In recent years, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic therapy have been two of the most common types of therapy used the United States. While most agree that the issue of counseling ethics in with the two type of therapy appears. This literature review examines the two types of therapy approach to relate the ethical issues that a therapist might face. The paper compares the effectiveness for adolescents of these two therapies and describes how they both help the client from a biblical standpoint. This examination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic therapy can help further therapy with the information how need to strengthen skills and minimize the ethical issues may encounter as professionals. The biblical stand point of this paper will help Christians easier relate the types of therapy to help accommodate the view placed by the church.
History ofCognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a categorization of psychotherapy, and several approaches to CBT fall within this organization, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living Therapy, Schema Focused Therapy, and Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Each approach has its own developmental history. The following is a commonly accepted general accounting of the history of CBT. The first therapeutic approach to CBT to be made was Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which was created by Albert Ellis, Ph.D. around the mid 1950’s. Ellis created this approach in response to his detesting of the in-directive nature and in-efficient of Psychoanalysis.The modern psychotherapist most significant to the creations of RET was Alfred Adler who created Individual Psychology. Adler, how was considered a neo-Freudian, stated, “I am convinced that a person’s behavior springs from his ideas.” Ellis was also subjective by behaviorists, such as George Kelly, John Dollard, Joseph Wolpe, and Neal Miller (psychology of personal building). There was first the ABC model of emotions, and then later customized the model to the A-B-C-D-E approach was popularized and developed by Ellis. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy was renamed by Ellis in the 1990’s. Cognitive Therapy was developed by Aaron Beck, M.D.in the 1960’s. Beck’s approach became well-known for its successful treatment of depression. Also in the 1960’s a student of Ellis’ by the name of Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., M.D. developed Rational Behavior Therapy. Maultsby’s assistance, included therapeutic homework and client rational self-counseling skills. Maultsby’s contributions included his thought of “thought shorthand”, to which he refers as “attitudes”, Rational Self-Analysis, Rational Emotive Imagery, and the Five Criteria for Rational Behavior.
History of Psychoanalytic therapy
Sigmund Freud how is consider founder of psychoanalysis, created the theoretical source for psychoanalysis in the late 1800s. Freud was a neurologist not a psychiatrist because back in his time anxiety and depression was consider to be part of degenerative brain disorder. When he first started, he used the common treatments like, massage, muscle stimulation and hydrotherapy. It did not take Freud long to find out that these treatments did not work. Due to the swaying effects of his adviser Jean-Martin Charcot, who utilized the study of hypnosis to momentarily stop hysteria or stimulate. He understood that these disorders its origin came from the psychological and could be cured by psychologically. Freud’s work in psychoanalysis has constantly grown in its understanding of the unconscious forces at work in our sense of self and relationships and more flexible techniques have evolved.
What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is one of the major orientations of psychotherapy (Roth & Fonagy, 2005) and represents a unique category of psychological intervention because it is obtained from cognitive and behavioral psychological models of human behavior that include for instance abnormal development, theories of normal and theories. In the beginning of behavioral therapy at its earliest of the cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies, is centered on very in-depth research on theories of behavior the clinical application of, such as learning theory (in which the role of classical and operant conditioning are seen as primary). The early behavioral approaches did not openly examine the role of cognition and cognitive developments in the development or continuance of emotional disorders. Cognitive therapy is mostly about the clinical relevance of the more recent, but now also widespread research into the important role of cognitions in the development of emotional disorders. The term ‘Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy’ (CBT) is variously used to refer to behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to therapy based on the practical mixture of ethics of behavioral and cognitive theories. New CBT involvements are keeping tempo with growths in the academic discipline of psychology in areas such as reasoning, decision making, attention, perception etc.
What is Psychoanalytic Therapy?
