Learning and Everyday Memory: Racial Bias

3387 words (14 pages) Essay

27th Mar 2018 Psychology Reference this

Tags:

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

  • Emma J. Barnes

 

Even though Memory biases may either enhance or impair the recall of memory, or they may alter the content of what and individual report remembering. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the factors of own racial bias and cross-race effect on learning memory in everyday life. additionally, the paper will explore primary and secondary sources from peer-reviewed journals that is relevant to the subject and in the process, attempt to stimulate discussions and seek readers’ views as to whether this is an area that needs to be given further attention.

Memory is a vital part of human life. Most individuals expect that memories are constantly precise. At the same time exploration has demonstrated that valuable as memory at times may be, it is a long way from pronounced. People make numerous marginally gaps constantly, and ordinarily one do not recognize them. Because the roots of racial prejudice lie deep within the brain, research has suggested, whether by nature or nurture, human beings are inclined to make certain judgments and to favor what looks and feels familiar.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that individuals all the more quickly recall appearances they could call their own race than of different races. Memory in the real world is often known as everyday memory and is concerned with the way memory is used as people go about their daily lives. Everyday memory is context-bound, not context-free. The kinds of things people remember in everyday life include a great variety of different matters.

A Memory Bias is a deviation in recall where memories are either recalled more easily or with more difficulty than they should be. Memory bias can also alter recalled memories so that they are different from what actually happened. Some memory bias examples are rosy retrospection (recalling the past as being better than it actually was), egocentric bias (recalling your past in a way that is more self-glorifying than it should be), and cross-race effect (the bias for people of one race to have difficulty identifying people from other races). If not part of biology, bias could be embedded in our being by the cues received from childhood. Each individual race–inundated daily with the preferences of the majority culture.

Even our basic visual perceptions are skewed toward our in-groups. Many studies have shown that people more readily remember faces of their own race than of other races. In recent years, scientists have begun to probe the neural basis for this phenomenon, known as the same-race memory advantage. In a 2001 study neurosurgeon Alexandra J. Golby, now at Harvard Medical School, and her colleagues used functional magnetic resonance imaging to track people’s brain activity while they viewed a series of white and black faces.

The suggestion that the cross-race effect is not necessarily caused by inexperience with another race; reason being that “even though our face stimuli were identical across races a cross-race effect was still elicited” (Malpass & Kravitz, 1969). Thus, indicating that the cross-race effect may be attributed to a perceptual categorization of race. Further examination of why identical racially ambiguous faces were perceived differently according to the racial marker is needed. “The findings are consistent with a hypothesis of differential experience with persons of other race and differential acquisition of cue utilization habits” (as cited in Malpass & Kravitz, 1969, p. 333). This research should create other facial features and racial markers such as Hispanic/Asian, using eyes as a racial marker, in order to determine if they can elicit a cross-race effect. In addition, data from Black participants is necessary to determine if a cross-race effect for ambiguous race faces can be elicited from Black participants.

There is a difference in how people recognize the faces of members of their own racial group more accurately than the faces of other races; which is called the cross-race effect (CRE). Both experiments showed a pro-in-group CRE. However, contrary to prior research, both participant races had relatively more difficulty recognizing angry Black faces, such that when the faces were angry, the pro-in-group CRE was strengthened for White participants and weakened for Black participants. In the article, authors Gwinn, Barden, and Judd (2015) provided usefulness as it was suitable for past conclusions about the role of facial emotions in cross-race facial recognition.

Lindsay, D., Jack, P., & Christian, M. (1991) investigated non-racial in-group/outgroup categorization, inter-/intra-racial context and encoding conditions as signaling cues that affect own- and other-race face processing. Across eight experiments using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods, the authors demonstrated that the context in which own- and other-race faces are encountered can determine the salience of racial category membership, with implications for how non-racial in-group/outgroup status influences own- and other-race face perception, that task demands can lead perceivers toward more or less configure processing regardless of target in-group/outgroup status, with implications for the influence of non-racial in-group/outgroup status, and that both racial and non-racial in-group/outgroup status have the potential to influence the early stages of face perception.

Previous research has found that individuals exhibited greater activity in a brain area involved in face recognition known as the fusiform face area when they viewed faces of their own racial group than when they gazed at faces of a different race. The more strongly a person showed the same-race memory advantage, the greater this brain difference was. In a study conducted by Ben-Zeev, Dennehy, Goodrich, Kolarik, and Geisler (2014), it showed:

Novel evidence was offered that a Black man appears lighter in the mind’s eye following a counter-stereotypic prime, a phenomenon we refer to as skin tone memory bias. A recognition memory task for the targets face and six lures (skin tone variations of 25%, 37%, and 50articipants primed with educated exhibited more memory errors with respect to lighter lures misidentifying even the lightest lure as the target more often than counterparts primed with ignorant. a limitation is in order, however. It is possible that our current stimuli and paradigm were not sensitive enough to uncover a stereotypic-driven expectancy-congruent skin tone memory bias. (p. 7)

The outcomes demonstrate that metamemory is more exact for classes of confronts that are most like our own: Relative metamemory precision was higher for own-race faces than other-race faces. In both gatherings of subjects, own-race countenances were more precisely perceived than other-race faces. The relative size of the own-race inclination impact in distinguishment precision identifies with this point too: The own-race predisposition impact in memory saw in the Chinese subjects was littler than the own-race predisposition impact saw in the American subjects.

