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According to Miller & Lynam (2006), aggression can be dividing to two types which are reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression (RA) can be explained as the acts which will behave by a person when he or she in negative affective states such as anger and frustration. Beside that, it also can be defined as the acts behave by a person to response to provocation. It means that, RA is occurred in passive way instead of the active way. According to Miller & Lynam (2006), RA can be explained by the frustration-aggression model, which means that frustration may lead to aggression (Berkowitz, 1988).
Another type of aggression is proactive aggression (PA). It is an active way to behave the aggression to reach the specific goal that is desired. PA can be understood with explanation of social learning model (Bandura, 1983). For instance, a child would like to threat others to get some money after he or she had observed their parent did the same thing (Miller & Lynam, 2006).
Control Capabilities and Aggression
In 2009, Winstok have conducted a study which investigated the associations between control capabilities and aggression. The control capabilities were divided to two categories, which were self-control and need to control others. The participants were selected from the School of Social Work at the University of Haifa, and the Haifa Municipality's Department of Education and Welfare. There were 334 (50.6%) boys participated in the study and 326 were girls (49.4%). The average age was 14.99 years. All of the participants grouped into three groups regarding to their age. Participants were asked to tell their conflict experiences in the interview. The causes and methods of solving the conflict were asked to the participants to determine the types of aggression that they had adopted. Then, the participants were asked three sentences in two of the control capability, which were "self-control" and "need to control other". The result showed that, self-control capabilities had negative effect on reactive aggression whereas the need to control others had a positive effect on proactive aggression.
Affective Empathy and Aggression
In 2007, Lovett & Sheffield reviewed some of the studies regarding to the issue relationship of affective empathy and aggression. The researchers searched the articles or journals on the internet-based databases such as Eric and Medline. Researchers have grouped all the participants in to two groups, which were children and adolescent group. The result showed that, there was more consistently of adolescents have negative relationship between the affective empathy and aggression compare with the children.
Adolescent-Parent Relationship and Peer Influences
According to Michael & Ben-Jur (2007), they had conducted a study to examine the social factors and its relationship with the risk-taking adolescent. The social factors that included in the study were parent-adolescent relationship and peer group influences. The sample was consisted of 269 Israeli adolescents in ages 16 to 18. There were 59.4% girls and 40.6% boys. The questionnaire "Modified risk involvement questionnaire" which created by Siegel et al. (1994) and Shapiro, Siegel, Scovill, & Hays (1998) was used in the study to examine the risk-taking behaviors of adolescent. Beside that, the "adolescent-parent relationships scale" (Mayseless & Hai, 1998; Wiseman & Hia, 1998) and "Orientation toward the peer group questionnaire" (Sharabany, 1980), were used in the study. Lastly, Depressive adjective checklist (DACL), aggression scale (Buss & Durkee, 1957), and social desirability scale (SDS) were used in the study as well. The result showed that, positive adolescent-parent relationship was associated with the less risk taking behaviors and, the higher level of aggressive behaviors was associated with more risk taking behaviors. The result also showed that the stronger orientation towards the peer group was associated with more aggression.
Peer Influences and Aggression
Pokhrel, Sussman, Black & Sun (2009) explained that the peer group can influences on adolescent aggression. This study examined whether the adolescents' self-identification of peer group can influences on their aggression in one year later.
One of the aggressions in school is bullying. The bullying form includes physical and relational aggression. There were few peer groups in school such as Brain, Goth, Jocks, and Elites. Each group represents different activities and performances in school. Students' behaviors were influences by the group that they have joined.
There were 1614 students participated in this study and questionnaires "peer group self-identification" and "relational aggression" were used. Students were answered the "peer group self-identification" first and then completed the questionnaire "relational aggression" one year after. The result indicated that, the participant who reported that they have affiliation with reputation-based peer groups was has significant effects on their future aggressive behaviors (Pokhrel, Sussman, Black & Sun, 2009).
According to Padilla-Walker & Bean (2009), they were investigated how the peer factor influences on adolescent aggression. 1659 adolescents were invited to participate in the study. The questionnaires such as "Negative indirect peer association" (Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton, 1985); "positive indirect peer association" (McCoy, 1992); "positive direct peer pressure" (Barber & Olsen, 1997); and "Child behavior checklist" (Achenbach, 1991) were used in the study. The result showed that, negative indirect peer association was related positively to aggression whereas the positive indirect peer association was related negatively to aggression. For the positive peer pressure, it was no significant influences toward the aggression.
