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Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales

3349 words (13 pages) Essay in Psychology

15/05/17 Psychology Reference this

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Abstract

The objective of the Test and Measurement unit is to assist students get to understand the importance and the need of tests and measurement in the field of psychology. During counselling psychology, many testes and measurements are applied in the identification as well as definition behaviours as well as the mental state of clients. Among them is the Social Skill Improvement Rating System, which is just a taste that was developed to measure and assess social deficits within a person.

The system is administered by high psychometric properties. It has been noted that, it has excellent internal consistency, adequate reliability as well as excellent to adequate excellent test-retest reliability. The samples used in testing reliability and validity are adequate. The tests in one way or the other addresses the significance of evidence-based multi-tired assessment that are applied when helping student to develop, improve as well as maintain their useful social skills. As a family, SSIS includes performance screening, class wide intervention program, rating scales as well as intervention guide.

The instrument is a revised version of the most used SSRS, which enjoys strong history of use in most schools. In addition, the social skill improvement system rating scales, tent to have very strong psychometric features, along with scoring, makes the test ideally suitable to demands of screening, development of interventions as well as classifications in the middle schools. On the other hand, though there is existence of studies along with the information don the Social Skill Rating System, on the other hand, much has not been done to on the current SSIS

These tests are best used within the context of four-phase problem solving processes. By this model, it is not easy for one to ignore the main purpose of the assignment, and that no matter the specific aim for waiting to assess SEL competencies, one tent to concentrate on his/her own assessment information in a manner that helps one the most significant questions.

Tests and Measurements: Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales

Introduction

In the course, Tests and Measurements, enables one to gained understandings about the significance, need, and use of tests and measurements in the Psychology field. Psychology in its self is a broad field that can be applied in multiple settings, focusing on different aspects, yet operating with the same direction and purpose. Psychology studies the mental state and behaviour of individuals. In order to obtain knowledge about individuals, as such, Psychologists and trained professionals establish and develop procedures that are meant to identify and define specifics about an individual. These procedures are considered as Tests and Measurements, which were developed to diagnose and assess individuals through using subject-specific constructs to provide logical reason and evidence to validate predictions or proposed diagnosis.

In Psychology, different diagnosis, behaviours, and disorders have been defined and identified through a wide array of tests and measurements. With the diversity in tests and measurements, psychologists are able to define most mental states and behaviours presented by individuals. Fields of Psychology, like Clinical, Educational, Industrial-Organization, and Counselling, all have specific uses of tests and measurements to clearly define behaviours and mental statuses and establish treatment, diagnosis intervention, and therapeutic method interventions. With a specialization in Counselling Psychology, professionals deal with the intrapsychic of a client. Questions that counselling psychologists work to identify for client clarification are, How does the client view themselves? What strengths/weaknesses does the client identify as existing? How are the client’s social life, social relationships, and professional relations? These are questions that Counselling Psychologists seeks to understand and use for client comprehension and clarity. This step commences as the starting point for Counselling Psychologists to rebuild and rehabilitate a client, (Psychcorp.com, 2011).

In counselling psychology, multiple tests and measurements are used to identify and define behaviours and mental state of the client. The original Social Skills Rating Skills, which is now known as The Social Skills Improvement Rating System, is a test developed to measure and assesses social deficits within a person. This psychological test was intended to serve as a tool in identifying behaviours of a person, in order to, diagnose and treat to improve the social aspects of the person. With a purpose to build strengths, healthy relationships, and positive outlooks about the self, the SSIS is a relevant assessment that can be used by counselling psychologists, in order to obtain results about an individual’s mental state about the self, social life, and personal lifestyle. In this paper, an attempt will be made to define and describe the SSIS and how it could be used in Counselling Psychology.

Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales

This test was developed by Elliot, Husse & Gresham, this social skill rating system was published in 1990 by the American Guidance services. The social skill improvement system (SSIS), (Gresham & Elliot), is just a comprehensive system of social skills assessment as well as the intervention tool for use with children and as well as these who are still in adolescence from the age of 3 years to 18 years, (Diperna, & Volpe, 2005)..

For my final paper, I have chosen to discuss the measurement “Social Skills Rating System” (SSRS), which is newly revised as the “Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales” (SSiS). The newly revised version of the Social Skills Rating System is now the Social Skills Improvement System, which includes improvements in psychometrics, norms, and a new set of subscales (Psychcorp.com, 2011), as well as, a Spanish edition. Gresham and Elliot (2008) states that, “Ninety percent of the items were new or substantially revised” (paragraph 5). The Social Skills Improvement is intended to identify any social deficits, recognizing positive behaviours, as well as, negative behaviours, in student’s age ranging from 3 to 18. The SSIS includes three forms to identify social behaviours, the teacher-parent-student forms, which purposes are to evaluate behaviours at home, community, and within the school.

Psychometric Qualities of the Test

Standardization

SSIS is a self-administered assessment, with a completion time between 10-25 minutes. The newly revised SSIS consists of “technically” sound measures when referring to the norms (Gresham & Elliot, 2008). The norm group consisted of a mixture of 4,700 3-18 year old students. The sample was diverse and included representative numbers of children with educational disabilities and mental disorders, making the norms well-rounded and inclusive of all different cases of student descriptions.