The participants anticipated how likely they would be to effectively perceive every considered face, and these judgments anticipated genuine distinguishment all the more precisely for own-race faces than for other-race faces. Joined with the way that distinguishment precision is likewise more regrettable for other-race confronts, our outcomes further add to the confirmation that onlookers are less precise when watching other-race suspects than own-race suspects.

Hourihan, Benjamin, and Liu (2012) hypothesized that most individuals; for the most part invest additional time with individuals of their own race and hence increase perceptual aptitude for the qualities of individuals who seem as though us. The second speculation expresses that individuals contemplate individuals from different races. The outcomes show that metamemory is more exact for classes of confronts that are most like our own: Relative metamemory precision was higher for own-race faces than other-race faces. More likely than not, this is essentially reasonable about extraordinary constraints that torment individuals of all descriptions: people are notably meager at recognizing the individuals from races unique in relation to their own.

A previous experimentation was designed to study the frequencies in which white and black subjects use different facial features when describing faces. The two experiments conducted in the United States of America indicated that white subjects were better at recognizing photographs of previously encountered white faces tan of black faces. Deregowski and Shepherd (1975) found that black faces are inherently more difficult to remember than white faces or, alternatively, they might be taken to signify that American black people are more familiar with white faces than are white people with black faces, and that this differential familiarity accounts for the findings reported. This is a helpful source for getting an overview of differential familiarity when describing faces.

Extrapolating from the broaden-and-build theory, Johnson and Fredrickson (2005), hypothesized that positive emotion may reduce the own-race bias in facial recognition. Relative to fear or a neutral state, joy experienced before either stage improved recognition of Black faces and significantly reduced the own-race bias. This exploration dependably exhibits another discovery: “Positive feeling dispenses with the very strong own-race bias (ORB) in face distinguishment” (p. 877). Although the article is interesting and available, but it relies almost entirely on two possible mechanisms for how positive emotions may eliminate the ORB; however, other possibilities exist.

The Own Race Bias is the tendency to recognize and differentiate between faces of our own race more easily than faces of another race. This explains why someone might think that members of another racial or ethnic group “all look alike.” Even our basic visual perceptions are skewed toward our in-groups. Many studies have shown that people more readily remember faces of their own race than of other races. In recent years, scientists have begun to probe the neural basis for this phenomenon, known as the same-race memory advantage.

In a 2001 study neurosurgeon Alexandra J. Golby, now at Harvard Medical School, and her colleagues used functional magnetic resonance imaging to track people’s brain activity while they viewed a series of white and black faces. The researchers found that individuals exhibited greater activity in a brain area involved in face recognition known as the fusiform face area [see “A Face in the Crowd,” by Nina Bublitz] when they viewed faces of their own racial group than when they gazed at faces of a different race. The more strongly a person showed the same-race memory advantage, the greater this brain difference was.

In a study examining whether the own-race bias was also evident in participants’ predictions of memory performance and their self-regulation of learning. Rhodes, Sitzman, and Rowland (2013), used three different experiments, where participants studied own-race and other-race faces and predicted the likelihood of recognizing each face on a future test. Mutually, these investigations propose that the own-race predisposition might mostly mirror a metacognitive insufficiency, as members are less ready to successfully oversee toward one learning for other-race faces. Overall, the findings propose that “the own-race bias may be attenuated by value attached to a face, but only under circumstances that permit the learner to control encoding” (Rhodes, Sitzman, & Rowland, 2013, p. 67).

A singular’s correspondences and inclusion with distinctive ethnicities in like manner effects whether they demonstrate a strong other-race effect or somewhat one. For example, there is a refinement between encountering youth in North Minneapolis, Minnesota or in Edina, Minnesota. In North Minneapolis, a Caucasian would have a lot of correspondence and experiences with other ethnic get-togethers, however, an individual beginning from Edina would not have the same sort of association with other ethnic social occasions.

The interchanges with some other race would be incidental in light of the fact that there is not an impressive measure of contrasts among ethnic social occasions in the masses make-up of Edina. Sporer, In a research conducted by Malpass, and Koehnken (1996), the authors determined:

The more collaboration that an individual has with other ethnic get-togethers than their own, the more likely they end up ready to successfully perceive people from other ethnicity bundles. The probability of these individuals misidentifying a suspect of another ethnic social occasion is lower when they have more association with the particular ethnicity that is being perceived. (p. 189)

Tied into this idea, Wells and Olson (2001) fashioned that people from one race may be also prepared to lift someone from a line up in case they are a part from another race than a single person from their own. This situation has not so much been attempted, however is outstandingly fascinating to consider. For example, when expecting to recognize a solitary individual as being obligated for a wrongdoing, a White/Caucasian may be moreover prepared to say a single person of another race is accountable before they are willing to convict someone they could call their own race. The same may be legitimate in voice. It may be more likely that a single person of another race is unverifiable concerning who their offender may be, therefore, they pick a White/Caucasian individual rather than someone they could call their own race.

