Hyperactivity And Add Attention Deficit Disorder Psychology Essay
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Hyperactivity and A.D.D. Attention Deficit Disorder is a common diagnosed behavioral disorder that begin early in the childhood.Even though considered a childhood disorder once,it is now much more clear that many of the children that has ADHD will continue to have it when become adolescents.While the symptoms decrease as a function of age,impairments like academic,social and family are observed to increase in adolescence.The disorder have unclear biological underpinnings,it is stressfull to live and get over with,and places burden and cost on family,school and society.
Although having a varying array of degrees and types,the effects are roughly the same.Struggling while acquiring new relationships and keeping them,having hard time on concentration on tasks makes academic life and career tougher,probable communication problems based on being unable to self expression and facing the sometimes harsh results of acting without thinking.
With it's causes are variable and not exactly known,they are roughly related with the genetics,environmental effects,extraordinary conditions occuring during the development of brain.Psychological or medical treatments are available,of course,and former of which are usually the first choice while the latter is for more intense cases with heavier symptoms.Other treatments include academic, and behavioral interventions.
Hyperactivity and A.D.D. is a common seen case at people,starting from childhood.It is not a disease,it is defined as a behavioral disorder by the health experts,while the psychiatrists define it as a neurobehavioral developmental disorder.
It should be noted that being Hyperactive does not mean being less qualified,insomuch that,considering most hyperactive people have higher IQ rates compared to other people.This means these individuals can be,and are actually as qualified and as intellectually potent as everyone,or even more.The purpose of this report is to analyze the reasons of the causes,symptoms,results and alike conditions that this disorder causes in the individuals lives.
In order to examine the subject,it is first needed to be understood the reasons,types,their differences and specialties.Then it must be gone through the results and treatments.In addition,the patients with ADHD will be regarded as 'hyperactives' or 'hyperactive individuals',during the rest of the report.
Being considered as a behavioral disorder by the health experts,ADHD is also defined as a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. It is a common disorder that starts during childhood,however,it does not only effect children.People of all ages can suffer from it,and backing that up,it is observed that the symptoms of ADHD keeps asserting themselves in the adolescense,too.
ADHD makes certain things harder for the one who is bearing it,like making it more difficult to focus on things for a long time without distraction.Patients also struggle controlling what they are doing or saying,and also have harder time on controlling the frequency of their physical activities,compared to somebody without ADHD.To say in other words,hyperactive individuals are more impulsive and restless.
Being in close relationship but not to confused with autism,there are other disorders it may be related to.Backing that up,"ADHD is also associated with many other conditions including learning disabilities, conduct disorder, anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders." States M. Simonescu,from State University of New York.
Some other trivial information about ADHD is that it is known and defined in different names by different experts or countries.For example,in North America the term 'ADD' or 'ADHD' is commonly used to express the situation,while in the UK 'Hyperkinetic Disorder' (HKD) is the special term.Health experts may use one of the following,in order to specify those with disorder; attention deficit, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, hyperkinetic disorder, hyperactivity.
2.1 Types & Symptoms
There are three diagnosed types of ADHD so far,which are Predominantly Inattentive Type, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type and Combined Type.For any of them to be diagnosed certainly,patient must show at least 6 out of 9 of the symptoms which are specific to the each type:
Predominantly Inattentive Type symptoms include:
Not paying attention to detail
Mistakes due to carelessness
Failure to pay and keep attention on task
Unability to follow and understand any instruction
Avoiding effort involving tasks
To be distracted a lot
To forget things a lot
Losing objects that are needfull to complete the tasks
Hyperactive-Impulsive Type symptoms include:
Getting up often when seated
Heavy physical activity (running,climbing) in inappropriate times
Having trouble playing or tasking quietly
Talking excessively and impatiently
And as the name may suggest,combined type consists of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms.For a certain diagnosis,symptoms must be observed for a consistent six months,and to a greater degree than other children at the same age.
