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Importance of Interviewee Nonverbal Behavior

2203 words (9 pages) Essay in Psychology

09/08/18 Psychology Reference this

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The Importance Of Interviewee Nonverbal Behaviours In The Interview Process In Vietnam

 

Table of Contents

I. Introduction:

II. Literature Review:

III. Methodology:

IV. Data & Sampling:

V. Appendix/References:

 

I. Introduction:

Research problem:

The model 7:38:55 is well-known for its emphasis on nonverbal behaviours. It suggests that verbal behaviours only contribute up to 7% the effectiveness in communication (Mehrabian, 1972). According to Mehrabian, there are three elements which account for our liking for the person expressing their feelings:

+ Words: 7%

+ Tone of Voice: 38%

+ Body Language: 55%

The model has received criticism ever since: It is not applicable due to its theoretical approach, combining two different studies and excluding negative emotions, men, other forms of nonverbal communication. As a result, Mehrabian’s model still remains a controversy within experts. Nowadays it is often regarded as ‘the myth of nonverbal communication’. However, undeniably, nonverbal communication plays an important role in our society.

In human resource management, the interview process is considerably critical. Since the 70s, there have been various studies about the effects of interviewee nonverbal behaviours on interviewee performance. However, none has been able to clarify this problem. In Vietnam, there has not been any research or article about this area. Therefore, in this research, we will attempt, for the first time, to examine interviewee performance and the importance of interviewee nonverbal behaviours in the interview process in Vietnam.

Research objective:

+ Determine the effects of interviewees’ nonverbal behaviours on their performance.

+ Identify critical nonverbal behaviours.

Research questions:

+ How can interviewees’ nonverbal behaviours influence the interview decision outcomes?

II. Literature Review:

– Key concepts: Nonverbal behaviour: “Nonverbal behaviour includes behaviour that might be emitted without the awareness of the encoder (the one conveying the information)” (M.L. Knapp and J. A. Hall, 2005)

– Theories: There have been numerous theories about nonverbal behaviour or communication. However, most of them have yet to be proven exactly true. Despite that fact, they have been of significant help for researchers since then.

+ Semiotics

+ Nonverbal Code Systems

+ Proxemics

+ Kinesics

All these theories pointed out that, in one way or another, nonverbal behaviour affects human interaction in daily life without us realizing it. Hence it is most important for us to study nonverbal behaviour in order to improve our interaction.

The theoretical model of interviewee performance proposed by Huffcutt, Iddekinge and Roth (2011) has helped us construct our own conceptual framework. Their study on interviewee performance has suggested that interviewee performance consists of several variables, forming different sets of factors which may involve behaviours of both the interviewee and interviewer. This recently-constructed model has been of great help for us to examine the effect of interviewee nonverbal behaviours.

Empirical review:

Nonverbal Communication In The Job Interview: First Impressions And Nonverbal Immediacy

Author

Research Objective

Data

Research Method

Findings

M. A. Gotcher

Identify important positive nonverbal immediacy factors for the interviewee to possess in order to make favourable first impression in the job interview.

Survey

Interview

Observation

Qualitative and quantitative

Usually, within the first four minutes of the interview, the interviewer’s decision about the interviewee is made.

The impact of nonverbal cues on impression management is 4.3 times than verbal cues since they are more accurately informative about individual traits.

Interviewees who demonstrate a high level of nonverbal immediacy cues are more favored by interviewers.

Understanding applicant behaviour in employment interviews: A theoretical model of interviewee performance

Author

Research Objective

Data

Research Method

Findings

A. I.Huffcutt

C. H. V. Iddekinge

P. L. Roth

Introduce a theoretical model of interviewee performance in selection interviews.

 

Meta-analysis

Interviewee performance reflects the behaviours of candidates.

This research proves the importance of interviewee performance and offers considerable potential for advanced practice of employment interviews.

The psychology of behaviourally-focused résumés on applicant selection: Are you hiring managers really hiring the ‘right’ people for the ‘right’ job?

Author

Research Objective

Data

Research Method

Findings

D. Weinstein

Examine the explosive growth of behavioural selection programs within organisations.

Understand the concept of behaviourally-focused résumés.

 

Meta-analysis

The use of behaviourally-focused résumés helps job applicants leverage behavioural selection program concepts and psychological factors in order to influence the interview decision outcomes.

Interviewer Evaluations of Interviewee Nonverbal Behaviour

Author

Research Objective

Data

Research Method

Findings

T. V.McGovern

H. E.A.Tinsley

Investigate how specific nonverbal behaviours of an interviewee affect professional interviewers’ evaluations.

Interview

Focus group

Observation

Quantitative

Common stereotype of a ‘reject’ candidate usually avoids eye contact, stutters, stammers and demonstrates unemotionally.

Different interviewee nonverbal behaviours may have different impact on individual raters.

