Socioeconomic Status of the LGBT Community in USA

1154 words (5 pages) Essay

11th Sep 2017 Psychology Reference this

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The socioeconomic status of the LGBT community has been the subject of some research. The LGBT minority has been impacted by a high level of discrimination in the social, economic and employment level. According to (Emlet, 2016), there is a high rate of socioeconomic disparity between members of the LGBT community, contrasting with their heterosexual peers. There is evidence that LGBT older adults are economically disadvantaged compared with the general population and of twenty-six percent of adults age sixty-five and older in the United States who live at or below two hundred percent of the federal poverty level (Emlet, 2016). A key step for the economy and personal development is the level of inclusiveness for LGBT people through legislation (BOX, 2015).

Keywords

LGBT, LGBTQ, socioeconomic disparities, HIV, sex work, discrimination, LGBT Legislation.

Some recent articles on LGBT community discrimination and economic disparity evaluation have shown the reality of the people belonging to this minority. A search of the Kean University Library database shows that some articles and journals point out the socioeconomic status of the LGBT community in the USA based on discrimination because of the sexual orientation. It is important to gather some of these sources in order to assess this situation and to be able to determine the social and economic impact, thereby evaluating the actions that may have been taken to mitigate this issue.

A View of the Last Ten Years of the Socioeconomic Status of the LGBT Community in USA.

According to Emlet (2016), there is increasing evidence of health, economic and social disparities among LGTB older adults, making these people an at-risk population. In this article, Emlet (2016) provides and overview of the social, economic and health gap, including higher rates of HIV, psychological distress and poor physical health in the aging LGBT population.

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This article describes the most important differences in health due to income, education level, and ethnic background. Some research has found important economic disparities among LGBT older adults and their heterosexual peers, including those who identify as bisexual, transgender, older than age eighty and those living with HIV infection may be at greater risk of economic insecurity and are more likely to live alone and socially isolated (Emlet 2016). There is evidence that LGBT older adults, both men and women are economically disadvantaged compared with the general population and of twenty-six percent of adults age sixty-five and older in the United States who live at or below two hundred percent of the federal poverty level (Emlet, 2016). Additionally, a quarter or transgender older adults experienced financial barriers to receiving health services (Emlet, 2016).

The Discrimination Manifestation in the LGBT Community.

Sexual orientation discrimination in employment affects people who defy traditional conceptions of sexuality. Individuals, who dare to challenge traditional idea of gender identity, including those transgender, also face employment discrimination. (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013). According to this journal, there is evidence in failure to hire or promote and wrongful work termination. Some studies have found that individuals have experienced workplace harassment and had lost a job because of their sexual orientation (Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. 2012).

Current protecting law of the LGBT community against social and economic discrimination.

Some local governments provide their own protections against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013). However, these rules are not generalized nationwide. According to this journal, LGBTQ people have found anti-discrimination protection only by sexual orientation. State statutes do not offer all employees the same levels of protection because states differentiate between public and private employers (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013). In the early twenty-first century, economist and social scientists began studying the economic impact of LGBT tolerance in the ability to recruit talent; in addition, some states have realized the tangible economic benefits of legalizing same-sex marriage (BOX, 2015).

Work Evaluation

Emlet (2016) clearly provides a socioeconomic perspective of the disparity between older LGBT people and the straight counterpart population. A better encompassing perspective of the situation would have been to include younger people in the study. Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. (2012) and (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013) journals coincide in the aspect of the discriminatory reality that is experienced by LBGT population in the workplaces. They also agree that there is still no legislation at the national level to regulate this situation, but rather that there are policies peculiar to some companies in a particular way. According to Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. (2012), discrimination in the employment context negatively affects the well-being of LGBT people bringing psychological distress, health-related problems, and higher rates of absenteeism.

An interesting study that could arise from this literature review would be the investigation of the correlation between the effects of the LGBT discrimination and the poorer socioeconomic status of this minority. A hypothesis would be as follows, “The socioeconomic level of the LGBT population is directly proportional to the level of discrimination experienced due to sexual and identity orientation”. An analysis of the socioeconomic impact of the implementation of inclusiveness policies would be very useful.

References

BOX, L. (2015). IT’S NOT PERSONAL, IT’S JUST BUSINESS: THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

OF LGBT LEGISLATION. Indiana Law Review, 48(3), 995-1021.

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST LGBTQ PERSONS. (2013). Georgetown

Journal of Gender & the Law, 14(2), 363-395.

Emlet, C. A. (2016). Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

Generations, 40(2), 16-22.

Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. (2012). EVIDENCE OF PERSISTENT

AND PERVASIVE WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION AGAINST LGBT PEOPLE: THE

NEED FOR FEDERAL LEGISLATION PROHIBITING DISCRIMINATION AND

PROVIDING FOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT BENEFITS. Loyola Of Los Angeles Law

Review, 45(3), 715-779.

