Brown conducted a longitudinal study over 5 years to examine the changes in self-esteem and feelings of competence with physical appearance and social acceptance. The participants included were 1166 white and 1213 black girls, aged 9 and 10 years at baseline. The assessments of maturation stage and body mass index were done annually and Harter’s Self-Perception Profile for children was done biennially. The report concluded that black girls’ had higher and more stable self-worth and greater satisfaction with their physical appearance compared to white girls.
Kling et al. (2002) conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in global self-esteem with two analyses. In analysis I, a computerized literature search of 97,121 respondents and in analysis II, the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, from the National Center for Education Statistics were used. The two analyses provided evidence that males scored higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small.
Scott, Rich, and James (2002) conducted a study on validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem with a total sample of 290 middle school students. The tools administered were the Self-Description Questionnaire-II and the Students Life Satisfaction Scale. Children’s perception of their academic competence was more strongly related to their global self-esteem than their global life satisfaction whereas children’s perception of the quality of their family relationship was the strongest correlate of their global life satisfaction. The findings were then replicated with a sample of 183 elementary school students (grade 3-5). Taken together, the findings provided strong support for the meaningfulness of the global life satisfaction construct with children as well as the multidimensionality of children’s subject well-being reports.
Hirsch and Rapkin (2003) conducted a longitudinal study regarding self esteem, school life and social support to examine the psychological well-being of students during the transition to junior high school. The participants were 159 white and black students and the findings showed that self-esteem was unchanged from the end of sixth through the middle of seventh grades, rising by the end of seventh grade. Depressive and other symptoms increased among girls’ overtime relative to boys. There is an increase in peer social support only for blacks of high academic competence.
Richard (2003) carried out a cohort-sequential longitudinal study on self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age. Data included 4 assessments from the Americans’ changing lives study across a 16-year period of a nationally representative sample of 3,617 individuals aged 25 years to 104 years. Analysis indicated that self-esteem was increasing during young and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at about age 60 years and then declining in old age. Women had lower self-esteem than men in young adulthood. More educated individuals had higher self-esteem than less educated individuals. Moreover, the results suggested that changes in socioeconomic status and physical health account for the decline in self-esteem that occurs in old age.
Parker, Jennifer, Benson, and Mark (2004) conducted the national educational longitudinal study to examine parental support and monitoring on adolescent outcomes of self-esteem, substance abuse and delinquency. Diverse samples of 16,749 adolescents were included and the findings showed that high parental support and monitoring were related to greater self esteem and lower risk behaviours.
Phinney and Chavira (2004) conducted an exploratory longitudinal study to examine changes in ethnic identity and self-esteem with age. The sample consisted of 18 adolescents from Asian, American, Black and Hispanic ethnic groups. They were assessed at 16 years and three years later. Results showed a significant change to higher stages of ethnic identity over the three-year period. Self-esteem and ethnic identity were significantly related to each other at each time period and across the three-year time span.
Wild, Flisher, Bhana, and Lombard (2004) investigated the associations among adolescents’ self-esteem in 6 domains and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. A multistage strati¬ed sampling strategy was used and a representative sample of 939 English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking students in Grades 8 and 11 were selected. The multidimensional self-esteem questionnaire and a self-report questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results showed that scores on each self-esteem scale was signi¬cantly associated with at least one risk behavior. Low self-esteem in the family and school contexts and high self-esteem in the peer domain were signi¬cantly associated with multiple risk behaviours in adolescents of both the sexes.
Heinonen, Raikkonen, and Jarvinen (2005) conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the relation of self-esteem in early and late adolescence to dispositional optimism-pessimism in adulthood. The subjects comprised a population-based sample of young Finns and were investigated at ages 12, 18 and 33 years. The results revealed that adolescents with high self-esteem at the age of 12 and 18 showed signi¬cantly lower levels of pessimism compared to those with low self-esteem during the adolescent years.
Biro et al. (2006) conducted a longitudinal study to examine the changes in self-esteem in relation to race and body mass. The samples were girls recruited at ages 9 and 10 years and were followed to age 22 years. The Harter self-perception pro¬le was administered every other year, analyzing scores from the global self-worth scale at ages 9-12 years, 13-16 years and 17-22 years. The results showed that self-worth was greater in black than white women and greater with lower body mass index in both races. The findings revealed that race and body mass index are important predictors of self-esteem.
Raevuori et al. (2007) conducted a longitudinal study to analyse the genetic and environmental influences on self-esteem among Finnish twins. The 4132 twin individuals were assessed at age 14 years and 3841 twin individuals were assessed at age 17 years. The Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the results indicated that stability in self-esteem was differently regulated in adolescent boys compared to girls. Genetic factors contributed to a large degree in boys, where as significant shared environmental influences suggest that interventions intended to strengthen girl’s self-esteem could be more feasible than among boys.