One imagined that you may be considering about the other-race effect, is whether an individual’s racial slant impact s the consequence of the other-race sway? Truly there have in like manner been studies driven on this point. As showed by Sporer, Malpass, and Koehnken, (1996), mindset about distinctive races or ethnicities do not seem to have an effect on their memory execution. This shows that a singular’s appearance do not interfere with facial encoding when dealing with the other-race sway.

To begin to understanding the other-race influence, there are models that help light up what the essential framework may be that cause people to wad people outside their race into a nonexclusive social occasion that is not specific. For example, the first model is the multidimensional face space model. This model attempts to elucidate why it is that faces of one’s own race are more expeditiously open to be looked into than the substance of some person of another race. This model communicates that faces of diverse races are consistently mixed up for each other in light of the way that in a singular’s memory they tend to be almost each other (Wells & Olson, 2001). In that capacity, one’s memory spreads its own race for the most part making various affiliations, while people from distinctive races are packed together. By having more cooperation with people from other racial get-togethers, you allow yourself to spread these photos and structure more relationship in memory as you do with own-race memories.

People question whether the other-race effect is a bit of our social world or really a memory errand. Right when considering the other-race affect one question that has been raised is to know at what age children begin making this effect. Does it happen rapidly after origination that they see other-race goes up against better than own-race defies or is that something that makes? Sangrigoli (2004) performed a study on this general thought. The test included people ages 6-20 years old. He found that the other-race effect did not appear until the age of seven. This infers that after the age of seven the children who were Caucasian were better prepared to perceive diverse Caucasians than they were Asian individuals. The revelations suggest it is a developmental learning process that turns the perceptual space which overhauls recognition of unmistakable qualities as for one’s own-race appearances (Roll, Phillips, & O’ Toole, 2002). Youths close to adults inexorably see their own-race goes up against more definitely than cross – race faces (Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, & Moore, 2003).

Contrasts in the example of neural initiation for own- versus other-race faces, and in addition in the time course of enactment, give a first take a gander at the neural premise of the other-race impact. More concentrate on how these distinctions create is expected to cross over any barrier between the mental and neural systems of the other-race impact. The more extensive inquiry of human social and enthusiastic reactions to possess versus other-race confronts, in any case, is still hard to form in the setting of perceptual and memory limits for other-race faces. These reactions, be that as it may, are at the center of human experience and at last have associations with the visual framework. Both sides of the exploration mathematical statement must be considered to pick up a more finish comprehension the other-race impact.

Indeed, while Memory biases may either enhance or impair the recall of memory, or they may alter the content of what we report remembering. Memory is an imperative part of human life. Most individuals expect that memories are constantly precise. At the same time studies have demonstrated that valuable as memory at times may be, it is a long way from great. It is factual that people make numerous gaps constantly, and ordinarily they do not recognize them. Nevertheless, having the ability to “recognize individuals of other racial groups can reduce overgeneralization of racial stereotypes, even when that learning involves no social interactions that might counteract the stereotypes” (Gluck, Mercado, & Myers, 2008, p. 89).

References:

Christian A. Meissner and John C. Brigham. “Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review” Psychology, Public Policy, & Law (2001).

Available at: http://works.bepress.com/christian_meissner/12

Ellis, H., Deregowski, J., & Shepherd, J. (1975). Descriptions of white and black faces by white and black subjects.International Journal of Psychology,10(2), 119-123. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from EbscoHost.

Gluck, M. A., Mercado, E., & Myers, C. E. (2008). Learning and memory from behavior to brain. New York City: Worth Publishers. ISBN: 0-7167-8654-0

Gwinn, J. D., Barden, J., & Judd, C. M. (2015). Face recognition in the presence of angry expressions: A target-race effect rather than a cross-race effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 581-10. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.12.001

Johnson, K. J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2005). “We All Look the Same to Me”: Positive Emotions Eliminate the Own-Race Bias in Face Recognition. Psychological Science, 16(11), 875–881. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01631.x

Lindsay, D., Jack, P., & Christian, M. (1991). Other-Race Face Perception. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(4), 587-589. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from EbscoHost

Malpass, R. S., & Kravitz, J. (1969). Recognition for faces of own and other race. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 330-334.

Meissner, C., & Brigham, J. (2001). Thirty Years of Investigating the Own Race Bias in Memory for Faces: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7(1), 3-35. Doi:10.1037//1076-8971.7.1.3

Rhodes, M., Sitzman, D., & Rowland, C. (2013). Monitoring and Control of Learning Own-Race and Other-Race Faces.Applied Cognitive Psychology,27(5), 533-563. Doi: 10.1002/acp.2948. Retrieved March 8, 2015.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please:

Related Lectures

Study for free with our range of university lectures!