Inter-Parental Conflict and Aggression
According to Esfandyari, Baharudin, & Nowzari (2009), there were some externalizing behavior problems such as aggressive behavior and substance abuse adopted by adolescents. The inter-parental conflict was having direct or indirect influences on the adolescents' externalizing behavior problems. Inter-parental conflict includes adolescent-father conflict, adolescent-mother conflict, and inter-parental conflict as well. Inter-parental conflict has significant impact on the adolescent aggressive behavior and their academic performances as well. Children or adolescent who witness the violence between their parents will have poor relationship with their parents. Children or adolescent who have poor relationship with their parents might have relationship problems with others. This will lead to behavioral problems among adolescent.
According to Moretti, Obsuth, Odgers & Reebye (2006), inter-parental conflict may play an important role to adolescent aggression. The children who have witnessed the conflict between their parents would like to learn about the aggressive behavior as well. This can be explained by the Bandura's social learning theory.
There were 112 adolescents participated in the study and the age range was from 13 to 18 years old. The Family Background Questionnaire which created by McGee et al. (1997) was used. Beside that, The Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979) and The Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (Reich et al., 1997) were used also.
The result showed that, girls have higher level of exposure to the maternal aggression compare with boys. In another words, girls have witnessed their mother used aggressive ways to treat their father. The result also stated that there was 42% girls reported that their father have threw something to their mother and only 19% boys reported about it. In addition, boys and girls reported that they have no physical aggression towards their parents. However, boys reported that they involved in the physical aggression towards their friends. For the girls, they involved in physical aggression towards their partners (Moretti, Obsuth, Odgers & Reebye, 2006).
Parenting and Aggression
In the study of Sharma & Sandhu (2006), it examined the parenting styles and its influences on adolescent aggressive behavior. In this study, it explained that parenting practice such as warmth, support and concern to their children will lead to less behavioral problems in children. In additional, it also stated that boys have higher aggression compare to girls.
240 parents and children who were 6 to 8 and 12 to 14 years old were participated in this study. Parents were invited to answer the "Parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire" and the children were asked to answer the "Child behavior checklist". The result showed that, boys have higher aggression, ODD, and conduct disorder compare with girls. Other than that, the parenting styles such as verbal hostility, indulgence, physical coercion, punitiveness, and autonomy were positively correlated with children externalizing behavior.
Shaming Experiences, Low SES, and Aggression
According to Aslund, Starrin, Leppert & Nilsson (2009), they had conducted a study about social status and shaming experiences influence on adolescent aggression. This study explained that the shaming experiences may lead to adolescent behave in aggressive ways. Beside that, the adolescents who have low social status will humiliated by others and thus lead to aggression. In this study, 5451 students from secondary school were participated. The questionnaires used were included "gender and socio-demographic background", "Ethnicity", "Shaming experiences", "Social status", and "Physical and Verbal Aggression". The result showed that, girls were less aggression than boys.
The result also showed that there was positive relationship between shaming experiences and aggression. Other than that, attributed status (family SES) was negatively correlated with the aggression and acquired status (peer group and school status) was positively correlated with aggression. For the low attributed status adolescent, they were more likely involved in the physical aggression. For the girls who were in high acquired, they were more likely to involve in verbal aggression compare with boys. The result stated that the boys who had low attributed status and more shaming experiences were involved in physical aggression. However, girls who had high attributed and more shaming experiences were involved in physical aggression as well. Lastly, the result showed that, verbal aggression was positively correlated with either less or more shaming experiences and gender (Aslund, Starrin, Leppert & Nilsson (2009).
Affiliative, School Attachment, and Aggression
Hill & Werner (2006) study had examined the relationship of affiliative and school attachment towards aggression. Affiliative means the relationship between two people or a group of people. For the school attachment, students can build up positive attachment with school. The methods of teaching, reward of involvement, and more chance to involvement in school can build up positive attachment between the students and school as well. In this study, 928 students have participated. The questionnaire "Motivation orientation" (Currie, 2001), "school attachment" which selected from 4 set of questionnaires, and "assessment aggression" (MacDonald and O'Laughlin, 1997) were used. The result showed that, the affiliative was related to school attachment and aggression as well. In this study, it also stated that boys have higher aggression compare with girls. Other than that, the boys and girls who were in the group of low school attachment and high affiliative, they have lower aggression than those have low affiliative.
Personality and Aggression
According to Miller & Lynam (2006), there are two types of aggression, which are proactive (PA) and reactive aggression (RA). There were 105 males and 106 females participated in the study, with a mean age of 18.6 years (SD = 1.94). All of these participants were selected from the psychology course. The inventory NEO PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (Raine et al., 2006) were used in the study. The result showed that RA was negatively correlated with Neuroticism (N), Openness to actions (O) and also Compliance (A). PA was related to the personality of assertiveness (E).