Reliability

The revised Social Skills Rating System includes the same three forms as the original SSRS, the teacher, parent, and student, yet with better internal consistency reliability. Each form of the SSIS and there standard scores resulted in displaying consistent reliability. Test-retest methods were done over a 43-66 day time period and the results were as follow, “for the Teacher form, results describe median adjusted correlations of .83 across 43-day intervals, with median adjusted correlations of .86 across 61-day intervals for the Parent form, and median adjusted correlations of .79 across 66-day intervals for the Student form (Gresham & Elliot, 2008a).

Validity

According to Gresham & Elliot (2008a), “SSIS Rating Scales include three useful validity scales that allow examiners to judge the veracity of ratters: an F scale that will be elevated when ratters describe students as having an unrealistic number of problems; a response pattern index that is elevated if ratters provide an unusual pattern of responses (e.g., provides the same response to most of the items or provides a highly variable number of responses); and a response consistency index that is elevated if ratters complete similar items in very different ways”(,paragraph 3). The validity of the construct has obviously made major and effective improvements, by measuring exactly what it is intended to measure. Correlations of the scales with measuring similar behaviour were high, with measurements of non-similar behaviours not correlating, (Gresham & Elliot, 2008b).

Uses of Tests

The social skill improvement system in one way or the other addresses the significance for an evidence-based, multi-tired assessment that are used in the process of helping students to develop, improve as well as maintain much important social skills. Such like tools contained in the test, can be used early in the school years for the facilitation of the universal screening of these students who happen to be at risk for academic or even social behaviour difficulties. In one way or the other, it helps to plan for the interventions for improving such like behaviours, as well as evaluating progress on skills that are much targeted after the intervention. This assessment test contains tools that are particularly significant when evaluating students.

The SSIS family of assessment as well as intervention tools include: performance screening guide; this tool offers universal screening of the behaviour which can be termed as being prosaically. Some of such like behaviours are math skills, reading skills as well as motivation to learn for all students in the whole classroom in not more than 20 minutes. Another tool is class-wide intervention program; this tool provides teachers as well as other professional’s social skills instructional scripts as well as teaching resources for the top ten skills that tent to be much critical to the functioning of all students in particular classroom. The next tool is Rating Scales; this tool is concerned with offering targeted as well as comprehensive assessment of a person’s social skills, problem behaviours along with academic competence. The last but not least toll is intervention guide; this provides in-depth social skills intervention for about 20 keystone social skills that are directly connected to SSIS Rating Scales outcomes, (Nihira, Leland, & Lambert,1993)..

Critique of the Test

Strength

This program is a revised version of the most used SSRS, which enjoys strong history of use in most schools. This instrument in addition contains assessment intervention records, which allows the integration of social skill assessment data with planned intervention strategies, as an effect, it allows professional to easily develop interventions that are based on the assessment results. Also, the instrument has a manual which clearly provides detailed descriptions of all SSRS objectives and goals, on top of having a guide that is user friendly. Nevertheless, the instrument test is easy to administer and much easy to score. In addition, the social skill improvement system rating scales, tent to have very strong psychometric features, along with scoring, makes the test ideally suitable to demands of screening, development of interventions as well as classifications in the middle schools. In addition, there exist SSRS versions that also provide further information that can be very much significant in the process of planning on top of the evaluation intervention programming. Last but not least, the instrument use of multiple rater system provides a more broad-based assessment of social skills than any other instrument that uses a single rater system, like the elf reporting instrument, (Cynthia, & Kenn, 2010).

Another thing is that, the test measurement provides important needs assessment data for program planning. In addition, it also offers insight into the effectiveness of nationwide prevention as well as health behavioural initiatives that are designed to reach much education as well as counselling related objectives across the country. SSRS also produces the estimates of the prevalence of major adolescence behavioural risks and provides much crucial information for school officers, human service agency, policymakers along with parents, who are working in harmony optimum health young individuals globally.

Weaknesses

Though there is existence of studies along with the information don the Social Skill Rating System, on the other hand, much has not been done to on the current SSIS. In addition, the costs that are involved during SSIS are too high compared to other surveys. It also requires the knowledge of compiling data as well as coming up with reports is also required; this is based on the fact that, in the software package, it is not included. This instrument also faces the problem of standardization sample, as well as mixed reliability levels across all forms.

Psychometric Qualities

The instrument has standard scores which can be converted to percentile rank scores. The instrument furthermore provides separate norms for girls as well as boys, as well as these with and without disabilities. The high levels of internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities, content along with validity, have been reported by many writers. The computer software apart from facilitating scoring and reporting, it provides behavioural objectives and suggestions for planning purposes. A version that is scannable, offers group reporting options. Other than sorting, it arranges the information as per the group, classroom, individuals, schools, grades, gender, ethnicity, time and districts, (Mathews, Whang, & Fawcett, 1980).