Women and Men’s Nonverbal Behaviour and Self-Monitoring in a Job Interview Setting

Author

Research Objective

Data

Research Method

Findings

S. P. Levine

R. S.Feldman

Examine how the demonstrations of nonverbal behaviours during job interviews are related to interviewee performance.

Determine if there is any significant difference in nonverbal behaviours between male and female applicants.

Interview

Focus group

Observation

Quantitative

There might be significant differences in nonverbal behaviours between applicants with different genders.

High self-monitoring women maintain greater eye contact than high self-monitoring men.

Interviewers’ ratings of applicants who emit high levels of nonverbal behaviours are more positive, presumably due to a halo effect generated.

Conceptual framework:

Based on the theoretical model presented by Huffcutt, Iddekinge and Roth (2011), we have created our own conceptual framework by sorting out the irrelevant factors, not concerning nonverbal behaviours, and modifying the remaining sets of factors. This framework explains how interviewee performance reflects his or her nonverbal behaviours through three different elements: interviewee characteristics, interviewee state and interviewer-interviewee dynamics.

+ Interviewee Characteristics may affect the interviewee nonverbal behaviour, hence his or her performance. For example, apparently, Asian men and European men have significantly different understandings about nonverbal behaviours.

+ Interviewee State can reflect his or her true intentions, feelings and thoughts. Fortunately, it is quite easy to observe one’s behaviours and figure out their state. Invariably, the eyes, arms and legs are considerably informative about our feelings and thoughts.

+ Interviewer – Interviewee Dynamics refers to the interrelationship between interviewer and interviewee. This is one of the most important set of factors as the interaction between interviewer and interviewee can significantly enhance or worsen interviewee performance. For instance, when the interviewee nonverbal behaviours match with those of the interviewer, this means that they are attracted to each other.

III. Methodology:

Qualitative

Advantages

Disadvantages

Depth and detail.

– Openess.

– Simulate individual’s experiences and expertise.

– Flexible and highly-focused.

– Dependent on the skills of the researcher.

– Data analysis and interpretation is time-consuming.

– Not easy to generalise.

From the 70s to the 90s, researchs about nonverbal behaviours mainly focused on quantitative method as the researchers thought that with exact and accurate numbers, they could have been able to shed light on ‘the myth of nonverbal communication’. It was not as effective as they thought. Since 2000, qualitative method has replaced quantitative as the critical method for this area due to its in-depth and detailed findings, highly-focused on the problem. Presumably, it is reasonable for us to use qualitative method in this study.

For the qualitative method, we need to collect data from the interview process, preferably videotaped interviews from certain companies, regarding:

+ How accurately can interviewer identify interviewee nonverbal behaviours?

+ How can interviewer rate interviewee nonverbal behaviours? Specifically what are the most important nonverbal behaviours that the interviewee needs to possess or display?

Consequently, the relationship between these nonverbal behaviours and the three elements mentioned above are examined to identify the effects of interviewee nonverbal behaviours on interviewee performance.

– Data analysis method: We intend to use inductive approach as it is very common and effective in qualitative method. In addition, this might be the first research ever in Vietnam about this problem. Hence inductive approach is most suitable for our research.

IV. Data & Sampling:

Primary and Secondary Data

Data Collection Method:

+ Interview

+ Focus group

+ Observation

– Sampling: In order to acquire more accurate data, we agree to collect data from the interview process in several human resource companies in Vietnam, such as:

+ Talentnet

+ RGF HR Agent Vietnam

+ Faro Recruitment Vietnam

+ Kosaido HR Vietnam

+ HR2B

+ JSC

+ NIC

+ Le & Associates

+ Manpower Group­­TM

As many researchs since 2000, we expect to use judgment sampling because it might help emphasize the experiences and expertise of the researchers in the research process, which later can contribute to the depth and detail of our findings.

V. Appendix/References:

M. L. Knapp and J. A. Hall (2005), Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction (6th Edition), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

A. Mehrabian (1972), Nonverbal Communication, Aldine Transaction.

M. A. Gotcher (1990), Nonverbal Communication In The Job Interview: First Impressions And Nonverbal Immediacy, Texas Tech University, 1990.

S. P. Levine and R. S. Feldman (2002), “Women and Men’s Nonverbal Behaviour and Self-Monitoring in a Job Interview Setting”, Applied Human Resource Management Research, Volume 7, Number 1, 1-14.

D. Weinstein (2012), “The psychology of behaviourally-focused résumés on applicant selection: Are you hiring managers really hiring the ‘right’ people for the ‘right’ job?”, Business Horizons 55, 53-63.

T. V. McGovern and H. E.A. Tinsley (1978), “Interviewer Evaluations of Interviewee Nonverbal Behaviour.”, Journal of Vocational Behaviour 13, 163-171.

A. I. Huffcutt, C. H.V. Iddekinge, P. L. Roth (2011), “Understanding applicant behaviour in employment interviews: A theoretical model of interviewee performance.”, Human Resource Management Review 21, 353-367.

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