2.2: Results at Real Life
Most people display some of these symptoms and behaviours,but it is not always to a degree where they interfere with their lives significantly.And due to this absence of significance,a diagnosis of ADHD is not precise and appropriate.Some people with ADHD experience considerable difficulties with social and academic skills,such as forming or keeping relationships or keeping proper work and attention during their careers.Moreover,most of the child patients experience rejection and exculsion by their peers,compared to 10-15 percent of the healthy children of the same age.A significant rate of adolescents are observed to have difficulties during the process of non-verbal and verbal communication.
Studies show that,in about 75 percent of the cases,genetics are a factor and the disorder is also highly heritable between ancestral genes or by the gene pool.
2.3.2: Executive Functions
Significant amount of symptoms arise from a primary deficit on 'Executive Functions',which refers to cognitive processes that regulates and controls other cognitive processes.The most obvious examples of it are planning,working memory,attention,inhibition and mental flexibility.
For more than 1 percent of population,researchers stated that high generality of ADHD may be due to natural selection,probably because the individual traits might be beneficial on their own and only became dysfunctional where these traits combine to form ADHD.
Environmental factors usually contribute a small role to the origins of ADHD.Exposure to tobacco smoke or alcohol intakes during the pregnancy may impair the development of nervous system which can end up with a diagnosis of ADHD.Environmental lead also remains as a valid factor,since former studies at relatively high levels of lead exposure showed that the exposure and low levels of IQ as well as attention problems,other disorders such as autism or hyperactivity.
As a common case,hyperactivity has many effects on patients who bear it,though it does not pose serious threats or problems for health.
It only could make life a little harder,in social and academic senses,but that does not mean that it is completely bad and hard to live with it.Majority of hyperactive individuals are reported and observed to have higher IQ levels and creativeness compared to those who aren't.They also think and act differently,making them outstand from the crowd,usually in a good way.
Commenting and acting differently when encountered extraordinary situations is mostly applauded by ordinary people,due they can and do come out with extraordinary but appropriate solutions.
However,this little disorder can be treated and reduced,even though it can not be completely removed,but then again,since it does not have harmful effects on human health,it is not necessary.But then,having a more stable mind and physical stand and postur emay help individuals get more friends easily,acquire succesful relationships,and most important of all,a more succesful academic life,in senses of education and career.
One should not simply stereotype or confuse hyperactive individuals with mental patients.It can be both a bless,and a curse,and it completely depends on the perspective.After all,they are just as human as we are,maybe a little more restless,reckless and impatient.But again,there is nothing wrong with standing out of the crowd,in a good way,and without even trying that hard as the rest of the other people.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/adhd/ (n.d.,Retrieved in 6 May 2013)
Richard S. Kingsley,MD - "What is ADHD ?",Reviewed in July 2012,retrieved in 6 May 2013
John H. Ferguson,MD - "National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)", Conference Held in 16-18 November 1998,Retrieved in 6 May 2013
John H. Ferguson,MD - "Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry" (Volume 39,Issue 2,February 2000, Pages 182-193) Retrieved in 6 May 2013
J.T. Nigg,Oregon Health and Sciences University - "Lead and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity" (2011,Encyclopedia of Environmental Health pages 405-411) Retrieved in 7 May 2013
K.M. Antshel,State University of New York - "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (2012,Encyclopedia of Human Behaviour,2nd Edition,pages 218-223) Retrieved in 7 May 2013
S.V. Faraone,State University of New York - "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (2012,Encyclopedia of Human Behaviour,2nd Edition,Pages 218-223) Retrieved in 7 May 2013
K.M Antshel,SUNY-Upstate Medical University,Syracusa - "Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (2011,Encyclopedia of Adolescence,pages 56-61) Retrieved in 8 May 2013
R.A Barkley,Medical University of South Carolina - "Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (2011,Encyclopedia of Adolescence,pages 56-61) Retrieved in 8 May 2013
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