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B1: Describe how the teacher assesses student learning in one identified video.
Title: Practicing Presentation and Audience Skills through Science Presentations Case #9
The teacher in the observed video assessed her students through conversation. She asked for students to explain proper etiquette when engaging in presentations. Her goal was to use the responses to analyze the students’ understanding of effective speaking, listening, and viewing skills. She presented them with a chart that listed appropriate skills and the students were to use previous knowledge to explain these skills. For example, she questioned the students as a group and some individually what the chart meant. Specifically, around the twenty third second of the video she asks, “our eyes need to be…?” and the class responds “watching”. Then asked Christopher, “what do our hands need to be doing?” and he responds “still”. She does all this while pointing and referring to the chart.
- Evaluate the appropriateness of this assessment method for the learning environment observed in part B1.
This way of assessment was appropriate. By assessing through conversation, the teacher was able to grasp students understanding on the correct presentation behaviors. In a class this young it is hard to implement assessment. By assessing through conversation, she was able to engage students and reiterate the effective speaking, listening, and viewing skills. After explaining and demonstrating the appropriate behaviors the students had to put it in to practice. They were given a series of questions that aligned with a video that was presented. If they listened and viewed correctly they would be able to answer these questions following the video presentation. After the video was played the teacher asked the students the questions again and they were able to provide correct answers. For example, since they implemented the appropriate presentation behaviors the students were able to identify the weather as windy.
- Explain one way you would adapt or modify this assessment method to ensure all students in the observed classroom setting are successful.
I would modify this assessment method by requiring each student to list or explain the proper behaviors when engaging in a presentation aloud. This would allow me to analyze each individual student’s knowledge through conversation, rather than analyzing the student body’s understanding as a whole. Although she asks all students these questions not all students are answering. This does not give an accurate representation of individual knowledge. Here she is only able to grasp a general analysis of students understanding.
B2: Describe and instructional strategy that met the needs of students observed in a second identified video.
Title: Comprehending and summarizing text about solar system Case #956
Instructional strategies observed: sheltered English, scaffolding, modifications, peer work, modeling and demonstration, writing, speaking, discussion.
Sheltered English- an instructional approach used in content area teaching that makes instructions in English understandable and includes strategies for English language development.
Scaffolding- Vygotsky. Modeling and demonstration done by the teacher then mimicked by students with help from the teacher as needed.
Modifications- presenting instructions in multiple ways and giving different text books based on the language barrier or intellectual level.
Peer work- collaborating with classmates on the same intellectual level.
Modeling and demonstration- teacher instruction and demonstration for the activity of the day.
Writing and speaking- practice in order to reach the objectives.
Discussion- come together as a class with the teacher and reflect on what was done. Decide what is important and make any final connections.
Bringing this all together we can conclude that she implements the direct instruction style of learning.
- Evaluate how well this instructional strategy met the needs of the students observed in part B2.
What were the objectives at hand? Integrate science and English using the sun.
What did the students do?
- Listen to instructions and demonstration given by the teacher.
- Read the daily objectives aloud.
- Read a book with their given partner.
- Write and copy the first and last sentence of the book.
- Look for words that were repeated throughout the book.
- Sort out the words.
- Write a summary.
- Come back together as a class to discuss.
By presenting the instructions and demonstrating what was to be done the teacher fulfilled the modeling and demonstration strategy. Making students read objectives aloud helps them work on their language barrier and informs them of what they should accomplish by the end of the lesson. Reading with a peer forces interaction between students. By requiring students to write and copy sentences out of the book they are practicing those skills and making clear connections with vital information. Identifying repeating words enhances student’s vocabulary and gives them clear sight as to what is important throughout the text. Once they reach the summary they are equipped with all necessary information. After students collaborated with their partner the teacher brought them back together as a class. During the discussion the class completed the same guided organizer they had previously done with their partner. Here they were able to learn new things, elaborate on their findings, and then reach the intended conclusion.
- Explain how you would implement the instructional strategy from part B2 into your own teaching.
