Schema Driven Memory

1401 words (6 pages) Essay in Psychology

27/04/17 Psychology Reference this

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Schema Driven Memory – Watch This!

Abstract

Many hypothesised about Schema Driven Memory, the latest well known study was accounted by French & Richards in 1993.

It’s purpose was to investigate memory conditions from 3 different experimental conditions. The amount of participants taking part was 41 the study proved most interesting to French & Richards as at the end of it they have learnt that their experiment supported their hypothesis.

Introduction

The Research in to Memory has started over 80 years ago. Only in the last 20 years has it come clear to scientist such as Cohen and Nickerson and Adams that

all did there work in 1980’s that everyday memory of a subject in the human mind is remarkably poor. Schema theories are often invoked to explain the many phenomena’s in everyday memory. In 1993 two scientist Dr Christopher French and Professor Anne Richards experimented on schema driven memory, test most call mistakes around the clock. There were three conditions. The first was ‘ The Basic Memory Condition’. Also known as the surprise memory task. In this condition the participants were told that there were going to be shown a picture of a watch which they were asked to examine for one minute. After the minute was up, the picture of a watch was removed from sight and the participants were all given a pencils, paper and erasers and were asked to draw the watch as accurately as they could from memory.

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The second condition was called ‘ The Forewarned Memory Condition’. Also known as the Forewarned memory task. In this condition the participants were told that they were going to be shown a picture of a clock for one minute and they will be asked to draw the watch from memory. The watch will be removed from sight and that they would have six minutes to draw the clock as accurately as possible. After the minute was up the participants were given pencils, paper and erasers. After five minutes the participants were warned that they only had a minute left. They were also asked to write on the back of their drawing anything that they felt was unusual about the watch.

In the third condition called ‘The copy Condition’. Also know as the Copy task. The participants were issued with pencils, paper and erasers. They were asked to draw the picture of the watch and were told they had 6 minutes to do it in. The picture of the watch was never removed and in clear view for the participants to draw from. After five minutes they were warned that they only had 1 minute left. Participant then were asked to write anything that they felt was unusual about the watch. Drawing were then collected.

In psychology ‘Schema’ is a mental structure of our world. A pattern of thoughts and behaviour, that structure and clusters our day to day ideas. Schemas have a tendency to remain unchanged. As a result of schemata we might as humans act in a way that makes expectations come true. British Psychologist Sir Frederic Bartlett ( 1886 – 1969) was the first to introduce the scientific word to Schemata. People used schemata to organise their current knowledge and provide space for future knowledge in life and understanding. In Piaget’s theory of development for example children develop a series of schemata to understand the world. Jean Piaget is primary known for his developmental stage theory but in fact it does deal with human nature and development of knowledge in it self which is at the centre of every human organism and language as where schema’s lay.

Method

Participants

There were 41 participants (31 female). The range from 17 to 46 with 29 subjects 18 or less. The participants were placed in groups of six or seven to ensure they all had a good look at a very standard watch that was used for the experiment. The watch even though it had roman numeric numbers for most still had four as IIII instead of the real numeric number for four which is IV.

Materials & Apparatus

In order to carry out the experiment, picture of a watch was used with roman numeric. The participants were broken in to three group. Where they were given pencils, paper and erasers. First group was under the Basic Memory Condition. The second group was under the Forewarned Memory Condition. The third was under the Copy Condition. A precise timing of exactly 6 minutes was used to test the schema memory of the subjects.

Design

A ‘Between Subject Design’ was used in the experiment. As the experimental design was with different people in an experimental and controlled conditions. Also known as the ‘Independent Design’.

Procedure

The participants were split in to three group and were given instructions and specific timing to finish their drawing of the watch it. Two of the group were then asked to write down on the back of the paper weather there found something unusual about the watch. The papers were then taken away. The first group wasn’t given much to go on or was asked to write anything only to draw. The other two group were given a lot more information as to how the experiment was going to go and how long they had and if they saw anything unusual.

Results

Figure 1 was the observed frequency. After the experiment was conducted it was show that only participant who never had to draw from a memory managed to draw the watch correctly. As even the pre warned participants made almost as many mistakes as the non warned participants because both still had to draw from their schematic memory. As a result both failed also as much as the other to draw the watch correctly.

was the hypothesis before the experiment. As it was a two tailed experiment with no real hypothesis. All of group were given exactly the same number of right answers. As we calculate the findings expected frequencies are = (Row total x Column total) /Grand total. For the IV column 19 x 12/ 14 = X2 16. For the IIII column 21×12/14 = X2 18.

The calculated X2 total for IV was 16. and for IIII was 18. Then work out the degrees of freedom. As there were 3 categories and the generically goodness – of – fit is df= (c-1) (r-1). Then the degrees of freedom gets calculated (3-1) (2-1) = 3. In this experiment the degrees of freedom will be 3. Then referring to the Chi-Square table will need to find out if the Chi-Square value exceeds the critical value. The critical value on the Chi-Square table is 7.814. The null hypothesis is rejected as the experiment X2 value is more than the critical value.

