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Self-confidence is probably the most regularly reported psychological elements considered to have an effect on athletic performance. For instance, as observed by Arkes and Garske (1982), researchers have well-known that the separating elementbetween high and low accomplishment motivation is self-confidence. Athletes who are self-confident and expecting to do well are generally the same athletes who do win. Self-confidence has been operationalized in numerous different ways.These include the constructs of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 1997), sport confidence (Vealey, 1986), perceived capability (Harter, 1982; Nicholls, 1984), outcome expectancies (Rotter, 1954), and movement confidence (Griffin & Keogh, 1982). Anacknowledged description is the one proposed by Feltz (1988) who shows that self-confidence should be considered as: “… the confidence that one can efficiently perform anexact natural process rather than a global trait that accounts for overall performance optimism. For instance, one may experience a high point of self-confidence in one’s driving skill in golf only a low level of self-confidence in putting”. Self-confidence, as operationalized by Feltz, is essentially the same as self-efficacy, a construct defined by Bandura (1977). The theory of self-efficacy, which was originated within the structure of a social cognitive theory, has been one of the most widely used theoretical basic for assessing self-confidence in sport and exercise. Self-efficacy was originally projected as an account of the sort of interference procedures utilized in the discussion of anxiety, and has been employed in sport to explain the intervention of achievement behaviors. Granting to the theory, self-efficacy is determined as the cognitions that symbolize the sentences or beliefs that one can successfully accomplish a specific action to create a certain outcome rather than a global threat that account for overall performance optimism (Bandura, 1997). Self-efficacy is not concerned with the skills of an individual, merely with the assessment of what he or she can get along with her/his expertise (Feltz, 1992; McAuley, 1992). In really simple conditions, self-efficacy represents a variety of situation specific self-confidence (Vealey, 1986). For instance, an individual may feel very positive in her/his ability to perform on the volleyball court, but be totally intimidated at the idea of public speech production. People’s opinion of their personal capabilities has been evinced to be an important determinant of choice of activity, how much effort is expended in those activities, persistence in the face of aversive stimuli, thought forms, and emotional reactions (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). When confronted with stressful stimuli, low-efficacious individuals tend to break up, assign the failure internally, and have greater anxiety or depression (Bandura, 1982).
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Judgment of self-efficacy is based on four major sources of information: Past performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, persuasion, and physiological states (Bandura, 1977). Performance accomplishments are the most reliable and influential sources of efficacy information since they are founded on authentic mastery experiences. This notion is reflected in the hypothesis that mastery attempts that are perceived as a success will facilitate efficacy expectations, whereas attempts perceived as failures will result in lowered efficacy. Once strong feelings of self-efficacy develop through repeated successes, occasional failures will be of little effects.The influence that performance experiences have on self-efficacy depends on the perceived difficulty of the project, the attemptfinished, the quantity of physical leadership received, and the sequential patterns of achievement and disappointment (Bandura, 1986).Successes with difficult projects, tasks tried individually, and tasks achieved early in understanding with only unexpecteddisappointment will increase self-efficacy more compared to easy tasks, tasks carried out with external aid, or projects in which repeated failures are seen early in the learning process.
Vicarious experiences are sources of efficacy data derived through observing or imagining others engaging in the job to be done.Seeing similar others perform successfully can raise efficacy expectations, especially when the individual perceives similarities with the model in terms of capabilities or personal characteristics (Gould & Weiss, 1981; McAuley, 1985).
Persuasion is widely used by teachers and coaches in order to motivate people to think that they possess capabilities that will enable them to reach their goal (Gould, Hodge, Peterson, &Giannini, 1989). Examples are verbal persuasion, self-talk, imagery, and other cognitive strategies. These techniques are effective when the heightened appraisal is within realistic bounds. Furthermore, persuasion determine by the believability, reputation, reliability, and knowledge of the inducer.Ultimately, one’s physiological state can provide efficacy information through cognitive evaluation of the arousal states. When an increase in arousal is interpreted as an inability to hold away the tasks successfully, efficacy expectations will fall. However, when the individual interprets arousal as being psyched up and quick to perform, efficacy expectations will increase (Bandura, 1986).
When discussing efficacy expectations, it is significant to differentiate between personal efficacy and response-outcome expectations (Bandura, 1997).Self-efficacy is a mind of one’s ability to perform at a certain stage, whereas outcome expectancy pertains to one’s judgement that certain behaviors will lead to desired results.For example, one may think that running a marathon in less than two hours will guide to social appreciation, cash, and self-satisfaction (outcome belief), but may uncertainty whether he can actually run that fast (efficacy belief).Bandura (1986) argues that self-efficacy beliefs predict performance better than expected results.
Competitive State Anxiety
Competitive sport anxiety is very usual in young athletes (Wilson, 2008). Anxiety is a pessimistic reaction that happens when individuals doubt their ability to cope with the situation that causes stress (Humara, 1999). Anxiety can delay an athlete’s ability to completely or normally react. According to Wilson (2008), increased pressure and stress can build up intoanxiety and affect a child’s manners and performance in a sport.
Research has identified several possible causes of competitive anxiety. Anshel andDelany (2001) evaluated youth sports competitors, male and female, where the participants evaluated a list of potential origins of intense stress and anxiousness. The results indicated that the intense pressure of the sport, over competitiveness, and negative response increased stress for both males and females (Anshel& Delany, 2001). A similar study by Peden (2007) explained that when a player becomes more and more uneasy in some positions due to the surroundings, negative automatic thoughts become more numerous and more negative, which can dominate thinking, wipe out confidence, and harm performance.