Of the strategies observed I would implement the following; scaffolding, modeling and demonstration as well as peer work. I believe that all students learn in different ways. By incorporating different activity environments, I will aim to meet the needs of all students. Visually by modeling and demonstrating what is to be done. I would encourage collaboration by allowing students to pair up and build off of others’ knowledge as well as their own. I would also implement independent time where students are to gather the information and put it into practice on their own as well as group discussions. Of course, I would be there for guidance when needed. That would include the scaffolding strategy. For example, in the video observed we see the teacher implement all three strategies I would include in my teaching. She included visualization by presenting objects on the smart board and by explaining the guided chart she gave each student. She then paired students up and allowed them to complete the chart by collaborating. Once she released the students she floated around and helped students as needed. Afterwards we see the teacher gather the students and lead them through a class discussion of the work they completed.
B3: Describe how a learning theory is evident in a third identified video.
Title: Developing Drug Awareness and Resistance Skills Case #163
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, Stage 4, Formal operational stage is evident within the beginning of this video. Here we see students use symbols related to abstract concepts, formulate hypothesis, and consider possibilities to reach a conclusion. This is evident as the students are looking at different images, putting them together, and identifying the desired conclusion. For example, the second group of students to present inform the class how they see a firefighter, tobacco, and the words a bit braver. They are able to put these three things together abstractly and reach the conclusion that the intended message is tobacco makes you braver.
- Identify one theorist whose position aligns to the learning theory described in part B3. Then explain why the theorist’s position aligns to that learning theory.
Jean Piaget aligns with the previous theory described. He believed that students in the formal operational stage were of the ages eleven and older. Students within this video were ages 11-13. He also explained how these students could make connections to abstract objects, use symbols, use deductive reasoning, formulate hypothesis, and reach specific conclusions. We see all of this take place within the lesson, mainly Abstract Thinking. The students in this video were able to infer about hypothetical scenarios that they have yet to experience. Building off the example above, about tobacco making you braver, if you continue watching you see the students reaching the conclusion that tobacco doesn’t give you firefighting abilities. They even go on to understand that firefighters are not directly related to the use of tobacco and using tobacco causes yellowing of the teeth which is not firefighter macho.
- Describe how you would apply the theory from part B3 to your own teaching practice using a different technique within the same learning theory.
Although abstract thinking is vital in Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, there is also another side. On top of thinking abstractly students in the Formal Operational Stage also have the ability to use hypothetical deductive reasoning. This means that students can approach problems in a systematic way that demonstrates organization rather than through trial and error. Hypothetical deductive reasoning can also be viewed as scientific thinking. I will apply this approach into my own classroom by creating examples that force students to use these deductive approaches. Rather than giving the students images to piece together like we observed in the video, I would give them real world scenarios that result in them using their deductive reasoning skills to determine direct causes. The difference in the two classroom activities would be;
- In the video we observed, students looked at symbols and used their abstract thinking skills to infer that crown royal, a helmet, a car/motorcycle would represent drinking and driving.
- In my classroom I would present students with a drinking and driving scenario with an in-depth back story and ask them to read through, systemize and organize the information presented to them and watch them use their hypothetical deductive reasoning skills to conclude that drinking and driving was the cause.
B4: Describe how a teacher in a fourth identified video incorporates technology in the classroom to enhance student learning.
Title: Using Technology in Creative Writing Case #14
Throughout the video the teacher used technology in her demonstrations to the entire class. Once demonstrations were over the students had to use technology to complete an assignment. With a partner they were to construct and create a short story using PowerPoint.
- Explain how this use of technology does or does not align with best practices for the appropriate use of technology.
The use of technology throughout this video is effective and appropriate. Students are engaged and attentive. By allowing students to use technology to create their story she is giving them freedom to be creative. Although they do have specific criteria, using technology allowed them to understand all aspects of the lesson. Not only were they writing, they were using technological skills, avoiding plagiarism, and being ethical and responsible. With that being said, the use of technology in this lesson does align with best practices and appropriateness.