Psychoanalytic therapy which is also called psychoanalysis originally employed by Sigmund Freud known as the first model of modern therapy. Still to this day, they continue to try an abundant of adaptations to Freud’s original design. This form of therapy is often called the “talking cure,” or “talking therapy” and its pretest is to expose the unconscious thoughts and the conscious behavior that is affected by feelings and may end up in neuroses. In the beginning psychoanalytic therapy usually took a very long time dedicated on dealing with the patient. Normally patients would seen once a week like modern therapy, but back then patients met for therapy on average three times a week. The time-honored lounging couch is not employed, and clients now face their therapist while sitting in a chair. The primary base of psychoanalytic therapy does not always have to be on Freud’s work. Nowadays most analysts may still be considered psychiatrists, and were doctors like Freud in the progenitors of psychoanalytic. The professionals can also be social workers, licensed therapists, or psychologists. The word psychoanalyst is not a licensed or protected term, and anybody will be able to use the term in despite of if they have training or not. Any real professional alleging to be a psychoanalytic therapy should be a licensed counselor and associated with either the American or International Psychoanalytic Association. The type of therapy presented to people has shifted in a big way. Sometimes therapy is base on problems and occurs only for short time period. In other situation, therapy is limited by time and bent on training the client to consider things in different ways, such as in cognitive behavioral therapy. There have been exceptional research on the efficacy of these forms of therapies, and this has significantly appropriated a lot of insurance companies who will only pay for twenty sessions a year, unless there is a proven mental illness.
Benefits of Cognitive Therapy
Key skills of CBT Psychotherapists
The therapy called CBT has a research based approach. CBT psychotherapists must have an efficient perceptive of the collections of models of the human behaviour or as well as the person in cognitive, cognitive-behavioural and behavioural.CBT psychotherapists need a strong foundation in the ability to be knowledgeable of the hypothetical and research based models of a person’s progressing across the lifespan, and within the cultural and social contexts prevailing.CBT psychotherapists must have a good knowledge of the philosophical and theoretical bases of CBT, their practical application to various client groups and their current empirical status.CBT psychotherapist is able to identify and critically evaluate relevant research.
It is a skill that is used to engage clients and outlines a collaborative working connection with them. CBT psychotherapists use the therapeutic skill ability to perform a widespread assessment involving interview, data collection, and observation, the use of t clinical measures is relevant.An ability to formulate a model of therapeutic change using theory, principles and research derived from the cognitive, cognitive-behavioral and/or behavioral approaches to therapeutic change.Use educational strategies and relationship skills to inform the client/patient and encourage their active participation in clinical decision-making and the development of a personalized therapeutic programmed based on cognitive and/or behavioral theoretical principles and research. Implement a therapeutic programmed with the active participation of the client/patient, skillfully using a range of cognitive and/or behavioral methods to teach /coach them in the acquisition of improved skills in their use of more adaptive cognitive, behavioral and physiologically responsive strategies for the alleviation of distress and development of personal effectiveness. Monitor the effects of treatment, reinforcing and shaping the client/patients participation; modifying the treatment procedures as dictated by progress, data feedback and collaborative problem-solving. Skillfully utilize the clinical environment, community resources and the clients own home setting (as relevant), with the involvement of client/patient partner, family and significant others (where relevant and with the client/patients informed consent) to facilitate and generalize effective change and feedback. Evaluate client/patient progress through the collaborative clinical relationship, preparing them for increased independence from therapeutic help and discharging them from active treatment into a planned follow-up process that audits clinical effectiveness through client/patient outcome measures.
Skills, knowledge and ethical values to work effectively with clients from diverse range backgrounds, understanding and respecting the impact of difference and diversity upon their lives including service and user-led systems and other elements of the wider community. High level skills in managing a personal learning agenda and self-care, and in critical reflection and self-awareness that enable transfer of knowledge and skills to new settings and problems. Ability to think critically, reflectively and evaluatively. To have an understanding of thesupervision process and use supervision to reflect on practice. Have an understanding of the applicability of CBT across a wide range of clientgroups.
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