There is a huge deal of learned inquiry into figuring out approaches that can be used for handling performance anxiety in athletes (Humara, 1999). Specific ways such as relaxation, cognitive restructuring, (Humara, 1999), and positive self-talk method (Peden, 2007) will be discussed in the Implications sections of this study.
Multidimensional Anxiety Theory
Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, and Smith (1990) produced the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT), which concentratesspecifically on competitive sport anxiety. This particular theory expresses that competitive anxiety is consists of two anxiety state components: cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety.Cognitive state anxiety is set like a fleeting condition of anxiety that contains of worry or an individual’s negative belief or worries about performance, as well as concentrationtrouble and lack of assiduity.Somatic state anxiety can be defined as a fleeting condition of anxiety that contains psychological response symptoms that pass in the soul.Symptoms of somatic state anxiety include extreme sweating, increased heart rate, wobbly, or tension (Martens et al., 1990).
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According to Martens and researchers (1990), somatic state anxiety may be categorized out as a vulgar reaction to opposition and can result in absolutely no needed problems to perform.However, a growth in cognitive state anxiety in an athlete can make awareness and concentration dysfunction and a mental growth process of worry and self-doubt.An absence of awareness and focus while taking part in sports can harmfully have an effect on entire performance. Possiblesituations of cognitive state anxiety are negative verbal feedback, insufficient of preparedness for competition, a bad attitude or mindset towards a past poor performance, or negative prospective of other individuals for example team members, family members, and coaches (Marten et al., 1990).
Anxiety negatively affects an individual’s psychological and physical capabilities to accomplish (Hardy, 1996).A negative effect of competitive sport anxiety is distress (Selye, 1987).Distress happens when an individual is actually up against objectives that may happen in an improvement process of demand, and needs coping management, and reoccurring issue or difficulty with young athletes because of their lack of abilities, several overall performance mistakes, or failure to create away with tense circumstances (Peden, 2007). As an effect of enduring competitive anxiety resulting in burnout and other mental and physiological problems, drawback from the sport can become a standard escape for young and adolescents.
Multidimensional Anxiety Theory shows that in relation to performance, cognitive anxiety knowledgeable within an individual will illustrate a negative linear relationship and somatic anxiety will prove and inverted ‘U’ relationship (Martens et al., 1990).The inverted ‘U’ relationship describes that in an individual’s somatic state, procedure should be bad at very low levels of somatic state anxiety, maximum at an advanced level of somatic state anxiety, and then become more and more worse as somatic anxiety increases past the optimal level (Perreault & Marisi, 1997).
The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) is a study based on the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory build to measure competitive state anxiety (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, and Smith, 1990).The CSAI-2 investigates the present state of competitive anxiety of an athlete by calculating current anxiety states of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence in athletes just before to competition (Martens et al., 1990).The CSAI-2 offered as the major instrumentation used for this questions.
Past research are delivered to check out the estimations of the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory applying the CSAI-2 in addition to several revised types of the instrument.Chamberlain and Hale (2007) examined relationships between the amount as well as directional areas of competitive sport anxiety. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2D (direction) was useful to assess the state anxiety intensity and direction of 12 experienced, basic male golfers starting in age from 20-22 years.The CSAI-2D is equal to the initial CSAI-2 apart from the seven-level degree which usually assess path.In parliamentary law to appraise both the negative linear and inverted ‘U’ relationship described in the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory, anxiety and performance rating from similar positioning duties carried out under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were utilized.Solutions suggested that cognitive anxiety intensity proven a poor linear relationship with performance and somatic anxiety intensity displaying a curvilinear relationship with performance.Multiple regression examinessuggested that course, which paid for 42% of the deviation, was an even better predictor of overall performance than intensity, which accounted for only 22% of the deviation. Findings decided with the original MAT hypothesis (Chamberlain & Hale, 2007).
The modified inventory contained of the three pre-existing subscales of the CSAI-2 (cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence) but as an alternative of 9 items per scale it comprises of five items per subscale, ensuing in a 15-item scale.Researchers finished a confirmatory aspectevaluation of the CSAI-2C to assess the level to which the three-dimension model of competitive anxiety composed from the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory backed with regards to other designs (Stadulis et al., 2002).After evaluating 632 children ages 8-12 years old, internal consistency coefficients (i.e., Cronbach’s Alpha) for the three subscales were: Cognitive anxiety state, α=.75; Somatic anxiety state, α =.78; and state self-confidence, α =.73. The entiretool internals consistency deducted in a value in.96 (Stadulis et al., 2002).
Summary of the Chapter
Professional football players as we know are elite football players that involves in a high level of sport competition. Sports offer players with organizations and programs from which they can help through skill development and enhanced self-confidence. Unfortunately, some professional players experience competitive sport anxiety, which can negatively affect their performance. Competitive sport anxiety can make athletes to lose focus, worry, and become anxious towards competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-confidence and competitive sport anxiety on Johor professional football players. This research can be helpful to coaches and officers of the professional football teams because it can detect the level of anxiety among players and if it related to self-confidence. The information may support coaches and officers of the professional football teams to take precautions such as modifying training programs and techniques, or coaching education on ways to help lower or prevent sport performance anxiety in professional football players.
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