The Tests Application in Counseling Psychology Setting

Purpose

The social skill rating system was published for the purpose of identifying and classification of social behaviours. In addition, it was also published for the purpose of assisting in the development of appropriate interventions for those who are identified as having social behaviour problems. Last but not least, the instrument was created for the purpose of addressing the significance for an evidence-based, multi-tired assessment that are used in the process of helping students to develop, improve as well as maintain much important social skills. Though theoretically is all kinds of children might be given the test, the test is purposefully geared towards handicapped children or children with mild to moderate learning difficulties. The instrument also can be used in the identification of social behaviour strengths, school or home-based behavioural interventions.

Benefits or Usefulness

The instrument is much useful in providing much comprehensive image or picture of children social behaviours. Another benefit accrued from SSIS is that, the three rating forms that are applied in the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales, offers much flexibility to the system. On the other hand, the instrument helps these using it like teachers and counselling professionals to plan for the appropriate intervention very quickly. Generally, the social skills rating systems allows individuals to get a more complete picture of social behaviours from educators, guardians and parents, and even students themselves. It helps in the evaluation of broad range of socially validated behaviours that affects teacher-student relations, academic performance, and peer acceptance among others.

Challenges

This instrument faces the challenge of sample standardization and mixed reliability levels across the forms. Another challenge is that, the instrument does not provide both appropriate and inappropriate social skills, so its users particularly focuses on the negative aspects of the behaviours of children other than taking into account also the positive aspects.

Though there is existence of studies along with the information on the Social Skill Rating System, on the other hand, the instrument faces a challenge of having done less on the current SSIS; as a result, the current SSIS has little information. Another challenge faced by this system is that, the costs that are involved during SSIS are too high compared to other surveys. It also requires the knowledge of compiling data as well as coming up with reports is also required; this is based on the fact that, in the software package, it is not included, in conjunction with this challenge, only professionals trained in the psychology testing are in a position of interpreting the outcome, though it can be administered by any personel.. This instrument also faces the problem of standardization sample, as well as mixed reliability levels across all forms, (Malecki & Demaray, 2002).

How Results Would Be Used

These tests are best used within the context of four-phase problem solving processes. By this model, it is not easy for one to ignore the main purpose of the assignment, and that no matter the specific aim for waiting to assess SEL competencies, one tent to concentrate on his/her own assessment information in a manner that helps one the most significant questions.

The main function of the of the first phase which is termed as identification and clarification is to answer some basic questions that leads to the articulation clearly on the reasons that lead to the assessment undertaking in the first place. Din most cases, one’s students are the main focus of the assessment; however the objectives of pursing the assessment might be far much complicated.

In the data collection stage which is grades as phase 2, the counsellor collects the information needed that is needed during counselling. It is recommended that, the counsellor gives room for the assessment purpose, student character as well as the problem being addressed be the guiding principles to the selection and choice of appropriate procedures and specific tools, as this will provide necessary information. After all these, consider whether some means of information gathering are much significant that others, this is based on the student nature, assessment problem and the situation. Then the counsellor is to align the available tools to fit within the budget, (Heber, 1961).

In the third phase which is co9nsidered to being the analysis stage, is where in detail, the data is now analysed. It should be checked if the available data confirms with the assessment problem. There need also to be an identification of specific issues that might be contributing to the problem in question. On top of it all, the councillor needs to determine if more information is needed to solve the problem in hand, a part from the one having. After all these, the counsellor is supposed to analyse any hindrance that might occur during problem solving, and if more information can be found in the existing school records. In case of any further data collection, an individual with the capability of doing that within the shortest time is identified.

In the fourth phase identified as solution and evaluation, the target of the intention need to be identified based on the available information. In this stage, the counsellor needs to identify the most appropriate types of interventions or programs in the surroundings. An available resource is a very important factor to consider while carrying out this intervention, so the counsellor has to determine the resources available, which will then control the type of intervention used. As an effect, the type of intervention will determine if data collection ought to be continuous. Last but not least, the counsellor decides on the means of assessment to be used when evaluating the effectiveness of the program or the intervention, (Myers & Diener, 1995).

Conclusion

Social Skill Improvement System is among other assessment system that professionals interested in assessing social-emotional competences of both children and youngsters. The forms of SSIS are just an update of what initially was called social skill rating system. The SSIS ratings forms include cross-informant tools that are being used by teachers, parents, guardians, children as well as these in the adolescent stage. The scales of SSIOS-Rating scales has been used when assessing children with behavioural and interpersonal skills problems, screen for problem behaviours, and identify children encountering social behaviour risk and poor academic performances. The social skills scales are used when measuring positive social behaviours like cooperation and empathy, as well as respect, amongst others. The problem behaviour scale on the other hand, measures behaviours that usually interfere with positive social skills. They can be categorized under; internalizing skills, externalizing skills, as well as the hyperactivity. Lastly, academic competence skills, on its part offers quick estimate of academic functioning.

In future, the SSIS will be intended for children and adolescent. It will be used in the identification of social skills deficit, as well as deficits in school related in to select skills that ought to be targeted during training, as well as the social skills training success evaluation. It also be used to yield the knowledge of student strength s deficiencies. Last but not least, in future, the SSIS will be used in the social behaviour exhibited by youngsters, both children and the adolescence in a classroom setting.

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