- Evaluate how the technology observed in B4 enhances student learning.
The use of technology in the observed video enhances the fun and creativity of learning. Students tended to be more engaged and actively involved in the assignment. Using PowerPoint to write has the ability to make the students feel less like they are doing work. What they don’t know is that by using the tools on PowerPoint, such as; word display, clip art, and other tools they are enhancing their writing for better understanding.
B5: Describe an instructional resource used for the lesson in a fifth identified video.
Topic: Observing and Measuring the Weather Case #53
Throughout the observed video there were multiple learning resources used. These resources were; thermometer, windsock, anemometer, and ruler. The teacher also supplied a data chart where the students would write the data collected. The classroom was divided into multiple groups where a member of each group had a different job. One student used a thermometer to measure the temperature, another the windsock to identify the direction of the wind, some used the anemometer to determine the speed of wind, and lastly someone determined the amount of precipitation with the ruler.
- Evaluate the effectiveness if this resource, including whether or not it is developmentally appropriate for the learners in the classroom observed in part B5.
Learning resources are used to support and enhance student engagement while learning. The resources observed in the video helped engage and motivate students to complete the task at hand. Students were to observe different aspects of the weather daily and record their findings to later identify the discrepancies between each day. By providing these resources the teacher allowed for all students to participate in the weather observation as well as identify the purpose of each tool. The thermometer, windsock, anemometer, ruler, and data chart each played a significant role in the lesson. Without these resources this lesson would be less interesting for students. Students in this second-grade class were enrolled in Earth Science. The goal of the lesson was to address concepts of change and consistency by observing and measuring weather. These resources and lesson were developmentally appropriate. They respected the age and stage of development for the group of students and enhanced their learning.
- Describe how you would use an additional instructional resource to enhance part B5.
An appropriate instructional resource I felt was missing from the lesson was a textbook. There were multiple occasions throughout the lesson where students could have made reference to a textbook for additional support or understanding. There was no clear definition or theorem used when explaining the purpose and use of the learning resources provided, nor the concepts included in the overall goal. For example, why did they need each tool and what was the appropriate way to use these tools? If a textbook had been provided students would have had the opportunity to make concrete connections for their understanding and applications. This additional resource has the potential to enhance student learning by giving them an outlet other than the teacher. They would be forced to think about and read in order to answer their question rather than the teacher verbally informing them.
B6: Describe how students in a sixth identified video engaged in a listening, speaking, reading, writing, or thinking activity that provides opportunities for them to use higher-order
Video Title: Using Discourse to Support Students Understanding of Multiplying Fractions. Case #238
Throughout my observation I identified the students engaging in three activities from the above list. Students engaged in listening, speaking, and thinking activities. To start with the students listened to the teacher as he spoke, and this continued throughout the discussion, whether the teacher or their peers. The teacher began the discussion with guided questions, “Does ½ = ½?”, “½ cookie = ½ a pizza”, “½ $10 = ½ $100”, “when multiplying do numbers always get larger?” Each question followed with several engaging discussions between students. Students verbally answered each question and then elaborated on their answers when needed. By doing so I was able to observe students interacting in speaking activities. When observing the way students answered these questions there were two types shown. Some students answered immediately without hesitation, while others collected all information and listened to what others were thinking before answering. The students who were quick to answer often changed their answer after taking a moment to think. Either way all students engaged in thinking activities in order to solve the problems before them. How did students use these to engage in higher-order thinking? The teacher’s intentions were to guide students into a critical thinking. This period of critical thinking resulted in higher-order thinking. Higher order thinking is a time when students analyze information/questions, evaluate problems, or synthesis while being creative and innovative. We see this as students begin to understand the connection between concepts and reach the conclusion that multiplying by fractions results in smaller numbers.
a. Descried how you would enhance student engagement in higher-order thinking activity in the lesson observed in B6.