The socioeconomic status of the LGBT community has been the subject of some research. The LGBT minority has been impacted by a high level of discrimination in the social, economic and employment level. According to (Emlet, 2016), there is a high rate of socioeconomic disparity between members of the LGBT community, contrasting with their heterosexual peers. There is evidence that LGBT older adults are economically disadvantaged compared with the general population and of twenty-six percent of adults age sixty-five and older in the United States who live at or below two hundred percent of the federal poverty level (Emlet, 2016). A key step for the economy and personal development is the level of inclusiveness for LGBT people through legislation (BOX, 2015).

Keywords

LGBT, LGBTQ, socioeconomic disparities, HIV, sex work, discrimination, LGBT Legislation.

Some recent articles on LGBT community discrimination and economic disparity evaluation have shown the reality of the people belonging to this minority. A search of the Kean University Library database shows that some articles and journals point out the socioeconomic status of the LGBT community in the USA based on discrimination because of the sexual orientation. It is important to gather some of these sources in order to assess this situation and to be able to determine the social and economic impact, thereby evaluating the actions that may have been taken to mitigate this issue.

A View of the Last Ten Years of the Socioeconomic Status of the LGBT Community in USA.

According to Emlet (2016), there is increasing evidence of health, economic and social disparities among LGTB older adults, making these people an at-risk population. In this article, Emlet (2016) provides and overview of the social, economic and health gap, including higher rates of HIV, psychological distress and poor physical health in the aging LGBT population.

This article describes the most important differences in health due to income, education level, and ethnic background. Some research has found important economic disparities among LGBT older adults and their heterosexual peers, including those who identify as bisexual, transgender, older than age eighty and those living with HIV infection may be at greater risk of economic insecurity and are more likely to live alone and socially isolated (Emlet 2016). There is evidence that LGBT older adults, both men and women are economically disadvantaged compared with the general population and of twenty-six percent of adults age sixty-five and older in the United States who live at or below two hundred percent of the federal poverty level (Emlet, 2016). Additionally, a quarter or transgender older adults experienced financial barriers to receiving health services (Emlet, 2016).

The Discrimination Manifestation in the LGBT Community.

Sexual orientation discrimination in employment affects people who defy traditional conceptions of sexuality. Individuals, who dare to challenge traditional idea of gender identity, including those transgender, also face employment discrimination. (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013). According to this journal, there is evidence in failure to hire or promote and wrongful work termination. Some studies have found that individuals have experienced workplace harassment and had lost a job because of their sexual orientation (Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. 2012).

Current protecting law of the LGBT community against social and economic discrimination.

Some local governments provide their own protections against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013). However, these rules are not generalized nationwide. According to this journal, LGBTQ people have found anti-discrimination protection only by sexual orientation. State statutes do not offer all employees the same levels of protection because states differentiate between public and private employers (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013). In the early twenty-first century, economist and social scientists began studying the economic impact of LGBT tolerance in the ability to recruit talent; in addition, some states have realized the tangible economic benefits of legalizing same-sex marriage (BOX, 2015).

Work Evaluation

Emlet (2016) clearly provides a socioeconomic perspective of the disparity between older LGBT people and the straight counterpart population. A better encompassing perspective of the situation would have been to include younger people in the study. Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. (2012) and (“Employment Discrimination,” 2013) journals coincide in the aspect of the discriminatory reality that is experienced by LBGT population in the workplaces. They also agree that there is still no legislation at the national level to regulate this situation, but rather that there are policies peculiar to some companies in a particular way. According to Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. (2012), discrimination in the employment context negatively affects the well-being of LGBT people bringing psychological distress, health-related problems, and higher rates of absenteeism.

An interesting study that could arise from this literature review would be the investigation of the correlation between the effects of the LGBT discrimination and the poorer socioeconomic status of this minority. A hypothesis would be as follows, “The socioeconomic level of the LGBT population is directly proportional to the level of discrimination experienced due to sexual and identity orientation”. An analysis of the socioeconomic impact of the implementation of inclusiveness policies would be very useful.

References

BOX, L. (2015). IT’S NOT PERSONAL, IT’S JUST BUSINESS: THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

OF LGBT LEGISLATION. Indiana Law Review, 48(3), 995-1021.

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST LGBTQ PERSONS. (2013). Georgetown

Journal of Gender & the Law, 14(2), 363-395.

Emlet, C. A. (2016). Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

Generations, 40(2), 16-22.

Pizer, J. C., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. D. (2012). EVIDENCE OF PERSISTENT

AND PERVASIVE WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION AGAINST LGBT PEOPLE: THE

NEED FOR FEDERAL LEGISLATION PROHIBITING DISCRIMINATION AND

PROVIDING FOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT BENEFITS. Loyola Of Los Angeles Law

Review, 45(3), 715-779.

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