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Issues and Debates Regarding Pastors and Stress/Mental Health
In this paper, the author will present current theories, explanations, proposed relationships among constructs, and absence of theories about meaningful phenomena in the topic area of issues and debates regarding pastors and stress/mental health. Also to be discussed will be any contradictions, inconsistencies, and ambiguities regarding findings related to theories in your topic area found while conducting research for this paper and course.
Theories dealing with clergy and burnout are several: Holy Theory projected by Otto in the 1950’s, family stress theory, and Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT) . These theories will be very helpful in this author’s research. The Holy theory was derived in the 1950’s, and it expresses a ‘‘numinous’’ understanding as a sensation of incompleteness, a desire to reach a higher authority and to discover existential purpose, which all persons are supposed to experience at some phase in their existence. Psychological anguish or a predicament state may make an individual more conscious of this individual incompleteness, which in turn could emphasize the necessity to discover existential meaning. In this theory, one has one’s own interpretations and expectations about the world and the purpose of one’s existence. When something transpires that transfers these principles, one experiences emotive and mental anguish, leading to spiritual anguish for the cosmos no longer makes sense in the setting of one’s unique morals and expectations (Guthrie & Stickley, 2008). A qualitative method was evidently the most suitable strategy for this portion of research. It was principally investigative in nature, emphasizing the exclusivity of persons’ interpretations and intended to gain awareness into how respondents made sense of their own understandings through the usage of their own words, understanding as correctly as conceivable the involvements, connotations, and purposes of the partakers from their own viewpoints (Guthrie & Stickley, 2008). This theory would be beneficial in better understanding how faith plays in dealing with stress and mental health. This theory would be a tremendous boon into investigating further into how faith helps people deal with difficult times in their life. It would also be helpful to compare this to those who do not have a strong faith and comparing and contrasting the two groups. It would also be interesting to investigate if there would be difference between Christian pastors, and leaders of other religions.
The family stress theory (FST) and the standard ABC-X prototypical of family pressure has been utilized in preceding studies in order observe the process of stress managing in pastor children (Wilson & Darling, 2017). In the ABC-X archetypal, three adjoined variables describing the level of group in persons and families that marks from their understandings of stressors: BA^ (the stressor of occurrence) intermingles with BB^ (the properties for managing within the crisis) and with BC^ (the description of the occurrence), which produces BX^ (the predicament or consequence of situation). According to FST, the means an person or family understands stressors is contingent on the combination of these features. This theory would be helpful within this author’s future research to better understand how the specific stressors of being a child of a pastor influence the family life. Perhaps this would help with questions like: Do the stressors of being a preacher’s child make faith stronger or not? How do experiences effect the mental health of children when they grown into adulthood?
Specific analysis regarding clergy and personal stress will be explored by utilizing a qualitative method which undoubtedly will be the most suitable proposal for this portion of exploration (Guthrie & Stickley, 2008). It was principally investigative in nature, emphasizing the distinctiveness of persons’ interpretations and designed to increase awareness into how respondents made sense of their individual involvements through the usage of their own words, construing as precisely as probable the involvements, connotations, and purposes of the partakers from their own perceptions. A regression analysis will be used to investigate the usage of antidepressants within the pastorate (Frenk, et al., 2013). Looking into individual pastors specifically would be a boon in to understanding common perception and unique perceptions of what the individual clergy experience.
Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT) has been projected as a theoretical model for nursing training. For the reason that the direct goal of a theoretical prototypical is to direct preparation, and assess of a model’s expediency in preparation is an essential and vital step in helping clergy which possess similar stresses and burnout struggles (Wagnild, Wyveda, Pritchett, 1987). The SCDT will help with the two constructs evaluated in this research, professional burnout and stress managing tools. Each of these constructs were evaluated with a distinct gauge.
The Clergy Burn-Out Inventory was utilized to enumerate burnout levels amongst those helping in the ministry, and The COPE Inventory was utilized to evaluate managing instruments used by clergy associates. Conferring to the 16 theoretic context of the behavioral model, certain influencing factors can influence MHL rates. Utilizing the behavioral archetypal as the outline for the research, one can explore whether existing demographic factors projected rates of MHL. These pastors features were the prognosticator factors and the rate of MHL was the result variable for this quantifiable study. Outcomes of the research presented the rates of pastor affiliates’ MHL and could assist in defining the background in which therapists and psychotherapist educationalists could best begin recommendation partnerships in their societies (Vermaas, 2016). These methods will illustrate that pastors and their families need more tools to deal with mental health issues such as anxiety, depression and burnout. This study will help provide options to invest in clergy and families to have more effective options to deal with stress of ministry.
The theories utilized by the scholars mentioned in the research for this paper appear to be appropriate for the scope of study within the research. Each theory targeted the focus of intention within the targeted group. This author did not find any clear contradictions, inconsistencies, and ambiguities regarding findings related to theories presented in the research for this paper and for his topic.
- Frenk, S. M., Mustillo, S. A., Foy, S. L., Arroyave, W. D., Hooten, E. G., Lauderback, K. H., & Meador, K. G. (2013). Psychotropic medication claims among religious clergy. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 84(1), 27–37. https://doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1007/s11126-012-9224-4
- Guthrie T, & Stickley T. (2008). Spiritual experience and mental distress: a clergy perspective. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11(4), 387–402. Retrieved from http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=105724630&site=eds-live
- Visker, J. D., Rider, T., & Humphers-Ginther, A. (2017). Ministry-Related Burnout and Stress Coping Mechanisms Among Assemblies of God-Ordained Clergy in Minnesota. Journal Of Religion And Health, 56(3), 951–961. https://doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1007/s10943-016-0295-7
- Vermaas, J. (2016). Clergy Characteristics as Predictors of Mental Health Literacy. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/2700/
- Wagnild G., Rodriguez W., Pritchett G.(1987). Orem’s Self-Care Theory: A Tool for Education and Practice. J Nurs Educ. 26(8) 342-343. doi: 10.3928/0148-4834-19871001-12 https://www.healio.com/nursing/journals/jne/1987-10-26-8/%7B67990616-c03f-4518-a9c2-cda56caa6ae5%7D/orems-self-care-theory-a-tool-for-education-and-practice
- Wilson, C., & Darling, C. (2017). Understanding Stress and Life Satisfaction for Children of Clergy: A Retrospective Study. Pastoral Psychology, 66(1), 129–142. https://doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1007/s11089-016-0720-6
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