Table of Critical Values of the χ 2 Statistic

P-threshold

df 0.900 0.800 0.700 0.600 0.500 0.250 0.100 0.050 0.025 0.010 0.005 0.001

1 0.016 0.064 0.148 0.275 0.455 1.323 2.706 3.842 5.024 6.635 7.880 10.828

2 0.211 0.446 0.713 1.022 1.386 2.773 4.605 5.991 7.377 9.208 10.593 13.796

3 0.584 1.005 1.424 1.869 2.366 4.108 6.251 7.814 9.348 11.343 12.835 16.249

4 1.064 1.649 2.195 2.753 3.357 5.385 7.779 9.488 11.143 13.275 14.858 18.455

5 1.610 2.343 3.000 3.655 4.351 6.626 9.236 11.070 12.832 15.086 16.748 20.508

6 2.204 3.070 3.828 4.570 5.348 7.841 10.645 12.592 14.449 16.812 18.547 22.454

7 2.833 3.822 4.671 5.493 6.346 9.037 12.017 14.067 16.013 18.475 20.277 24.320

8 3.490 4.594 5.527 6.423 7.344 10.219 13.362 15.507 17.535 20.090 21.955 26.124

9 4.168 5.380 6.393 7.357 8.343 11.389 14.684 16.919 19.023 21.666 23.589 27.877

10 4.865 6.179 7.267 8.296 9.342 12.549 15.987 18.307 20.483 23.209 25.188 29.588

11 5.578 6.989 8.148 9.237 10.341 13.701 17.275 19.675 21.920 24.725 26.757 31.264

12 6.304 7.807 9.034 10.182 11.340 14.845 18.549 21.026 23.337 26.217 28.300 32.910

13 7.042 8.634 9.926 11.129 12.340 15.984 19.812 22.362 24.736 27.688 29.820 34.528

14 7.790 9.467 10.822 12.079 13.339 17.117 21.064 23.685 26.119 29.141 31.319 36.123

15 8.547 10.307 11.721 13.030 14.339 18.245 22.307 24.996 27.488 30.578 32.801 37.697

16 9.312 11.152 12.624 13.983 15.338 19.369 23.542 26.296 28.845 32.000 34.267 39.252

17 10.085 12.002 13.531 14.937 16.338 20.489 24.769 27.587 30.191 33.409 35.718 40.790

18 10.865 12.857 14.440 15.893 17.338 21.605 25.989 28.869 31.526 34.805 37.157 42.312

19 11.651 13.716 15.352 16.851 18.338 22.718 27.204 30.144 32.852 36.191 38.582 43.820

20 12.443 14.579 16.266 17.809 19.337 23.828 28.412 31.410 34.170 37.566 39.997 45.315

21 13.240 15.445 17.182 18.768 20.337 24.935 29.615 32.671 35.479 38.932 41.401 46.797

22 14.041 16.314 18.101 19.729 21.337 26.039 30.813 33.925 36.781 40.289 42.796 48.268

23 14.848 17.187 19.021 20.690 22.337 27.141 32.007 35.172 38.076 41.638 44.181 49.728

24 15.659 18.062 19.943 21.652 23.337 28.241 33.196 36.415 39.364 42.980 45.559 51.179

25 16.474 18.940 20.867 22.616 24.337 29.339 34.382 37.653 40.647 44.314 46.928 52.620

26 17.292 19.820 21.793 23.579 25.337 30.435 35.563 38.885 41.923 45.642 48.290 54.052

27 18.114 20.703 22.719 24.544 26.336 31.529 36.741 40.113 43.195 46.963 49.645 55.476

28 18.939 21.588 23.648 25.509 27.336 32.620 37.916 41.337 44.461 48.278 50.993 56.892

29 19.768 22.475 24.577 26.475 28.336 33.711 39.087 42.557 45.722 49.588 52.336 58.301

30 20.599 23.364 25.508 27.442 29.336 34.800 40.256 43.773 46.979 50.892 53.672 59.703

40 29.051 32.345 34.872 37.134 39.335 45.616 51.805 55.758 59.342 63.691 66.766 73.402

50 37.689 41.449 44.313 46.864 49.335 56.334 63.167 67.505 71.420 76.154 79.490 86.661

60 46.459 50.641 53.809 56.620 59.335 66.981 74.397 79.082 83.298 88.379 91.952 99.607

70 55.329 59.898 63.346 66.396 69.335 77.577 85.527 90.531 95.023 100.425 104.215 112.317

80 64.278 69.207 72.915 76.188 79.334 88.130 96.578 101.879 106.629 112.329 116.321 124.839

90 73.291 78.558 82.511 85.993 89.334 98.650 107.565 113.145 118.136 124.116 128.299 137.208

100 82.358 87.945 92.129 95.808 99.334 109.141 118.498 124.342 129.561 135.807 140.169 149.449

Discussion

As the experiment results show the first group named SMT only 5 participant drew the watch correctly as 9 drew from their schematic memory and drew the watch wrong. The second group named FMT that had a pre-warning regarding the time and the watch still managed to only draw 4 right and 10 wrong. The last group named CT drew all their watches correctly. It seems that even when the participants were pre-warned they still managed to draw most of their watches wrong as did the surprised participants. Only the participants from Copy Task group drew all of their watches correctly using the number four as IIII instead of roman numeric for the number which is IV. In conclusion whether surprised or pre-warned most participants used their schematic memory to draw the watch only the participant that had the watch in from of them the entire time managed to draw it correctly. So it seems most of us in our day to day life would use our schematic memory more than the new memories that were just made.

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