In order to enhance student engagement in a way that produces higher-order thinking teachers must create an inviting and comfortable classroom, encourage questions, connect concepts, use real world situations, create scenarios that encourage critical thinking, and require students to elaborate on answers. In order to see these things in the lesson I observed, I would better guide students in a way that led them to make key connections sooner. Although students did reach the intended answer at the end of the lesson I observed they only did this through examples. There was no theoretical connection. In math, especially, I believe it is critical to teach kids through theories, terminology, previous knowledge, new knowledge, examples, repetition and practice. By using these the teacher Is requiring students to really dig deep and engage in higher-order thinking activities. Not only will they reach the intended answer they will be able to elaborate with concrete facts and evidence. Another way I would enhance student engagement in higher order thinking is by beginning my lesson with clear objectives. Allow students to know what they should know and be able to do once the lesson is over. This way when I present them with a problem they can be creative and innovative in reaching the intended conclusion.
An instructional strategy is used for the sole purpose of helping students become strategic and independent learners. While reflecting on my teaching philosophy I have selected three strategies I feel are important to include in my classroom daily. These strategies are; Cooperative Learning, Technology, and Direct Instruction. With these three strategies I will aim to enhance student’s education. Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which teachers group students into small groups based on intellectual ability. These groups will include students with differing intellectual abilities and they will engage in a variation of activities in hopes to enhance their understanding. Using technology as an instructional strategy encompasses web surfacing, online classroom, audio and video, chat rooms, and so much more. Technology is rapidly advancing in today’s society and has the ability to engage and enhance student learning. Direct instruction develops from Skinners behavioral approach to learning. Skinner includes five practices for direct instruction. 1. Orientation- the teacher is to give an introduction for each lesson. 2. Presentation- the teacher is to present the material for each lesson. 3. Structured practice- the teacher is to work through examples with the class. 4. Guided practice- the teacher is to assist students as they work through problems. 5. Independent practice- the teacher is to release students to work on their own.
In the video titled, Comprehending and Summarizing Text About our Solar System, I observed several learning strategies worth emulating. The teacher in this video used aspects of Direct Instruction that I find vital for a successful classroom. She enhanced student engagement by implementing several learning activities, from teacher demonstration, whole class collaboration, and partner collaboration. By including these different environments, I feel she was able to engage all students and lead them towards an accurate understanding.
After observing the video, Using Discourse to Support Students Understanding of Multiplying Fractions, I decided I wanted to avoid the teacher’s strategy. Although the teacher was successful in reaching the conclusion that multiplying numbers together can result in larger or smaller numbers, his strategy was not appealing. The class strategy was discussion. He asked questions, some basic some guided, and the students answered. He did this until they were able to correctly answer the main question. That discovery being, that numbers can get larger or smaller when they are multiplied together. If I were teaching the lesson I would have rather students completed practice problems, independently or with partners, that would help lead them towards this discovery then bring them back together as a class to discuss. The students were not required to use their math skills, rather they listened to guided questions and answered the best they could. In my philosophy, referring to the strategy direct instruction, the students in the observed video lacked practice, and a proper presentation.
The classroom environment I wish to have would resemble characteristics such as; energetic, intriguing, organized, engaging, comfortable, etc.… When using the term energetic you could also think active. I want students in my classroom to be actively learning, this will help keep students intrigued and engaged. My classroom environment should also be organized. Everything should have a home, and the lesson should be presented and visible at all times. If I can keep my classroom and lessons organized there will be less room for confusion and enhance student learning. I would also like to implement a comfortable classroom environment. By doing so my students will know that they are valued and important. If my classroom is comfortable there should be no barrier between student/teacher and student/classroom collaborative discussions. I want students to ask questions and discuss scenarios without hesitation. If I had to choose one observed video that best supports these characteristics it would be the one titled, Observing and Measuring the Weather. The students in this classroom were highly engaged, the classroom and lesson were organized, the energy level was high, and everyone was intrigued.
About ATLAS. (n.d.). Retrieved September, 2018, from https://atlas.nbpts.org/cases/
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