Block and Robins (2008) in a longitudinal study examined the developmental changes in self-esteem from early adolescence through late adolescence to early adulthood. The samples included were 47 girls and 44 boys. The findings showed that the self esteem of males increased and females decreased over time. Boys and girls with high self esteem possessed quite different personality characteristics in early adolescence. Although important differences remained, the personality characteristics associated with high self esteem were similar for the two sexes in early adulthood.
Berg (2010) conducted a longitudinal study to examine the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem across gender, age, body weight status, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A diverse sample of adolescents aged 11-18 years undergone school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes. Measurement of height and weight were done in schools and were resurveyed through mails 5 years later. The findings indicated that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem were strongly related among all groups of adolescents.
Erturgut and Erturgut (2010) conducted a study to analyze academic self-esteem levels of primary school children whose families applied to the hospital with different complaints. 241 primary school children who were between ages 8-13 years constitute the sample of the research. Stress level scale, Academic Self-Esteem Scale and Demographic Scale were the three different scales used in the research. The results found out that academic self-esteem levels of students differ according to level of education of their parents, economic condition of their families and the number of the years they received education. Other findings show the existence of an inverse relationship between academic self-esteem and stress levels of the students.
Holmstrom (2010) did a meta-analysis on self-esteem as a focus of communication scholarship to examine the interactions that aid in the development and maintenance of self-esteem in both children and adults. The results showed that communication influences the development of children’s self-esteem and it has important theoretical and pragmatic implications.
Devamony & Devadoson (2011) did an interventional study to evaluate the level of self-esteem among adolescent girls before and after hugging using pre experimental design. The samples consisted of 30 adolescent girls selected by total enumeration method and the data was collected using Standardized Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale. Inferential statistics was used to evaluate the effectiveness of hugging among adolescent girls and the results showed that there was a significant increase in self-esteem after hugging among adolescent girls.
GhorbaniAmir and AhmadiGatab (2011) did a descriptive and correlation study to investigate the relationship between child rearing styles and students’ self-esteem among both male and female students. The sample group consisted of randomly selected 100 students including 50 girls and 50 boys. The tool used was Self-Esteem Eysenck Questionnaire and a question was added to determine the child rearing style. The results showed that the self-esteem of the students with confidence overwhelming child rearing patterns is more than the self-esteem of students with authoritarian and negligence patterns of child rearing. The researcher concludes that the role of parents in providing mental health, academic achievement and self-esteem is far beyond anything that has been fulfilled.
Raghunath (2011) did an interventional study to evaluate the effectiveness of writing therapy on self-esteem among adolescents. A sample size of 22 adolescents were selected using purposive sampling method and a repeated measure time series design was used. The results showed that there was a significant increase in mean self esteem score of adolescents after writing therapy.
Mrudu, Nagarajaiah, and Janardhana (2012) did a descriptive study to assess the parental attachment and self-esteem among adolescents. Convenient sampling was used to select a sample of 100 adolescents between the age group of 15-18 years. Socio Demographic Data Schedule, Parental Attachment Questionnaire and Self-Esteem Inventory were used for the data collection. The findings revealed that, there is a statistically significant positive correlation between overall parental attachment and self-esteem among the adolescents.
Vidya (2012) conducted a study to evaluate the effect of a planned series of activity sessions on positive peer relationship and self esteem among adolescent students using pre experimental design. Simple random technique was used and 60 adolescents were selected. Peer Relation Scale and the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Inventory were used to collect data. The subjects participated in the planned series of activity in eight different sessions. The results showed that the subjects developed high positive peer relation and self esteem after participation in the activities and it was also found that there was a positive correlation between the level of positive peer relation and self esteem of the adolescents.
2.2. LITERATURE RELATED TO EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF MONITORING TECHNIQUE
Delprato (2002) conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy of self monitoring in increasing classroom participation. Classroom participation of 18 college classes were recorded for three meetings, after which 9 classses self-monitored their participation for three days while 9 others continued under no self monitoring conditions. The findings revealed significant inprovement in participation with self monitoring manipulation and it experimentally verified the efficacy of self monitoring in facilitating classroom participation.
Sagotsky, Patterson and Lepper (2004) did a field experiment to investigate the effects of training in self-monitoring and goal-setting skills on classroom study behavior and academic achievement among elementary school students in an individualized mathematics program. In the Self-Monitoring Conditions, students were shown a simple system for observing and maintaining daily records of their own study behavior during their maths classes; whereas, in the Goal-Setting Conditions, students were shown a simple method of setting and recording daily performance goals during their maths classes. Exposure to self-monitoring procedures produced significant increases in both appropriate study behavior and in actual achievement in the mathematics program, while exposure to goal-setting procedures had no effect on either the study behavior or academic achievement.
Hauck and Loughead (2005) conducted a descriptive study on self-monitoring attributes of 239 adolescents. The findings showed that adolescents with high self-monitoring displayed social competencies and adolescents low in self-esteem are likely to use self-monitoring techniques as a defense against inadequate feelings.
