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Quantitative Journal Article Review and Topic DeclaratioN
This assignment is comprised of a Journal Article Review (JAR) related to the topic chosen for the Final Paper: The effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on depression and anxiety in adults. This article, The Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Man Smokers’ Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Control Trial, employs an experimental design and is relevant to the topic of the Final because the article looks at the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on both depression and anxiety that often coexist with smoking.
Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, smoking cessation, anxiety, depression
Assignment 1: Quantitative Journal Article Review and Topic Declaration
Statement of Problem
The research problem being addressed in this article is that male smokers often also show symptoms of depression and anxiety, however, cessation programs to not focus on these symptoms. Although there are psychological and pharmacological treatments available for smoking cessation programs, the lapse and relapse rates are high. This study examines the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on male smokers’ depression and anxiety symptoms and smoking cessation.
Although there are pharmacological and behavioral therapies for the treatment of cigarette smoking, the long-term success rates have been low. Literature shows that depression and anxiety are positively correlated with cigarette smoking (Fluharty, Taylor, Grabski, & Munafò, 2017). Based on this, it is important to treat both depression and anxiety while treating cigarette smoking. Even though cognitive behavioral therapy is the most common and effective treatment option for smoking cessation, it is also accompanied by high lapse and relapse rates (Nakamura, Oshima, Ohkura, Arteaga, & Suwa, 2014). Other studies have shown that acceptance and commitment therapy has also been effective in the treatment of cigarette smoking. In addition to this, ACT has the ability to treat depression and anxiety together (Saedy, Kooshki, Jamali Firouzabadi, Emamipour, & Rezaei Ardani, 2015). Although an important health issue, smokers with symptoms of depression and anxiety have not received enough attention. This study aims to examine the effects of acceptance and commitment therapy on male smokers’ depression and anxiety symptoms and smoking cessation (Davoudi, Omidi, Sehat, & Sepehrmanesh, 2017).
Hypotheses To Be Tested
The hypothesis to be tested in this study is whether or not the participants in the experimental group would report decreases in depression and anxiety symptoms and a lower rate of lapse and relapse compared with the control group. The researchers predict that they would see a decrease in the symptoms and decrease the risk of lapse and relapse compared to the control group.
Participants were randomly selected from individuals receiving cessation related services at the Kargarnejad Teaching Psychiatric Hospital in Iran. Selection criteria included the following: men between the ages of 18-40 years, presence of nicotine dependence, no history of drug abuse, psychotic disorders, and other disorders excluding depression and anxiety.
The materials used in the study included a demographic questionnaire, the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and micro Smokerlyzer carbon monoxide monitor. All used materials in the study have acceptable validity and reliability.
Out of 119 patients referred, 93 men were eligible for the study. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The patients were randomly and evenly separated to intervention and control group. The intervention group received ACT, while the control group received psychological counseling services, cognitive behavior therapy, provided to all patients. All patients completed BDI and BAI before and after the intervention.
For data analysis and management, the SPSS software was used. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics tests such as Pearson’s chi-square test, Student’s independent t-test and the repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA).
- Davoudi, M., Omidi, A., Sehat, M., & Sepehrmanesh, Z. (2017). The Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Man Smokers’ Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addiction & Health, 9(3), 129-138.
- Fluharty, M., Taylor, A. E., Grabski, M., & Munafò, M. R. (2017). The Association of Cigarette Smoking with Depression and Anxiety: A Systematic Review. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 19(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw140
- Nakamura, M., Oshima, A., Ohkura, M., Arteaga, C., & Suwa, K. (2014). Predictors of lapse and relapse to smoking in successful quitters in a varenicline post hoc analysis in Japanese smokers. Clinical Therapeutics, 36(6), 918–927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.03.013
- Saedy, M., Kooshki, S., Jamali Firouzabadi, M., Emamipour, S., & Rezaei Ardani, A. (2015). Effectiveness of Acceptance-Commitment Therapy on Anxiety and Depression among Patients on Methadone Treatment: A Pilot Study. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.17795/ijpbs222
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