Gender Differences on Emotional Intelligence. In the study conducted by Harrod and Scheer (2005), they review that there is a significant difference in the scores of males and females on the 200 youths aged from 16 to 19. The report showed that females are having a higher Emotional Intelligence level than male (Nasir & Masrur, 2010, p. 42).
There is also another study that showed significant difference between this two gender groups after the maladjustment in the male group of their study. So, they found out that still is female group have the stronger Emotional Intelligence than the male group (Bindu & Thomas, 2006, p. 261).
While according to the study of Katyal and Awasthi (2005), 150 adolescents that aged 15 years old of Chandigarh were randomly selected to participate in this study. The results showed that the Emotional Intelligence of females ought to be higher than males. This is because they found that those girls scored higher with the regard to empathy, interpersonal relationships and social responsibilities than boys. They also tend to be more sensitive towards the relationships with their friends, parents and siblings (Katyal & Awasthi, 2005, p154).
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Religion Differences on Emotional Intelligence
According to Pargament (1997), there is a natural setup for religion named meaning making which setup especially for species inclined to agentic accounts. The meaning making focus on emotionally satisfying and it has the possible to become the general feature of religion. Negative issues in life can be change through the power of religion with the effectiveness and prevalence of religious coping. Besides reducing the negative emotions of an individual, religion can let someone to build up the awe among their own self. This emotion, have an intimate relationship with the story about Arjuana which can found in Hindu sacred text. Other than that, the feel of loving and fearing can be increased through the appearance of God. Besides that, in the Protestants, they will expect the altruistic and emotional motivations can be follow by the religious and the moral behaviour (as cited in Cohen, Rozin & Keltner, 2004, p. 734).
Trait Emotional Intelligence (Trait EI)
According to Petrides (2006), Trait Emotional Intelligence (Trait EI) is also known as trait emotional self-efficacy. It is a constellation that related with emotion, self-perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective perspective of personality via self-report questionnaires. The questions in Trait EI mainly focus on the sampling which domain of the construct, relationship to basic personality dimensions and temporal stability (Petrides & Furnham, 2006).
According to Petrides and Furnham (2006), Trait Emotional Intelligence had specific effects in the model. Besides that, the construct of Trait Emotional Intelligence assume that people are differ in the extent to which they process, attend to and utilize the affect-laden information of an intrapersonal or interpersonal nature. The example of intrapersonal nature is like managing one's emotion while interpersonal nature is to manage others' emotions.
The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Short Form (TEIQue-SF)
The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Short Form (TEIQue-SF) is a 30-item form that based on full form of The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). It includes two items from each of the 15 subscales of TEIQue. These items were primarily selected based on their correlations with the responding total subscale scores, which ensured a broad coverage of the sampling domain and adequate internal consistencies. TEIQue-SF is designed in order to measure the global trait of emotional intelligence (Trait EI) and it can be used in research designs with limited experimental time (Petrides, 2011). In addition, these items were responded to a 7-point Likert scale. (Petrides & Furnham, 2001).
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
According to Cohen (1994), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a psychological instrument that widely used to measure the perception of stress. Besides that, it is also a measure of degree to which situation in one's life were appraised as stressful. This scale also included quite a number of queries about the stress experienced at current levels. In addition, these items were designed in order to know how the respondents find their lives are unpredictable, overloaded and uncontrollable.
Perceived Stress Scale was designed for the use with community samples, but the participants must be at least a junior high school education. Those items in this scale are easily understand and are simple to grip the response alternatives. Furthermore, these questions are quite general and they are relatively free from content specific to any subpopulation group (Cohen, 1994).
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In the scoring of Perceived Stress Scale, each of the items is rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from never (o) to very often (4). Items 4, 5, 7 and 8 are positively stated items; the scores are obtained by reversing those responses like 0 = 4, 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1, and 4 = 0. After that, sum up across all the scale items. A short 4 item scale can be made from items 2, 4, 5 and 10 of the Perceived Stress Scale 10 item scale (Cohen, 1994). The more positively worded items are reverse scored after sum up, the higher the scores are indicating more perceived stress.
Emotional Stress as the predictors of Perceived Stress
According to the research done by Pau, Rowland, Naidoo. AbdulKadir, Makrynika, Moraru, Huang and Croucher (2006), they found that Emotional Intelligence is actually associated with Perceived Stress. They also mentioned that when compared with gender, Emotional Intelligence is an important independent predictor of Perceived Stress.
On the other hand, based on the study done by Birks, McKendree and Watt (2009, p. 5), they mentioned that Emotional Intelligence appears to be at some level of a moderator of stress. But the direction of any other causal connection cannot be concluding because of the correlation nature of the study. So, when people get more stressed, the scores of their Emotional Intelligence may decrease or when their Emotional Intelligence score decrease for other reasons, the stress may decrease too. After all, they concluded that actually Emotional Intelligence is more stable than Perceived Stress and it make sense of a hypothesis which Emotional Intelligence is affecting stress in the other way around.