Romanczyk (2006) conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of self-monitoring in the treatment of obesity. A total of seventy overweight subjects were assigned to five groups to assess the reactive nature of self-monitoring procedures, with the initial treatment phase lasting for 4 weeks. Follow-up evaluations at 4th and 13th week respectively, showed a substantial weight loss that was maintained over the follow-up period.
Mathes and Bender (2008) conducted a study to assess the effects of self-monitoring procedure to enhance on-task behavior of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were already receiving pharmacological treatment. A multiple baseline design was employed and three male subjects in a public school, ages 8 to 11 years were selected for the study because of their frequent off-task and inattentive behaviors in the classroom, despite receiving psychostimulant medication. Intervention involved training in self-monitoring procedures and all 3 subjects demonstrated an increase in on-task behaviour. The findings showed that a combination of pharmacological intervention and self-monitoring procedures enhanced the students’ on-task behavior.
Agarwal and Singh (2009) conducted a study to compare the self-esteem among orphan and non-orphan children and to determine the effectiveness of behaviour intervention in enhancing the self-esteem of children. In Part ‘A’ Matched Group Design was used to compare the self-esteem among orphan and non-orphan children.The sample of the study consisted of two groups of children. Group I consisted of 50 orphan children including 25 girls and 25 boys and group II consisted of 50 non-orphan children including 25 girls and 25 boys. The age range of children was 8-15 years. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure the self-esteem. The results showed that orphan children have lower self-esteem than non-orphan children. In part ‘B’, pre and post design was used to test the effectiveness of behavior intervention. The sample consisted of two groups of children with low self-esteem. Group I comprised of 10 orphan children and Group II comprised of 10 non-orphan children. Behavior intervention for one month was given to the children. The results showed the effectiveness of behavior intervention in enhancing self-esteem of both orphan and non-orphan children.
Ghorbanshiroodi and Khalatbari (2010) conducted a correlational study to find the relation between self-esteem and self monitoring of students with their education improvement. The two questionnaires used in this research were Cooper Smith questionnaire for measuring the self-esteem and Snyder and Gangestad questionnaire for measuring the Self-Monitoring and were administered to 380 guidance schools students. Pearson correlation coefficient test has been used to test the hypothesis. Finally, the results showed that there was a meaningful relation between the self-esteem of students and their educational improvement and there was a meaningful relation between the self monitoring of students and their educational improvement.
Holifield, Goodman, Hazelkom & Heflin (2010) conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a self-monitoring procedure on increasing attending to task and academic accuracy in two elementary students with autism in their self-contained classroom. Both the students were taught to self-monitor in language arts and mathematics with measures of attending to task and academic accuracy being collected simultaneously. Results concluded that the self-monitoring procedure was effective for both students and resulted in immediate increase in attending to task and academic accuracy.
Reynolds, William, Coats, and Kevin (2010) did a comparative study of self monitoring and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents with 30 moderately depressed high school students. The samples were randomly assigned to either self monitoring, relaxation training or a wait-list control condition and treatments were met in small groups for 10 to 50 minute sessions over 5 weeks in a high school setting. The modified Beck Depression inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure the outcomes. Findings demonstrated that these short-term group-administered therapies were effective in significantly decreasing depression in adolescents.
Rock (2010) investigated the effects of strategic self-monitoring intervention on the academic engagement, non targeted problem behavior, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without disabilities. A multiple baseline design was used and the participants were 7 boys and 2 girls of elementary age receiving their educational services in two different classrooms. The students were taught to use the self monitoring strategy during independent math/reading seatwork. The results indicated that self monitoring was an effective strategy for fostering self-management and enhancing the academic performance of students with differing needs.
Winfield (2010) conducted a study to assess the efficacy of a self-monitoring technique to improve academic skill production. The participants included were first grade students from three classroom settings in one predominately middle class, suburban school district in south-eastern Pennsylvania. The students that participated in the self-graphing intervention did demonstrate higher levels of growth along with higher reading fluency scores than the other participant groups. These findings lend support to the literature in the field of self-monitoring as a method for improving student performance.
Mirnasab and Bonab (2011) conducted a study to determine the effects of self-monitoring technique on inattentive behaviors of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Participants consisted of 4 students who attended two special education schools at the elementary level and their age range was between 9 to 11 years. A multiple baseline single-subject experimental design was used. Inattentive behaviors of participants were observed during two sessions each week and each session lasted for 30 minutes. Self-monitoring of attention was used as a cognitive-behavioral technique for increasing self-control in the participants. The results of this study showed an increased effectiveness of self-monitoring technique on the self-control of inattentive behaviors.
Webber, Scheuermann, McCall and Coleman (2011) did a meta-analysis to examine the use of self-monitoring for behavior management purposes in special education classrooms. Twenty-seven studies were included for the analysis. It was found that self-monitoring can be successfully used with special education students of various ages in various settings to increase attention to task, positive classroom behaviors and some social skills.
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