of factors such as analytical intelligence which entails the capacity to solve problems; the creative intelligence which refers to the ability to come up with resolutions by utilizing previous experiences and contemporary skills alongside practical intelligence which is the element of being able to adjust to the environment changes.

The theory of Emotional intelligence (EI) various models are used to identify and assess an individual’s control of emotions. EI models have actually been successfully applied in different domains. Lastly, the developmental approach which was developed by psychologist Piaget argues that intelligent should be viewed on the basis of ensuring equilibrium mechanism in the relationship between an individual and the surrounding environment.

Basically, intelligence is both a vaguely-defined as well as a concept which is tricky to quantify. Therefore, the debate on the interrelationship between the constructs of intelligence and achievement has remained controversial. While some psychologists suggest that the two constructs are identical in relationship, others believe that the relationship is actually reciprocal. In general, currently there is no conceptualized definition of the relationship between the constructs of intelligent and achievement (Devlin & Bernie, 1997).

Hospital Staff Attitude Survey on Early Abortion

The purpose of this survey is to establish the hospitals’ staff attitude towards working in a medical facility that offers abortion medication as one of its primary medical care. Historically, the debate on early abortion has remained controversial and hence there is need to study the various perspectives of the different groups that exist in a society. Conducting the survey on the hospital staff will enable one to understand their general views on this crucial matter. The main factor which made me to conduct the survey on the hospital staff is that they do play a very vital role in the administering of medication abortion and thus their stand will greatly influence this issue.

The preliminary design issues which one can experience in the creation of a survey of this kind are such as facing various challenges while trying to come up with the appropriate survey questions. The type of survey questions formulated greatly affects the type of final information obtained. In addition, another design issue which came up was determining the most appropriate medical facility in which the study would be conducted so as to obtain information which is comprehensive and reliable. The study should actually be conducted on several medical facilities so as to establish the variance of the data obtained.

The survey will be administered though presentation of questionnaires to the hospital staff. The data will then be interpreted after making the necessary compilations of the data obtained from all the answered questionnaires. The general factor that will enable me understand the hospital’s attitude regarding this issues is by making a comparison between the number of personnel who are in support of medication abortion and those against this ideology. Additionally, each reason given for support or opposition of this issue will be given a score of five and a score line of more than twenty will indicate the general stand of the medical care staff.

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